"The true explanation is beyond the economist: Notre Dame was built with 'Hail Marys'"
"Father Corby, as President of the College, aided by ... the cool heads and ready pens of Brothers Edward and Gabriel in the Steward's Departments, and Brother Francis de Sales as Procurator, maintains the College of Notre Dame in its old standing among the best educational establishments of the country. Brother Eugene, Chief of the Industrial School, has made the young men of his Department experts in the various trades and good Christians... Brother Vincent, in the novitiate of the Brothers, keep up the traditions of the self- sacrificing days of yore, of twenty-five years ago - quite an age for this country- and instructs young men in the religious life. Need we add that the farm, with Brother Lawrence and Brother Paulinus as directors, brings forth fruit as well as the College and Industrial School and Novitiates!"
-- Silver Jubilee, Lyons (1869)
Notre Dame, Earliest
"It is, of course, a mere coincidence, but a happy one for me, that the earliest member of this valiant band, Protestant or Catholic, was a Jesuit priest, Father Allouesz, who paddled his way through the wilderness in 1686 to this very spot perhaps on which we are gathered today. Being a Jesuit, that is, a simple and unworldly soul, he did not realize that this historic ground was destined to become in time the site of the Knute Rockne Memorial, a blessed land flowing with milk and honey. If only he had the foresight to stake out a claim in the 17th century with a couple of tall white goal posts, what a different history our poverty-stricken Society might have had!"
-- Pioneers and the Liberal Arts
An address at St. Mary's, Holy Cross, by Rev. Robert Gannon (1945)
"In the year 1834, the Rev. S. T. Badin, the patriarch of the American Priesthood, while traveling through the northern counties of Indiana, visited the spot now known by the name of Notre Dame du Lac, but then unknown and unnoticed in its native forest wilderness and beauty. Struck by it loveliness, or to speak more correctly, secretly influenced by that Providence which directs the most apparently unimportant events for the accomplishment of its own eternal design, Father Badin resolved at once to secure the spot to the church as the site of a future college. This resolution he executed; in the year 1837 it passed into the hands of the Rt. Rev. Bishop of Vincennes and after his death into those of his successor, Msgr. de la Hailandiere, who transferred it to the Rev. Mr. Bach, priest of the Misericorde, under the obligation that within two years he should have erected or at least commenced, a college building and a novitiate upon the site, Mr. Bach dying soon after and his society failing to fulfill the required conditions at the expiration of the time prescribed, Bishop de la Hailandiere gave the land under the same stipulations to the Rev. Fr. Sorin of the Priests of Holy Cross who with a few Brothers had come to America the year before." -- (1857)
"Ground bought in 1830 by Badin. Sold to Bishop Brute in 1836. Afterwards transferred to Rev. Mr. Bach ... Land values at 15-20,000 francs then."
"Father Badin in 1830 had made place center of some Catholic Settlements scattered throughout Northern Indiana and Western Michigan. Had gathered also a considerable number of Indians. Many conversions made among them."
"Colony on arrival had about 2,000 francs or $400. The Bishop, with Fr. Delaune's collection, might have had at their disposal some 4,000 to 5,000 francs more, including 2,600 granted by the Propagation (sic) de Fide. Already 20 persons in the colony, meager sum for that."
"Beginning of December appealed to Catholics for funds to build a church. They were too poor. Could only offer services in day's work. In three weeks enough trees were cut down to build an edifice 46' x 20'. On the appointed day the men assembled and raised the walls. The community funds finished the building at cost of 1,000 francs or $200. It was opened on March 18, 1843, feast of the Brothers. The 11 brothers from St. Peter's who had arrived in February did much of the church work. The Bishop was loath to see them go, as he desired that the two establishments should be maintained."
"The old dormitory long used as a chapel now was given to the Brothers."
"The Architect of the college building didn't keep his promise, let the building season go by. Determined to erect a brick building, meanwhile that would shelter the Brothers, a few boarders, and a bakery. This was the first brick building erected at Notre Dame."
"Eventually, the corner stone of the planned college building laid on August 28th. Made possible by Mr.. Byerly giving credit at his store for 10,000 francs in addition to a gift of 2,500 francs and another from France of 6,000 francs. Building occupied the following June."
"No need to tell the joy felt by those poor religious at the sight of the building so much desired, surmounted by the cross, which over- topped the highest trees of the forest. They had for this year only a few boarders with seven or eight little orphans."
