University of Notre Dame

The Story of Notre Dame
Brother Aidan's Extracts


"Erected in 1843; chartered, January 15, 1844, by an act of the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, entitled: 'An Act to Incorporate the Brothers of St. Joseph, at South Bend, St. Joseph County, Indiana.'"

"On August 15, 1844, the first regular meeting of the incorporators was held: E. Sorin, President, John Bray Delahoyde, Jeremian Egan O'Leary, Samuel O'Connell and Michael Walsh.

"Eight apprentices admitted and shops declared open; in 1846, 12; in 1855, 38" --

(See also Manual Labor School, 1844)

"The first constructive effort to provide for Catholic children over 12 years of age was made by the Brothers of St. Joseph in connection with Notre Dame University, South Bend, Indiana. The Brothers established a manual labor school for orphans. It was their plan to

receive boys between 12 and 16 years, and to teach them useful trades. They hoped to extend this work by establishing another school in one of the large cities in the East, but their plan did not mature. At the same time that the Brothers of St. Joseph established their school at Notre Dame, the Sisters of Holy Cross, established a similar school for girls at Bertrand, Michigan."

Catholic Charities in the United States, by Msgr. O'Grady, P. 108

However, the idea of the Founder (Moreau) was not to limit the course of study only to book learning. Knowing the needs of the times, Father Moreau saw another service he could render individual families and Society at large. 'We have remarked,' he wrote in 1842, 'that as a consequence of the ambition of the middle classes, children have become ashamed of their inferior condition and that of their parents, and strive to seek a fortune in adventurous ways. It is an evil, and in our eyes, a great one; it must therefore be remedied. To heal this dangerous wound, so far as it lies in our power, we should like to open an Industrial; School for the teaching of the ordinary trades and practical and theoretical agriculture. In this way we might keep those of our pupils who belong to the middle class from the dangers to be met with in other occupations. We could strive to give them a liking for this kind of work, and in all this we could initiate them gradually into progressive ameliorations, which a wise experience has confirmed but which a blind routine often spurns.' The founder thought of utilizing the knowledge of agriculture that the Brothers who worked on the farms of the establishments had, as also that of those who worked at the trades in the house. But the susceptibility of the people of the locality, which public events did not lessen, prevented Fr. Moreau from putting his plan into execution."

-- Life of Fr. Moreau, Vol. 2, p, 50 (1843)

"In 1849 the carpenter and blacksmith shops were destroyed by fire. Rebuilt at once. Buildings stood near statue of the Sacred Heart, were removed west. New building all shops under roof. The deed of 320 acres until then in the name of E. Sorin was deeded to the Corporation of the Manual Labor School, June 4, 1859.

"In 1866 and years immediately following, all couldn't be employed in shops. Worked on farm in gardens. Worked 7-8 hours daily.

"In 1895 there were 36 waiters."

"Charter for Brothers granted to: John Bray, John de la Hayde, Jerome Egan O'Leary and Samuel O'Connell."

"The Manual Labor School as well as the College was chartered in 1844. On account of the land being so encumbered with timber, and the small number of men, the College, Manual Labor School, and Shops were grouped together too closely. Brother Francis Xavier's carpenter and joiner shop was first established; Brother Benoit soon followed with a locksmith shop, and therein made some of the most wonderful locks and keys our youthful eyes ever rested upon; then the shoe shop, the tailor shop and the others followed in succession, not all springing up at once, but by degrees as their want was felt, or as men able to conduct them presented themselves.

-- Silver Jubilee, by Joseph A. Lyons, p.32. (1844)

"Appointed by Brothers of St. Joseph to conduct various branches of trades: Brother Augustus, tailor; Brother Marie (Francis Xavier), carpenter; Brother Justin, shoemaker; Brother (no name given), blacksmith; Brother Lawrence, farmer; August 15." Apprentices: tailor, 2; carpenter, 3; blacksmith, 2; shoemaker,2. (1844)

"Apprentices: 1845: 8 -- 1846: 12 -- 1847: 17 -- 1848: 19 -- 1850: 24 -- 1852: 28 -- 1854: 32 -- 1855: 34 -- 1857: 38.

"To this 'University' was annexed by a special charter a Manual Labor School in the name of the Brothers and the students at this school compensated the college by doing work on the farm or at some trade. Moreover, the Brothers directed four schools; and their cooperation in teaching at the 'University' permitted priests to preach missions in the two adjacent dioceses of Vincennes and Detroit. A letter from the superior, printed and sent by Father Moreau to the Council of the Propagation of the Faith, which made known the good already accomplished by the Congregation of Holy Cross on American soil.

"But why did the Founder appear preoccupied with the American Mission in its relations with him and the general government of the Institute? He felt that Our Lady of Holy Cross while making herself the active go-between financial and personal help and her missionaries, was still the mother with a mother's authority. Bishop de la Hailandiere received a long letter from him on this subject on August 28, 1844, the postscript of which alone shows his concern to give wise direction to the young and very eager colonizers of Notre Dame de Lac. 'I forgot to tell Your Excellency that I cannot on any condition permit our Brothers to admit little girls into their schools.'" (See also: N.D., 1843) (1844)

(Manual Labor School Courses:) Writing, linear Drawing, Bookkeeping, Purity of Language, Public Reading , Music, French, Reading and Spelling, Arithmetic. Classes to re-commence on October 3, 1845 --

-- Council of Professors, I., 40, 41 (1845)

"Brother Mary (Francis Xavier) shall make a small cart for the clothes-keeper. --

September 7, 1845

"Brother Marie shall have 20,000 ft of lumber." October 4, 1845

"Tailor's work: Made Mr. Gouesse's, Mr. Dease's, Mr. Dolan's, and the shoemaker's pantaloons, and also the farmer's waistcoat."

-- Minute Book, Brother of Holy Cross October 25, 1845

"Work for the next week assigned at the Council."

-- Minute Book, Brother of Holy Cross

"Carpenter's work: Placed the joists at the novitiate, worked at the seats in the study room, made two wooden spoons for the Sisters, and a crucifix for the chapel."