"Before completing the college, Mr. Defrees, Methodist, sought Fr. Sorin to offer his services in securing a University Charter from the State Legislature and also one of incorporation for the Manual Labor School the Brothers had planned. Many were surprised at this; a matter of rejoicing among Catholics. Buildings of the year cost 30,000 francs.
"First year at Notre Dame remarkable for:
1. devotedness and piety of the house in General; 2. for the animosity of the Protestants; 3. the nature of the various undertakings; 4. the liberal donations; 5. by its two charters; 6. assistance of the Mother House." (1843)
"What a touching attention of her part to bring from such a distant land her little band of devoted hearts just in time to hear the Solemn Declaration re-echoing from the far East on the Western shores: 'And I, if I am lifted up from the earth will draw all things to myself!' No other sound is heeded that morning. The first Mass is offered, the first communion received at the foot of the Cross. In each heart the same resolve; 'God forbid that I should glory but in the Cross of our Lord Jesus Christ.' With this absorbing thought, they turned their steps to their western Mission, rejoicing."
-- Chronicles of 1841 (1841)
"This place of Mission carried a name equally dear to the Brothers of St. Joseph and to the sons of Our Lady of Holy Cross. Since the 17th century it was called Notre Dame du Lac, when the Jesuits, first missionaries of the country consecrated it to the Mother of God and here holy spouse, in attaching their pious names to the county, the river, and the principal village (St. Joseph) and to the house built on the edge of a body of water as a place of repose after their long journeys among the savages. Notre Dame du Lac was the center of the mission of the Pottawattomies. Pokagon was the principal residence of the tribe. Their chief was a man of faith and piety ever since his baptism.."
"First the Jesuits, then the Sulplicians. Then came Father Badin, a priest from Orleans, France, who was ordained by Bishop Carroll in ..., and afterwards became Vicar
General of Bardstown, Kentucky."
"The title of Notre Dame, Our Lady, was given to the Blessed Virgin. It first came into general use in the days of chivalry; for she was the Lady 'of all hearts', whose colors all were proud to wear. Hundreds upon hundreds had enrolled themselves in Brotherhoods vowed to her special service, or devoted to acts of charity to be performed in her name." Mrs. Jameson
"I came in 1841, with my six beloved Brothers in the steerage. We expended very little money. In 1846, when I returned with 17 devoted members in the steerage as before, and in the emigrant cars from Hew York, we again spent but little and felt happy. Blessed are those who are imbued with the spirit of poverty."
-- Father Sorin
"The site was then a wild one. The Indians had scarcely been banished to the trans-Mississippi hunting grounds by the Chicago treaty, and the wild animals still held possession of the prairie and the glen which the red man had vacated. All was a wilderness, and much of the surrounding country an non-drained waste, little better than a bog ... The Brothers who soon gathered there were workers as well as talkers. Their community was a busy one. They began to till the soil as well as instruct the people, and while they grew in numbers and enlarged their circle of operations, their settlement formed at once a nucleus and a stimulus for gathering activities on the other side of the river. That community, which, it is remarked, commenced with but 'half a pupil' has now grown into a mighty college, with a faculty of thirty-four professors, a force of about 100 Brothers, and a total of some 800 residents to be fed daily from the commissary. More than this: it has proved to be the starting point whence have gone out builders of many other similar institutions." -- Chicago Tribune June 24, 1869
"Three new professors of distinguished merit have been employed; Mr. Sheffer, Professor of the German Language, Mr. Sotto Casa, of instrumental music, and Mr. Hackett, of Mathematics and Physics; all of whom are eminently qualified for instructing young men in the difficult branches. An addition has been made of a Cabinet of Philosophical apparatus, which will serve to strengthen theory by practice and at the same time enliven the labors of the students."( 1848)
"The Brothers arrived with Father Sorin on November 26, 1842. They were Mary (later Francis Xavier) Gatian, Patrick, William, Basil, Peter, and Francis. Were 524 acres. Ten acres under cultivation. Rest virgin forest except for two small lakes. Banks of these contain an inexhaustible supply of white marl, which can be used for lime. Ground not rich, but suitable for wheat, potatoes, clover, buckwheat, corn, etc. Only residence is an old log cabin 40' by 24'. Ground floor has a room for a priest, upper one for a chapel for the Catholics of South Bend, although is was open to the four winds. Besides there was a little frame building of two stories, somewhat more habitable than the log cabin, in which lived a half-breed with his family, who, when needed, served as an interpreter between the Priest and the Indians. Add to this house 6'by 8', and you have all the buildings then in existence near the lake."
"About 20 Catholic families with a radius of six miles."
"As soon as the arrival of the new missionaries and the object became known, one might have said that a cry of alarm was uttered, and all the pulpits resounded every Sunday with the most heated invectives against the twelve Popish Priests and the twenty monks at the Lake - passion thus multiplying their numbers in order more effectively to put everyone on his guard. Moreover, it was added that the Pope of Rome had already sent Father Sorin $90,000 and that he would send another $10,000 to make the even number. A little later when the walls of the college began to appear, people seemed to take delight in saying that we might go ahead with our College, but as soon as it was completed they would burn it."
"There was nothing very encouraging in their reception. To look at it from a human point of view, it would have been wiser to retreat without delay; but though they anticipated still greater opposition in the future, our pious champions (the Brothers) who knew how to hope against hope, cheered themselves with the expectation of a future more meritorious and more glorious for their holy cause. They placed all their confidence in Heaven and let their neighbors rant and rave."
-- Sorin Chronicles, 1842 (1842)
"Only five Brothers arrived with father Sorin, the three with the ox team arrived later. Took eleven days from St. Peter's to Notre Dame." (1842)
"First group seems to have lived under the chapel. Father Sorin used the only bed. The others slept on straw on the floor. Later the Brothers used the upstairs for a dormitory and used the ground one for a shop. There was a frame house attached to the chapel for the Indian guide.
"The new chapel was finished on March 19, 1843, not long after the arrival of Brother Vincent's group from St. Peter's.
"Then the present Mission House, the first college building was built and was probably ready about the time the second colony came from France that Summer." (1843)
"Our holdings in land comprise about 600 acres on an elevation of 10' or 12' above the river. Beyond the log house are two beautiful lakes connected one to the other and dominated by a little island crowned with a cluster of trees which gives it a charming aspect. The larger lake is about 36 acres, the smaller about 26 acres. They discharge into the St. Joseph River by a cascade of about 7' which it is proposed to use for a mill purpose.
-- Rev. C. L. O'Donnell, CSC. (1906)
Sorin to Minims
"How delightful this first snow (December, 1883) reminds me of our first departure from France! It was on the Feast of Our Lady of the Snows, the 5th of August, 1841. Had the day been chosen by us, we might have congratulated ourselves upon our wisdom, starting, as we were, for Northern America. But at that epoch when almost each diocese followed its own liturgy, the feast of Sancta Marie de Nives, was scarcely known in France. It was only when I opened my new Roman Breviary to say Vespers in the coach that I found the Feast the Church was celebrating. My surprise was soon even surpassed by my admiration. I never believed in chance, but on this occasion I understood at once and realized that the Blessed Virgin herself.... wished to assure us from the start that she would be...our Guide and Protectress through the snows of the Northwest of the New World.
"When we reached here towards the end of November, the snow covered every thing; and such a snow as we had never seen in sunny France. For five full months this rich and spotless mantel of the Virgin Mother was lifted up only two days. Indeed, it was the domain of the Queen of the Snows. Like the ground, the trees of the forest, the ice on the lakes, all were white with snow; no movement was possible except through deep snow. When at night we retired to our little log cabin, the snow followed us, often even to our quaint, cold sleeping quarters; but the invisible Hand 'that giveth the snow like wool' covered out trusting hearts, and we never spent a happier season. Many times through that memorable winter, we lost our way in the forest, in daylight and at night, but we always reappeared rejoicing and happy.
"Such a winter has never been seen here since, and yet we remember none we enjoyed as much in mind, in soul, and body.... I give you this little sketch of Notre Dame -- year s before you were born - that you may, when you return, enjoy the more your surroundings so providentially changed from a wilderness into a charming oasis, in the midst of which everyone can see from miles around, on a high throne, the sacred image of our heavenly Queen and mother, telling the sky, not a lie, but the true love of our hearts."