October 25, 1845

"Foundation decided by Particular Council of Brothers on Jan. 15, 1845. Members: Sorin, President: Gouesse, Vice President: Brothers Lawrence, Marie, Justin, Augustus, Eligius, Charles, Sylvester and Paul met weekly." (1845)

"Recently the Brother of St. Patrick, established at Baltimore, likewise founded a school of Arts and Trades on the same plan as ours. Bishops of Cincinnati and New York want our Brothers as soon as possible for their cities. God knows what good can be done in such large centers of population in the U.S. as in almost every large city there is an orphan asylum run by the Sisters of Charity. It is an immense help for Catholic children until they are 12 or 13. But then what happens to them? (No one admitted here under 12) Are they ready to enter a world so dangerous to their faith and morals? It is like a complement of all these orphanages that Notre Dame showed itself in order that these children pass from the hands of the Sisters of Charity to the Brothers of Charity.(?) They are today 18, but if our means permitted taking more, that number could readily multiply. Except for their classes and studies their rules are the same as those of the college students regarding rising, going to bed, rest and recreations. These lads seem to grow happier from day to day. As they grow older they seem to appreciate their condition more and more. In general, they give as much consolation to us as embarrassment. According to latest accounts of their cost and work, we find that they are hardly a charge on the house."

-- Sorin's Chronicles

"(Orphans) In mid-July, 1845, Badin of Kentucky, proto-priest came to Notre Dame to admire all that had been done since his last passage in 1836, and gave Sorin two lots in Louisville in order to help him continue and develop the work of the orphans and to buy a property of 300 acres between Notre Dame and the river on condition that Sorin paid him an annuity of $400 or 2,000 francs a year after his death he was to be a residuary legatee.

"In August Sorin went to Louisville to try to sell the lots; but instead of the twelve to fifteen thousand Badin let him hope for, Sorin could evaluate them with judges for only $6,000. Three months later, they were sold for that by the old agent of Badin, whom Sorin retained on Badin's recommendation. Badin complained that they sold the lots for half their value." -- (1845)

"Immediately behind the college about 100 feet away, was the Manual Labor School. This school was chartered at the same time as the college; for Father Sorin's object was not to give an education to the well-to-do alone, but to the poor as well.

-- Scholastic, Rev. Edmund Kilroy, 28: 609 (1845)

"Brother Mary (Francis Xavier) besides the work marked out for him, made a roller for Brother Joseph, repaired the door of an apartment, moved the altar and made a box for one of the Sisters -- and this without permission.

"The tailor made Father Badin's coat."

"Next week the shoemaker shall make ten pairs of shoes."

"Brother Joseph shall get a saw from Brother Mary."

-- Minute Book, Brothers of St. Joseph, p. 7 (1845)

"Work for the next week: Make two candlesticks for Brother Justin (the shoemaker), and make Mr. Steber's shelves -- finish the house of the Novitiate and the Sisters' small chapel -- November 1,

"Carpenters work done during the week: Worked at the seats in the study room, planed 100 feet of flooring planks and laid 300 feet, made Mr. Steber's library shelves, begun the staircase of the Sisters and made a boot jack -- November 8

"Work for the next week: For the Tailors; Father Badin and Mr. Whelan's coats. -- November 8

"Next week the shoemakers shall make Mr. Koch's boots, the Irishman's boots, a pair of shoes for little Paul, two pairs of buskins for the Sisters, one pair of boots for the gardener, and one pair of buskins for a Sister at Pokagon. -- December 13

"Besides his regular work Brother Mary(Francis Xavier)made 2 beds --

December 20

"The Shoemaker did not make the Irish man's boots, but besides the work marked for last week, they finished mending Mr. Steber's boots, mended Degnet's shoes (6 cents), Mr. James Whelan (4 cents), H. Barrot's three shoes (75 cents), Dease's (4 cents) and Brother Charles Borromeo's two shoes (50 cents) -- December 20."

-- Minute Book, Brother of St. Joseph (1845)

"The Council of Trades heard the report of the work done by the shoemaker, carpenter, tailor, printer and bookbinder, and decided what each should do the following week." Council of Agriculture

"Brother Michael -- Assistant, lime yards -- 1861

"Brother Matthias -- Assistant, lime yards --

"Brother Michael (Flynn) -- teach, Michigan City -- 1855

"(Mother house at Le Mans, 1846) Notre Dame was dispensed from paying the sum of 170 francs for each person ordinarily required for each person, sent it till now, or 3,250 francs for 21 subjects which Ste. Croix has given Notre Dame, but the register will record the debt and Notre Dame is to pay it later if it can. Of the sum of 53,360 francs, 65 centimes. Sorin acknowledged receiving from Mother house to June, 1846; he repaid 42,799 francs, 47 centimes by means of help Ste. Croix secured in various ways."(1846)

"Circular Letter says report on person, schools, etc., not sent to Mother house in four years." May 2, 1851

"Several moved that the apprentices and others should not have any evening class (school), or at least should not have as many classes as usual. Decided that they should have only three classes, viz., on Friday and Sunday immediately after supper, and on Wednesday at 6:00 A.M. Council of Professors, II, 2

"Orphan asylum and Manual Labor School, a building is now in process of erection chiefly from funds contributed for this purpose by the Very Reverent Stephen Badin, and is intended for the education of orphans; boys from 12 - 16 years of age. They will be taught some trade suited to their talents and inclination to fit them for usefulness in society. This institution is destined to be a supplement to others -- male orphan asylums -- in the country." Catholic Almanac, Advertisement

"A list shall be made of those apprentices and working boarders who must assist at the class of music." Council of Professors (1846)

"Brother Mary (Francis Xavier) did not make all his beds, but worked for the chapel and Father Badin" -- January 3, 1846.

"The tailors finished Mr. Steber's pantaloons, and nothing else ($2); mended a coat for Mr. Fleming (2 s. -- 50 cents); a pair of pants for the baker (50 cents); a cloak for Mr. Badin (1s. -- 25 cents); a cassock for Father Superior (93 s. -- 75 cents); Brother Mary's clothes (5 s. --$1.25); Mr. Whelan's coat (50 cents)." -- January 3, 1846.

"The shoemakers: Next week shall make shoes for those boarders or apprentices that have not any. -- January 3 1846.

"Brother Mary (Francis Xavier) next week shall work at the windows and make 8 or 10 beds for the novitiate." -- December 27, 1845

-- Minute Book, Brothers of St. Joseph

"Conducted by the Brothers of St. Joseph, who have an extensive farm connected with the University of Notre Dame du Lac. This circumstance enables the institution to receive among the Brothers of St. Joseph, not only those young men who are qualified to keep school or to teach a useful trade, but even such as can but work on the farm, and among the pupils of the University young men whose limited pecuniary means would not allow them to pay for their education in money. There are in the diocese, 35 Brothers of St. Joseph, thirteen of whom are professed. They have schools at Vincennes, Madison and Fort Wayne, in each of which there are from 60 -70 pupils."

-- The Catholic Almanac (1847)

"Satinet of gray color is adopted for the coats of the apprentices and or black for their pantaloons" -- October 8, 1847.

"Will be allowed to have straw hats." -- April 17, 1848.

"Brothers Alban and Francis in charge of Apprentices." -- March 3, 1856

"Brother Chrysostom will teach the apprentices writing, arithmetic and Catechism every evening from 6:45 to 8:00." -- January 2, 1860

"Brother Isidore, Director." -- May 28, 1860

"Breakfast at 5:30; stop work at 6:30 P.M. School from December 1 to March 1." -- October 6, 1862

"On the night of November 18, fire started in the shops and in spite of all efforts of Brothers, seminarians, and students, it destroyed a line of buildings 130 feet long, 2 stories high. The kitchen and bakery with their provisions were also burned. Total loss 16,000 francs. Most of the orphan's beds and bedding were also burnt. ($3,200)

"Mrs. Coquillard and Mrs. Woodworth of South Bend collected merchandise valued at 700 francs in three days. Not until the fall of 1850 was the new brick building, 44 by 20 feet and two stories high, for the kitchen and bakery finished altogether, although begun after the fire only the first story could be built owing to the severe weather. An addition 77 feet long was added, which also housed the infirmary. The total length was 190 feet and the width, 24 feet.

"Four hundred feet from the college on the Grand Avenue, several collections were made to pay for the structures. In Illinois, Brother Stephen collected $125. Propagation allowed $1,150. Total nearly $4,000." (1850)

"Whereas the high price at which the blacksmith and tailors put on their work, causes them to be blamed and prevents them from obtaining customers, it was decided that Brothers would hand to the steward the articles made by them, with an estimate of their selling price, so that the Steward would have the right to reduce it when he deemed it proper." Local Council, March 5, 1849

(See cut of Manual Labor School, circular, 1898)

"The steward will sell the shoes that are not wanted at present to the stores at current prices." Local Council June 25, 1849

"In 1850 there were 18 orphans. Notre Dame took initiative in such work. The Brothers of St. Patrick followed at Baltimore and opened schools.

"Manual Labor School recognized as Diocesan school by Bishop St. Palais in 1849.

"In 1851 trades taught: carpenter , shoemaker, tailor, blacksmith, baker, tanner."

"Sometimes those who already knew a trade worked with the Manual Labor students, but, in general, do not attend their classes. After working a year, they enter college."

"Terms: $40 at entrance; clothes sufficient for two years; to stay till 21 years."

"Manual Labor School has no communication with the college."

"(Orphanage) Twenty-one apprentices: Timothy Mulquinn, John Hays, Casper Haphner, John Shelbey, Peter O'Brien, Patrick Reardon, Samuel O'Neil, Victor Simon, Joseph Lyons, Patrick Cleary, Francis Picard, Thomas Howe, Patrick Hines, Louis Gabby, Peter Talbott, Patrick O'Sullivan, James Judge, Patrick Hogan, Michael Judge, Martin Gubby." February 27, 1852

"Consented, April 12, 1858, to accept orphan boys from Chicago, now under care of Sisters of Mercy."

"Tailors: Mr. Matthew Howard, Patrick Hynes, Peter Talbott. Shoemakers: Patrick Riordan, Peter Moran, Thomas Quigley. Carpenter Shop: Peter O'Brien, James Kelly, Hames Gorman. Bakers: Michael Handley. Blacksmiths: James Judge, Tim Mulquinn, Edward Purcell." July 3, 1854

(Guide to Notre Dame du Lac , 1856: see woodcut, p. 13.)

(See cut of new building -- St. Joseph Hall -- [Now Badin])

-- Scholastic, (1898)

"St. Joseph's Manual Labor School" -- so listed for the first time in catalog, 1857.

"Manual Labor School at Notre Dame under the Brothers of Holy Cross.

"Male Orphan Asylum, under the Brothers of Holy Cross at Notre Dame."

-- Catholic Almanac p. 117 (1858)

"It was decided that all the working boarders go to the study room at 11:30 and 6:00." (1845)

"Edward Larkin entered this day. His guardian's name is James Clinton, Rutland Township, Kane County, Illinois. December 15, 1858

" The agreement is with the above James Clinton, is in consideration of his paying $65 this day. This boy, Edward Larkin, is to be kept in the college as a full boarder and to be furnished with all the books necessary till the first day of July, 1859, after which time he is to be sent to the Manual Labor School on the payment of the usual fee of $50. but in case there should be a vacancy at the Manual Labor School by the first of June, he may be sent there without any violation of the rules agreed upon. (1858)

"Report of the Committee of Masters of Shops: Many designated improvements approval, but realization belongs to Notre Dame Council. Provincial said, 'Condition of apprentices was by no means ideal, but owing to lack of means and enough men, the project of a Manual Labor School could not yet be carried out. However, each shop now has a competent master. A capable Director was needed.'

-- Provincial Chapter August 14, 1858

"A scholarship of one year would be given to the apprentice receiving the 'Premium of Honor.'"

"Father Badin's chief object when he secured and afterwards donated 524 acres on which Notre Dame now stands, Sorin deemed it his first duty to carry out as soon as possible Badin's designs. Manual Labor School began the same time as the college, petition for a grant of Charter at the same time. Three hundred and twenty acres exempt from taxation made administration attentive to maintenance of apprentices. Fifty such at one time; but difficulties of finding a market for their products cut the number to thirty. Were distributed on farm and in shops: tin, shoe, carpenter, mason, blacksmith, etc. Their house and working shops occupy five of six acres on the southwest campus. 'A frame building, tolerably comfortable, but not yet answering the desires of the Board of Trustees, whose limited means have not permitted the development it would have otherwise received. Apprentices mostly orphans will be cared for, fed, well instructed in religion, got a food common education. Happy, usually turn out well. No intercourse with the students. Have own teachers, masters, prefects . Their presence a means of saving souls at a cost that the Community was able to bear. When properly officered, give full satisfaction. Few vocations among them.'