-- Scholastic (1883)
Letter from Fr. Sorin to the Minims written on the eve of their Christmas Holidays
"The eve of St. Andrew's gave rise to some interesting reminiscences connected with the first winter passed by Father Sorin and his six Brothers at Notre Dame. Their fuel consisted of huge logs or trunks of trees; and while one end was burning and heating their little cabin, the other end served as seats instead of chairs or benches. But humble as the place was, when, years later, he came from an absence of a few days in Chicago and found the log cabin burned to the ground, his regret was very great; for had he been able to preserve it, it would now be cherished as one of the dearest objects among all the treasures of Notre Dame."
-- Scholastic, 19 - 215 (1842)
"Could we photograph Notre Dame as it was in 1842 it would (appear) represent a double log cabin. The following year it rejoiced in a college roll of three and one half students!' A. Granger, CSC., in an appeal for money to build Sacred Heart Church, November 1, 1878." (Presumably the 'half-student' was a day scholar, maybe Alexis Coquillard.) ((1842)
"It is interesting to note that from the first the personal merit of the students was looked to and not his financial and social standing -- a disposition which has been characteristic of Notre Dame ever since."
-- South Bend Tribune, Rev. J. A. Burns March 9, 1922
"The 30th of November, feast of St. Andrew, the Apostle of the Cross, was the 23rd anniversary of our first arrival on the spot now known by the name of Notre Dame. fifteen months previously we had the singular good fortune to celebrate our first Mass in New York on our arrival; on the Exaltation of the Holy Cross this took place - and now,
coming to take possession of that portion of the vineyard which Providence had intended for our cultivation, our first Mass was to be said on Saint Andrew's festival, a day most fittingly chosen for a priest of Holy Cross: surely this double coincidence was ominous of a life of trials, but it did not frighten us.
"Scarcely had we entered the house when our guide invited us to visit the tomb of the lamented and saintly Fr. De Seille, who had died only a few years before. When we say house, we mean one of those double log shanties divided into two apartments, with a wide passage in the middle. We were first introduced into one of these, in which, we were told, lived the good Father de Seille. There were his bed, his library, his table, a few chairs, and as far as we can remember, that was all we noticed save the rude beams of the ceiling, which scarcely admitted one's hat on his head. We followed our guide into the adjoining room: 'There we laid him, under his altar, where he said Mass every morning....' There was the naked altar, and above it a solitary ornamental picture, a beautiful Mater Dolorosa, after the Belgian design."
-- Sorin, Ave Maria , 1:474 (1865)
"Thirty-one years ago Father Sorin brought his community to this little dwelling. Here for some years he said Mass for his small community and the Indians who had refused to go West. Some additional log houses were added to the original log chapel; then the brick house, now called the old Farm House, was built and a school established, the first beginning of the University of Notre Dame; Then the center building of the old college, on the site of the present college, was erected; but for years, until 1850, the old log chapel, enlarged as the Community, students and parishioners grew more numerous, served as the only place of worship for many miles around.
"In 1873 only six brothers lived who had heard Mass in the old log chapel; Vincent, Francis Xavier, Benoit, Michael, Augustine (Augustus) and John the Evangelist.
"The log chapel was abandoned when the brick church was finished, and it was destroyed by fire in the year 1856."
-- Scholastic (1874)
"One very small and miserable log house. Their chapel was a little better having more the appearance of a stable than a church. The lakes on either side were united by two little meandering rivulets."
-- Father Baroux (1842)
"Let it be remembered that this foundation of Notre Dame was carried on without the least local assistance; that the country where its foundations was laid was deeply imbued with prejudices and low bigotry; that the term 'Catholic' was one of reproach; that the very spot given by the Bishop of Vincennes was a forest of 524 acres, only ten of which were cleared, and also worn out and that no one then would have been willing to pay the sum at which the property was appraised: $3,000.
"Every cent, therefore, had to come from without, the labors of the members of the institute did the rest. Providence blessed their united devotedness beyond all hopes."
-- Sorin Chronicles
"The question here is certainly not one of strict justice, since it is well known that we came to the United States as our own cost, and that the dioceses never made us any other advance than a piece of land which had already been offered to two other communities. Therefore, since we were working at our own risk, a certain latitude should be allowed us for our activity, and this Msgr. de la Hailandiere himself guaranteed us... and if there is no reason to boast, neither is there cause to despair of a house which is growing year by year, and which at present (1858) has 150 boarders while it enjoys the confidence of the public....