"In 1863 tuition increased from $50 to $100, and an addition made to the frame building." (1858 - 1859)

1859: "Manual Labor School, directed by the Brothers of Holy Cross. Brother Francis, superior; 9 Brothers; orphans, 35"

Dunnigan's Catholic Almanac

1859: "Male orphan Asylum under the Brothers of Holy Cross. Brother Francis Xavier, director; Brothers, 9; orphans, 35." Ibid.

1866: "Manual Labor School. Apprentices, 62. Brother Eugene, Director." Ibid.

1869: "Manual Labor School. Apprentices, 49. Brother Constantine, Director."

1872: "Brother Maximus, Director."

1874: "Brother James, Director."

1875: "Rev. M. Sherer, Director."

"That as soon as possible all the apprentices, whether on the farm or in the several shops, shall live in the same house and form themselves as members, as it were, of one family, as they really are...."

-- Minutes, Brothers of St. Joseph, June 15, 1859

"That the apprentices employed on the farm and in other outdoor labor, in general, should be exclusively employed at said occupations throughout the season of labor; and that they should be kept at school in their own house during winter and be exclusively engaged at studies during that time. This plan having proved by experience far preferable to that of dividing the day into labor and study....

"...that immediate preparations be made to erect new and more substantial buildings in brick, with stone foundations for their accommodation.

"Also that grounds be appropriated behind said building for garden purposes; and that vine arbors, similar to those of the college, be put out for their own use."

-- Minute Book, Brothers of St. Joseph September 21, 1859

"We are not coming to the shops of the manual labor department. About 50 apprentices are here learning the various principal trades, viz.: tailor, shoemaker, carpenter, cabinet and wagon maker, blacksmith and locksmith, cooper, baker and finally farming, according to inclination and strength. The work from these various shops is chiefly consumed by the inmates of the institutions, numbering over 500 persons, and by the immediate neighbors. Much preference has been shown for work turned out from these shops, whenever it has been possible to exceed the home demand, as has been the case for some time in the boot-maker's department, whose products are eagerly sought for outside of the college. These Manual Labor shops exist under a special charter distinct from the other institutions, bearing this date, 1844.

"The apprentices have no contact whatever with the students of the University, neither are they governed by the same rules. They are received from the age of 12 years and upwards, and apprenticed with the usual indenture. On entering they pay a fee of $50 and bring sufficient clothing for one year, being under no further expenses while they remain in the institution.

"They are also allowed two and a half hours per day, besides Sundays and festival days, for study and recreation. That is to say, sufficient time is allowed them to acquire a good English education during their stay as apprentices. Thus they enter the business world with a good knowledge of some useful trade on which to depend for a livelihood.

(See Brother Joachim (Garrity), 1887

(See Brother James (Dorsey)

"At a special meeting of the Brothers of St. Joseph on the fourth day of June, 1859, E. Sorin, President of the said Association (H.C.) executed and delivered to the said Brothers of St. Joseph, a warranty deed of all the lands held in trust by him for the said corporation, which deed, according to the requirements of a resolution taken at a meeting of the associates held on the twenty-fourth day of May, 1859, was accepted by the associates and ordered to be put on record."

-- Minute Book, Brothers of St. Joseph (1859)

"Contract Aug. 23: James Condon hired for $450 a year with board, room, laundry, to work as a carpenter in the carpenter shop and to teach Brothers and apprentices. Forfeits $1.50 a day if sick or absent." (1859)

"The apprentices should sleep at the Manual Labor School and attend class at the college during the school time of the said apprentices." December 14, 1859

"That apprentices who are members of the cadets shall be allowed to remain cadets." December 17, 1860

"The two nephews of E. O'Neill of Mishawaka were admitted to the Manual Labor School on condition that the wish to be tailors, be postponed, sure there is no room in any other shop."

-- Minute Book, Brothers of St. Joseph September 20, 1861

"At the east of this novitiate and on the other side of St. Mary's lake, is the house for the working Brothers and near it are the barn stables, cattle-pens, etc., all in proportion to the extent of their domain and number. Further on the public highway (Dorr Road) are the workshops and house for the apprentices (40) divided as follows: 5 at tailoring; 8 at shoemaking; 5 at carpentering; 2 horseshoers; and 20 others on the farm, at the time and brick ovens. Without ever having to leave the grounds, the Brothers can employ an indefinite number.

"Value of Notre Dame not less than $75,000."

"Of apprentices the number is 40. Five with the tailor; 8 with the shoemaker; 5 with the carpenter; 2 with the blacksmiths and the remaining 20 either on the farm or at the lime kilns or in the brickyard."

-- Sorin's Chronicles


"That the age of admission be hereafter from 12 to 16 years of age.

"That cuts be made for the advertisements."

-- Minute Book of the Brothers of St. Joseph (1862)

"That games be introduced into the recreations of the apprentices for their better physical development" September 21, "That four boys be received from the Orphan Asylum, New York."

December 14, 1864

"Fifty-seven apprentices. In this department, conducted by the Brother of Holy Cross, boys are taught several useful trades, and receive an education as well and

"at the same time a common English education. They are constantly under the vigilant and paternal care of skillful Brothers, who devote their lives and energies to the noble task of preparing boys of the laboring class to become good Christians and useful members of Society." Catalogue of University of Notre Dame (1865)

"May 11, 1865: Provincial Chapter decided: 1. That a competent full-time director be appointed. 2. That other trades be introduced as soon as practicable. 3. That a set of rules be drawn up for the government of the school."

"Only 25 apprentices -- too few; 2 blacksmiths, 6 shoemakers, 3 tailors, 2 printers, 3 gardeners, 2 farmers, 3 carpenters, 1 cabinet maker, 1 director, 4 Brothers. Good order, better spirit." (1874)

"A Master of his trade begins at 18 to enjoy the fruit of his labor. Continues as usual but opens a monthly account with respective master. and at the end of each month a settlement is made showing proficiency of apprenticeship over and above board, etc. These monthly wages are annually credited and when he is 21 , he can go to college as a regular student and stay until his credit is used. Experience has furnished innumerable examples illustrating wise and happy results of this plan of exciting the emulation of youth ambitious to acquire an education. For the past 20 years have seen nothing equal to this plan in making apprentices industrious, thrifty , etc.

"Apprentices engaged in study and class for two and a half hours daily, winter and summer. In warm weather these hours proved longer than desirable; in winter shorter than might be wished for.

"Experience led to a modification of the plan, giving place to the American method of labor through the season when everyone is engaged in work, and study in the season when all is more favorable to mental application. Accordingly, in winter all labor was suspended and the time devoted entirely to study. This improvement in the system, together with larger and better equipped buildings has made the Manual Labor School an important part of Notre Dame. Applications are more numerous than ever.

"Although the work of the various shops is consumed chiefly by the residents of Notre Dame and St. Mary's, numbering 900 persons, yet when it has been possible to exceed the home demand (as in the case of the shoe and boot maker's department, where from 18 - 20 are constantly employed) the products are eagerly sought after by the immediate neighborhood as work decidedly preferable to that sold in the stores.

"To the trades taught at present the mangers wish to add several of the liberal arts, such as music, sculpture, painting, etc., this contributing to the refinement of the pupils and the advantage of religion. Already music and painting have found place in the regular course." Guide to Notre Dame (1865)

"Report by special committee to inquire whether the apprentices paid for themselves of not. Conclusions:

1. That from a pecuniary point of view the apprentices are a loss to the Institution.

2. That no more apprentices be admitted till those now here are placed properly at work.

3. Provincial ordered the Director should have a regular set of books to keep record of receipts and expenditures. January 21, 1867

"Director: Mr. Hurty; 27 boys; good order, boys happy; 2 blacksmiths; 2 carpenters; 1 cabinet maker; 4 tailors; 6 shoemakers; 2 gardeners; 5 farmers; 2 printers. Confraternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary with regular meetings has done much to create a religious spirit."

-- Provincial Visit (1878)

"Though this institution is not intended for perfectly destitute orphans, as $100 must be paid by the surviving parent or friend at the entrance of each lad into the school, still it is essentially a charitable institution as it appears from the manner in which it has been conducted that instead of being self-supporting, it entails an annual expense on the Community. Nevertheless, it should be maintained and if possible made a paying institution. To do so will require a great deal of order and economy, for experience shows that none of these schools are self-supporting in the country. The apprentices have the opportunity of receiving a good English education during their stay; they learn a trade or else work on the farm or in the college. The trial that has been made of employing them in the refectories of the college we highly approve and trust the measure may be extended so as to employ them in other departments of the college work always. It is well understood under the supervision of an experienced Brother there are now 49 apprentices engaged in the tailor ship, the shoe shop, the carpenter shop, the blacksmith ship, on the farm and in the 'Ave Maria' office, in which office some are engaged in typesetting, others in folding, binding and mailing."

-- Sorin's Report of the Visit to Notre Dame (1867)

"Apprentices: 49. Brother Constantine, Director" -- (1868)

"Apprentices not allowed to attend college until 21."

"1868: Frame building, 112 feet long, 3 stories, moved west on campus."

-- Scholastic, 1, 25, p. 6 February, 1868

"1868: Brother Eugene, Director."

"1869: Brother Philip, Director."

"1867: Brother Eugene, Head. 52 boys, 3 other Brothers. Apprentices: 11 -- shoe shop,; 9 -- tailor; 2 -- smith; 3 -- carpenter; 2 -- cabinet makers; 5 -- printers; 6 -- Ave Maria Office; 1 -- bindery; 10 -- farm; 1 -- college office as an errand boy.

"They generally give satisfaction and exhibit better spirit than the former times. Frequent Sacraments without compulsion."

-- Granger Visit, (1867)

"The room they use for the infirmary is too small and not kept in good order... They should have a sitting room."

-- Minute Book, Brothers of St. Joseph (1869)

See: "Early Notre Dame," November 8, 1843

"List of applicants in the Manual Labor School:

(In the Department conducted by the Brothers of Holy Cross, boys are taught several useful trades, and receive at the same time a good, common English education. Applicants must have attained the age of 12 years, pay each and entry free of $100, and be provided with two suits of clothing, or a sufficiency for one year.)

"Fifty-two enrolled from these states: Ohio, Michigan, Massachusetts, New York , Illinois, Tennessee, Pennsylvania, Minnesota, District of Columbia, Indiana, Mississippi, Wisconsin." Catalog

St. Joseph's Manual Labor School: "By unanimous vote it was decided that the entrance fee for all apprentices in the future shall be $200." December 16, 1870

"It was decided to have the apprentices go to school on the first of February in place of the first of December. The reason given is: by coming on the first of February there is a better chance to classify them and they will have a better time for study since they will not lose the time spent in holidays." November 27, 1874

"It was decided that Brother Eugene should act as head for the Manual Labor School." (1874"Number of daily classes (hours) to be increased from three to four." December 17, 1874 "Number of apprentices 27 besides several who are attending class in the college reported by Brother James." December 17, 1874 "It was decided that diplomas will be delivered to the well-deserving apprentices at the close of their term." September 16, 1874 "Brother Francis de Paul succeeds Brother James, deceased." December 17, 1875 "Brother Francis de Sales elected as Director."

-- Minute Book, Brothers of St. Joseph (1881)

" The Manual Labor School contains 40 members; The following trades are represented: Printing, Blacksmithing, Carpentering, Cabinet Making, Bricklaying, Tailoring, Shoemaking and Farming."

-- Scholastic, May 16, 1870

"School never self-supporting. Report: Boys work valued at 20 centsto 90 cents a day, but cost of board($3 a week each) and clothing is greater than the income. They cost (1869-73) $9,804.75 and produced only $5,939.65. Deficit: $3,865.10."

-- Provincial Archives (1873)

"Brother Lawrence was charged with furnishing facilities to the shoe shop and tailor shop in order that these shops might dispose of goods to better advantage."

-- Minute Book, Brothers of St. Joseph February 20, 1869

"It was proposed to have the apprentices work part of their time in the garden in order to familiarize them with such work as they may be called upon to do it later in life."June 6, 1870

"...In regard to taxation, it must not be forgotten that the taxable property at Notre Dame, as well as the non-taxable property is owned by two distinct corporations, viz., the University of Notre Dame, and the Brothers of St. Joseph. These latter were recognized as a corporation by an act of the Indiana legislature dated January 15, 1844, and have always existed since as a distinct corporation whose object is to instruct youth in the Science of Letters, the Arts of Mechanism, and that of Agriculture, for which purpose the building is known as the Notre Dame Manual Labor School and was erected many years ago.

"Now the 7th of Section 7 of the Act referred to above, and entitled an Act to provide for a uniform assessment of property and for the collection and return of taxes thereon, reads as follows:

Sec. 7. The following property shall be exempted from taxation:

Seventh: The personal property and real estate of any Manual Labor School or College incorporated within this state, when used or occupied for the purpose for which it was incorporated, such real estate not to exceed 320 acres."