"We would not regret our sacrifices of time and money (in building up the Sisters) unless they had interfered with the success of the Brothers or with anything more important....
"In terminating this review of the first fifteen years of Notre Dame du Lac, let it be permitted us to add here that in this country the community has hardly found real and permanent sympathy except from the illustrious Archbishop Percell. It was doubtless the will of heaven that one part of its trials should consist in this painful disappointment; but the more it felt the lack of this direct encouragement from those whom it felt it had the most right to expect it, so much the more sensible did it feel for the kindness and protection of the glorious Archbishop, which was compensation sufficient for all the rest."
-- Sorin Chronicles, (1842-1858)
"First College proper (not present mission house) begun on August 28, 1843, and finished in June 1844."
"Chapel and Novitiate on St. Mary's Island finished December, 1844."
"There seems to have been a couple of students at the old college building during 1843-44. In June of that year they moved to the new college."
"A year later, August 1, 1845, the first Commencement was held."
"Brothers' Retreat just finished. Idea of College had been abandoned, almost for this year. Time and resources didn't seem sufficient on August 24, - architect came from Vincennes with two workmen. Mr. Byerley offered credit of 10,000 francs in his store and a $2,500 loan. Everybody worked and on August 28, the first stone was laid. A considerable number present. Collection brought in 1000 francs. Work went on feverishly till December weather set in. By the time the cold and snow came the building was under roof. Plastering had to wait for the new year. By June some of the rooms were in use. Already before the next winter.
"The new college surrounded by the forest seemed to these poor religious to tower above the highest trees of the forest. Only a few boarders and seven of eight orphans."
-- Sorin's Chronicles
"Toward the end of the extraordinary winter of 1842-43. on March 15, a remarkable event happened on St. Mary's Lake, which was enough to console our new missionaries amid the trials unavoidable imposed on them by the rigors of the season and its unprecedented duration. With the exception of two days, the snow covered the ground for five months. This was the cause of serious suffering throughout the country, but especially for our newcomers whose arrival at South Bend had been preceded by a heavy snowfall ten days before and who found in their long-wished-for quarters no preparation whatever except an old log cabin completely abandoned for three years without any furniture except a bed and three chairs. For three days they went to town in the evening and returned early in the morning to fit up the venerable mission house. They went to their task with a will, so that on the 4th night they all slept sound in their new lodging, which in fact was more precious to each of them than any palace in the New World could have been.
"By degrees all their real wants were supplied. Not a complaint, nor a murmur, nor even a regret was heard from the little band through that trying and memorable winter. They were happy as they never were before. Devotedness knows neither fatigue not privation. 'Where true love find labor, that labor is loved,' as St. Augustine declared 1600 years ago."Sorin's Chronicles (1843)
"Second colony left for Notre Dame, May 31, 1843. Composed of Father Cointet, Father Marivault, Mr. Gouesse, Brother Eloi, a mechanic; four Sisters. Ship: 'Rhone'. Left for Notre Dame August 30, 1843 (this refers to the third colony).... Brother John and Sister Mary of Providence. He dad come to fetch the second colony, toward the end of November, 1843, but finding it already gone, he returned to America with a bell given him for the new college, which was blessed on Christmas Day, and installed in the belfry. Weight 300 kg. September 10, 1844: Brother Vincent returned with Father Granger, Brothers Justine and Augustus and three Sisters comprising the fourth colony. Ship: 'Zurich'. June 21, 1846: Father Sorin returned with Father Baroux, seminarians Dussaulx and Refour, and Brothers Placide, Theodule, Benoit; a Brother Postulant, Mr. Garnier, and six Sisters, arriving in New York August 12, they had been becalmed at sea. Arrived at Notre Dame August 24, 1846."
"The opening of spring found the little community busy in the erection of the first brick building know at the Lakes. This is a quaint low structure, with its quadrangular hip roof, that is still standing at the edge of St. Mary's Lake. It served nearly a year both for class work and a bakery."
-- Footprints: Leeper (1843)
"As the design of building the College that year was abandoned, a smaller house was decided upon, and the brick building close by St. Mary's Lake known now (1869) as the Farm House was erected."