"In virtue of which the Brothers of St. Joseph have always claimed exemption from taxation on the said number of acres. Upon which said acres the county of St. Joseph has perserveringly claimed the right to levy taxes, the provision above referred to notwithstanding.

"The number of boys taught various trades, such as, Printing, Tailoring, Shoemaking, Carpentry, Masonry, Joinery, Blacksmithing and Agriculture, has always been between 40 and 60 , most of whom are orphan boys, paying only a nominal fee at this school at their entrance."

"This school was never self-supporting, owing to the kind of trades taught in it, which required a long apprenticeship and the unavoidable waste of materials and tools, and owing also to the fact that the welfare of the young apprentices has always been looked to more that the financial prosperity of the school. In fact the discipline of the Manual Labor School, often mistaken by uninformed people as a House of Correction, is not different from that of the University itself, the greatest care and the kindest treatment being always accorded its inmates.

Financially, the Manual Labor School would have been a failure had it not received a necessary support, not from the Township or the County, but from the Brothers of St. Joseph themselves. Of course the Township, as well as the County have never failed to manifest a generous disposition toward Notre Dame and the Manual Labor School, and we do not mean to attach blame to either, but simply to state that even as it is, and as it stands now, the Manual Labor School, or rather the Brothers of St. Joseph, try to fulfill the requirements of their charter at a disadvantage to themselves, pecuniously speaking, and that all

unnecessary burdens are not calculated to encourage them in fulfilling a duty which everyone knows is arduous enough, and quite unrewarding from a certain point of view."

-- Scholastic Vol. 6, p. 220 (1873)

"Apprentices' house, much improvement; house neat. Better spirit. Too few apprentices." Father Granger, Provincial (1873)

"The new division of time and labor is approved by the managers of the School as the more beneficial and liberal one. The program of studies embrace such branches as are taught to the commercial students in the University, the knowledge of which branches can be acquired in four years. The charges will be as follows: $150 each for the first two years, and $100 for each of the last two years; clothing etc., to be supplied from home. As a premium for talent and good conduct, the privilege of attending the courses of the University during a fifth and even a sixth year will be granted to those apprentices who will be judged worthy of it, for the sum of $150 a year. (1873)

"Legal controversy between the Brothers of St. Joseph a corporation distinct from the University of Notre Dame over the question whether 320 acres owned by the Brothers should be free from taxation. Law provides that a corporation organized exclusively for charitable, educational purposes shall be exempt from taxation. County claims proceeds are used for benefit of Notre Dame. Back taxes since 1859 amount to $1,211.65."

-- South Bend Times, p. 3, col. 3 June 19, 1875

"Each student to be charged $200 a year for Board, washing, lodging, Doctor's fee, medicine, tuition, books and stationary. Credit same with the net value of the crops raised on the land chartered by the Manual Labor School and also the value of the labor of the boys in the several departments at the price named by the master of the shops."

-- Local Council January 12, 1877

"It was also decided to get boys to wait on the tables."

-- Local Council September 3, 1880

"As the County Auditor is assessing the land allowed by the Charter of the Manual Labor School, it was decided to refer the affair to Judge Stanfield." Local Council November 4, 1880

"The proposal of the Stone Pipe Company for the purchase of one acre of marl land on the border of the lower lake (St. Mary's) was considered and accepted."

-- Local Council January 14, 1881

"twenty-six members, only 13 apprentices. 1 gardener, 1 painter, 1 cabinet maker, 1 tailor, 13 waiters, 4 farmers, 2 printers, 1 tin smith, 1 shoemaker."

-- Brother Francis de Sales, Director (1881)

"1862-1878: Receipts:$11,279.15. The establishment is also entitled to the net value of the product of 320 acres."

(See also "Printing, 1865")

"The old printing office building, northeast of the college, has long been transformed into an iron manufactory of considerable pretensions. Inside, all is activity and bustle. In the basement is the pipe-fitting establishment, under the charge of the veteran Brother Francis Joseph, assisted by Brother Silverius. Inside and outside are piled gas and steam pipes which have either been run through the machines or are already prepared and awaiting their destination. The machinists and machines are busy threading, cutting and perforating, etc., upstairs is a complete sheet-iron and tin workshop, under the charge of Brother James. Here we find a busy corps of 8 or 10 men , with apprentices from the Manual Labor School, variously engaged; piles of ornamental moldings and trimming lying around." Scholastic April 28, 1883

"At St. Joseph's Manual Labor School, Notre Dame, Indiana, the apprentices are taught by the Brothers of Holy Cross; shoemaking, tailoring, blacksmithing, cabinet-making, bricklaying, painting, type-setting, engineering and farming."

-- Scholastic, 17:519 (1884)

1884: Industrial School, -- Brother Francis de Sales, Director

1888: Brother Luke, Director

"Building erected 1843-44. Chartered January 15, 1844. Five mechanics (Brothers) named in Charter under the title of Brothers of St. Joseph, Notre Dame, with Sorin as President. August 15, 1844: regular meeting of incorporators was held. Eight apprentices having been admitted, the shops were opened. Original building on spot where "Ave Maria" building was formerly. 1846: 12 apprentices. 1855: 38 apprentices. 1849: Carpenter and blacksmith shops burned. Rebuilt at once. Deed of 320 acres till then in Sorin's name, in trust, was deeded by him to the corporation of the Manual Labor School, June 4, 1859. 1866-68: apprentices over 50, worked on farm in garden as couldn't be employed in shops."

"New Manual Labor School building is now completely under roof, and almost ready for occupancy. Will be one of the better equipped school of its kind. 200 feet by 40 feet." Scholastic 24:2, p. 28 (1890)

"It was also decided to increase the number of boys in the carpenter and paint shops." May 9, 1884

"Those who want to learn in the machine shops of the University must pay and live as regular students in the college. Their presence in the Manual Labor School is detrimental to the same." October 7, 1892

"Brother Boniface elected Director.

-- Minutes Book, Brothers of St. Joseph December 22, 1893

"It was decided unanimously that the apprentices who have not the means of paying entrance fee may be admitted, but the applicant shall furnish his own clothing for the first two years. The 3rd year, the apprentice shall be credited with about $1 a week; for the 4th year and 5th year, $2 and $3 for the remainder of the term...any balance over cost of their clothing will be paid to them on leaving school."

-- Minute Book, Brothers of St. Joseph July 4, 1894


"Erected in 1843: chartered, January 15, 1844 by an Act of the General Assembly of Indiana, entitled, 'An Act to incorporate the Brothers of St. Joseph, at South Bend, St. Joseph County, Indiana.'

"On August 15, 1844, the first regular meeting of the incorporators was held. Present: E. Sorin, President; John B. Delahoyde, Jeremiah Egan O'Leary, Samuel O'Connell, and Michael Walsh (all Brothers).

"Eight apprentices having been admitted, the shops were declared open.

"In 1846 the number of apprentices was twelve, and gradually increased. In 1855 there were 38 apprentices. In 1849 the carpenter and blacksmith shops were destroyed by fire but immediately rebuilt.

"Soon after, the building which stood at that time, near the statue of the Sacred Heart, was removed to its present location (between Badin and Walsh halls), and another building, containing all the shops was erected. The deed of 320 acres, until then in the name of E. Sorin, was deeded by him to the corporation of the Manual Labor School, June 4, 1859.

"In the years 1866-68, there were more than 50 apprentices. A number worked in the garden, on the farm, etc., as they could not all be employed in the shops.

"The apprentices are entitled to two hours class daily, to learn the ordinary branches. The work in the shops from 7-8 hours a day.

"During the administration of Brother Francis de Sales, the average number of apprentices -- 30. Apprentices have two hours of class daily to lean the ordinary branches in English. They work in the shops 7-8 hours daily.

"Years back some boys worked in the refectory. Unsatisfactory. Had a different object in view; came to work for an education.

"In 1893 -- Director, Brother Boniface had only 5 apprentices. In 1895 there are 9 with 3 more to come as soon as room can be found. Number of waiters is 36. Not enough work in shops to increase number of apprentices. Brother Boniface says 12 will be enough. March 18, 1895

"The Manual Labor School was, and has been, one of the favorite enterprises of Father Sorin.

-- Silver Jubilee Book, Professor Lyons (1867)

" it contains as many students as can be accommodated in one of the best equipped Halls at Notre Dame.

"During the past week many workmen have been busy tearing down the old St. Joseph Hall, the building that has withstood the storms of 46 years, and that has sheltered during that time many of Notre Dame's noblest sons.

"1851 building contained the workshops too -- except blacksmith, carpentry and printing shops.

"It was here the boy Joseph Lyons made 'the wonderful pair of boots' that won the prize at the Country Fair years ago, and it was here also that later on he laid the foundation of an education that later made him one of the most scholarly and valuable teachers that Notre Dame has ever had... When we consider even now that several of the most distinguished members of our Faculty -- the class poets of '95 and '96 and '97 and many of the most brilliant students in the institution -- are Manual Labor School men, we can not but believe that there has been more conscientious work in that Hall than in any other department of the University...

"Brother Boniface, the esteemed Rector of the Hall, has labored hard to procure for his students the conveniences that are now theirs, and he has been ably assisted by Brother Celsus and Brother Hillary, his assistant prefect.

-- Scholastic, Francis Ward 'Malley', 31, 196-7 (1897)

"After this year students for St. Joseph's Hall will be received in the student's office as other students and the fee will be raised to $100, and will be conducted the same as Corby and Sorin Halls. Local Council November 11, 1899

"It was decided that apprentices working for pay in the shops shall receive their education in the Manual Labor School, but will not be allowed to attend college until they are 21 years old." Local Council September 20, 1879

"St. Joseph's Hall is one of the last College buildings erected. This has is sometimes been called the Manual Labor School, as a number of the young men in this hall are serving their apprenticeship in the trade shops connected with the institution."

-- Scholastic, 33:405 (1900)

"The Association of Holy Cross brought to the United States an idea which was destined to exercise a profound influence on its charities. Shortly after their arrival the Brothers of the Association set up a manual labor school for boys at Notre Dame and the Sisters set up a similar institution for girls over the line at Bertrand, Michigan. Those manual labor schools were to supplement the local orphanages which could not retain children over 14 years of age. It was not practical, nor was it regarded as right, to farm children out to strangers at this age. The Brothers and Sisters of Holy Cross found a way out. They established institutions in which the dependent and neglected children would be retained throughout their minority and taught useful trades. The industrial school filled a need and was at the same time self-supporting. The Catholic Directory of 1850 printed this interesting notice: The 'Sisters of the Holy Cross' consecrated to the Most Immaculate and Sorrowful Heart of Mary, like the Sisters of Charity are devoted to the education of youth, to the service of orphan asylums and hospitals; they also discharge for the colleges of the institute, the various functions of infirmarians, sacristans, etc. Their novitiate is at Bertrand, Berrian County, Michigan, 5 miles from Notre Dame du Lac. They have also there an academy and a female orphan asylum, nearly on the same plan as that of the Brothers. The Brothers of the Community followed the same plan at Notre Dame."

Catholic Charities in the U.S., John O'Grady, Ph.D., LL.D. 1930 p.383 (1844)

"The plans, etc., for the new Manual Labor School to be erected next spring at a cost of about $10,000 were submitted and approved." Minute Book, (Last minute dated January 6, 1899) July 7, 1897

"Brothers connected with the Manual Labor School, 1844 -1899:Augustus, Francis Xavier, Lawrence, Anthony, Constantine, Eugene, Casimir, James, Francis de Paul, Mark, Edward. Charles, Kevin, Francis de Salle, Alfred, Onesimus, Boniface. Students in the Manual Labor School: Provincial Zahm, Provincial and President Burns, Rev. Pastors DeGroote, and Thomas Carroll, donor of the grotto, were students in the Manual Labor School." Brother Aidan O'Reilly, C.S.C.

"The coming of the Association of Holy Cross to America was due to the initiative of Bishop de la Hailandiere of Vincennes, who appealed to Father Moreau the Founder, for Indian missionaries...

"The industrial program of the Brothers of Holy Cross and Sisters of the Holy Cross gave them a wide appeal. If they had the necessary personnel, they could have opened industrial schools in all the large cities during the fifties and sixties.

"The Brother of Holy Cross, like the Sisters, have not found it possible to continue their industrial school program. All the efforts of the Brothers are now expended on educational work. In recent years the Brothers have taken over St. Charles Industrial School at Wawatosa, Wisconsin, which they are operating according to the best standards. The Brothers of Holy Cross, like other Brotherhoods, contend that the failure to maintain a larger charities program is due in the last analysis to their inability to secure a larger number of vocations." Catholic Charities in the U.S., Msgr. O'Grady

See: "Early Notre Dame" - Rev. J. A. Burns.

"In 1844, at the same time that the College charter was obtained from the Legislature through the friendly offices of Mr. Defrees, that gentleman also obtained a charter for the Manual Training School (Labor) in which the boys are taught useful trades and at the same time receive a good English education. In connection with this school, and indeed as parts of it were erected, the various shops needed in the work of the Community: carpenter cabinet, blacksmith, shoemaker, tailor, etc. Boys were also taught bricklaying, gardening and farming until the hum of industry was heard on every side."

-- Howard, p. 75 (1844)

"Apprentices were to remain in the house until they were twenty-one. On their departure the house should furnish them with two complete suits. At the end of their time it was understood that they should have a thorough common education. When possible, it was required, that parents or guardians at the boy's entrance pay 200 francs.

"Separate from students, except from a period of two and one-half hours daily and on Sunday and festivals...the apprentices spent all their time at work in the shops. No one was admitted if under twelve. 'It is wonderful to see what sympathy this establishment has called forth among reflecting Catholics.

" Council decided to ask $45 for orphans under twelve, and $30 for those under fifteen -- orphanage proposed by Bishop Hailandiere.

"As early as 1843 pity forced reception of some orphans, and the administration found advantage in this work. Legal forms were printed to be signed by parents or guardians, the boys and the superior. A principal condition approved was to stay till he was twenty-one. (1849)

"That the apprentices at the Manual Labor School of the Brothers of St. Joseph be sent to school at the University of Notre Dame from the first of February to the first of May each year. February 11, 1862

"The Brothers in charge of the shops will go to Mass at 5:30 A.M. so as to be ready to take breakfast with their boys at 6 o'clock. The same regulation extends to the two farm Brothers. Minutes of Brothers of St. Joseph , March 12, 1862

"To have 5,000 advertisements printed in connection with the catalog of the University as by this means the Manual Labor School is advertised."

"Among the manufactures listed for St. Joseph County, 1866, the Brothers of St. Joseph, at Notre Dame are credited with $13,877 worth of goods, including lime, boots, shoes, clothing bricks, etc.'

-- St. Joseph Valley Register, South Bend , p. 2, col. 3 March 8, 1866

1872: "Council decided that Brother Luke is to learn leather-cutting."

"The apprentices will be taught in their house beginning in November."

1873: "Brother James elected instead of Brother Lawrence, deceased."

"It was decided that the studies of the apprentices would be continued, namely, three hours a day in summer and winter."

"There are many Catholics, especially in the larger cities of the United States, who are unable to give their boys a college education costing from $300 to $400 a year; others, who are unwilling to do so; whilst a great number of boys are unfit to receive it, though their parents may be able to give it to them. For all such the one thing needful is an industrial School, where they might at a moderate expense continue to get instructions in the practical branches of education, learn a trade, or work at manual labor, and have their religious education watched over and improved. And to such a school thousands of Catholic parents are looking as the only means to save their children from the evil influences of dangerous associations in the workshop or the factory, while an expense of $150 a year to that end would be willingly made by many.

"The present industrial school at Notre Dame is to be so modified and enlarged as to meet the above-mentioned demand. Five hours' work every day at the different trades, and four hours' schooling appear to be a better plan for the success of the school than the plan of former years by which the boys of the school were granted only three months of study out of the twelve months of the year."

-- Circular (1873)

pg. 382

"Among the minor establishments conducted at Notre Dame by the Brothers of Holy Cross, I will mention but the Manual Labor School and the Ave Maria Printing Office. In the former are taught the various trades -- carpentry, tailoring, shoemaking, etc." Scholastic, J. A. Burns May, 1888

"The pupils of the Manual Labor School are progressing well, not only in the trades but also in their classes which are taught daily. It is a pity that the great expense which the establishment yearly incurs prevents the reception of more pupils, for the good done is great. As it is, the Manual Labor School is a great charity, which is sustained by the Brothers of St. Joseph unaided by anyone else. Under the solicitous care of Brother Constantine, John, Francis Xavier, Francis Joseph, Charles, Alfred and others, the students receive the instruction which will fit them for those stations in life they will hereafter fill." Scholastic October 14, 1876

For a change in policy with regard to the Industrial School, see Scholastic 6:4. p.27

1844: "I wish to make known to you an event of great importance for our establishment, namely, two acts of the Indian legislature, the first to the Brothers of St. Joseph, giving them the right to acquire, alienate, etc., as a civil person; The second to our college, the University of Notre Dame du Lac, giving it power to confer degrees, etc. .....On all sides our Brothers are demanded...Five free schools are already opened. Their special school for the arts and trades render us more popular from day to day with Protestants." Letter from Sorin to an unnamed person.

"Etrennes (1845)

184?: "The bishops of Cincinnati and New York wish to have some of our Brothers as soon as possible to open similar institutions in their cities. God alone knows how much good can be done in this manner in those great centers of population."

-- Sorin Chronicles

1844: For Act of Incorporation, see under "Brothers of St. Joseph".

1857: Indenture: See under "Manual Labor School" in large file.

1858: See under "Manual Labor" in large file.

1866-69 (Rules) "Those apprentices who are eighteen years of age will be paid the usual amount, but as a kind of payment it must be changed. They shall draw no money except at the discretion of the Director. Their pay shall consist, with the above exception, of their clothing and tuition in the college. The clothing shall be plain and substantial so as to economize on their earnings and have as much as possible left for tuition. It being heretofore a remarkable fact they drew almost all their wages in cash and expensive clothing, having nothing left for tuition." Minutes

"It was resolved that the apprentices from the farm should go to school beginning October, 1868."

(Manual Labor School --?) "The first students who came to Father Sorin's college were boys who could not afford a costly education, and Notre Dame has always remained one of the most democratic of American institutions of learning. There have never been any fraternities or social clubs. Priests and Brothers, beginning with the president, have served without salary and the simplicity of their lives, makes any sort of display seem wholly out of keeping." Rockne of Notre Dame

1931: see also under "Orphanage".

See under "M" in Large File: "Industrial School at Notre Dame" -- 4 items

See also under: "Algiers Mission" --"Incorporation" -- "Council of Trades" -- "Waiters"-- "Printing".

‹— Brother Aidan's Extracts —›