-- Silver Jubilee, Pg. 17 (1843)
"From the beginning, Notre Dame was rated as a university. It is evident, however, that some provision was made for Secondary education. This is readily seen from the fact that in 1844, when the college charter was obtained, a charter was also obtained for a Manual Labor School. Though the primary motive of this school was the teaching of useful trades, provision was likewise made for advance work in English.... It was not until 1841 that the teaching Brothers made their way into the ranks of American education. This delay caused considerable anxiety to our American Hierarchy, for it is clear that they had made frequent appeals to various Brotherhoods in Europe. But it appears that the demands in Europe far exceeded the supply and it was impossible for them to assume missions in America before the coming of the Brothers of Holy Cross, 'the first of the existing Brotherhoods to be established in the United States'.
Study of Catholic Secondary Education,
-- Rev. E. J. Goebel, Pg. 131 (1844)
"Schools conducted by the Brothers of Holy Cross, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana, 1844:
"Brothers of St. Joseph ... South Bend, near Washington, Indiana.
"This institution -- under the patronage of the Rt. Rev. Bishop Hailandiere of Vincennes, and directed by the Rev. E. Sorin - is open for the reception of young men of any religious profession, without preference or distinction. The location is on an eminence, and is one of the most healthy in the state, situated six miles from the town of Washington, Indiana.
"It was not until 1841 that the teaching Brothers made their way into the ranks of American education."
A Study of Catholic Secondary Education up to 1852,
-- Rev. E. J. Goebel, Pg.131 (1844)
"In the month of June the few pupils who had been accommodated in the brick house near the lake were removed to the college building and in the month of August the first commencement exercises of Notre Dame took place."
-- Silver Jubilee, Pg. 18
"Mr. Byerley wrote Fr. Moreau that they hope a good portion of the college will be built by November...Brothers have only one pair of pants for everybody and Sunday; each has two shirts only; beyond mending."September 4, 1843
A correspondent of the New York Tribune writing from South Bend, St. Joseph's County, Indiana, March 8, says: "The Roman Catholic Church intends having a large monastery and college built two miles from this place. It is to be brick, three stories high, 200' X 40' and will cost about $15,000. The Roman Catholic church owns a large quantity of real estate in this county, which property is to be used toward defraying the expense of building this large monastery. There are 17 monks and two priests here now."
-- New York Freeman's Journal Apr. 15, 1843.
"Lately one of our good Brothers had his foot frozen, and another one of his toes...But as each one understands his mission, all are happy and contented. See herein what grace can do! We have at present but one bed and they insist that I should take it. They themselves sleep on the floor just as they did for three weeks at St. Patrick's. Tomorrow I shall give up my room for Brother Marie to be used as a carpenter's shop. Assuredly we are far from complaining of the poverty of our lodging."
-- Sorin to Father Chappe, France (1843)
(Second College) "Laying of corner stone collection brought in 1,000 francs; $193.00."
"American people are all pride and vanity. Esteem men only by the exterior. One who speaks well, who is presentable; that's what they like. They are superficial, know a little about everything. Teaching more advanced than in France. Everybody knows how to read, write, and count. More given to cleanliness and fine manners than the French."
-- Sorin (1843)
(The South Bend Free Press of December 2, 1843 -- a six column folio -- contains a prospectus of over a column in length, from which some excerpts are here subjoined:)
St. Mary's of the Lake
St. Joseph Co., Indiana
"Under the direction of the Priests of Holy Cross, associated with the Brothers of St. Joseph.
"This institution will be opened for the reception of youth on the 10th day of January next, under the auspices of the Reverend Bishop of Vincennes, who presented to the Brothers the beautiful and elegant site upon which the buildings are erected.
"The edifice is brick, four and a half stories high and not inferior in point of style or structure to any of the Colleges of the United States, and is situated upon a commanding eminence on the verge of two picturesque and commodious lakes, which with the River St. Joseph and the surrounding country present a most significant prospect. The rooms are spacious, well ventilated and furnished with everything conducive to regularity and comfort....
"The faculty will be formed from the Priests of the Holy Cross and the most competent Brothers.
"In the reception of pupils, no distinction of creed will be made, and the parents of those, not professing the Catholic Faith, may rest assured that there shall be no interference with their religious tenets; they will be required only to attend to the religious exercises with decorum, this being in conformity with the rules of all Catholic Colleges in the United States.
"Board, washing, mending and medical attendance, with the English course, embracing all branches of a practical education; Orthography, Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, Grammar and Composition to which particular attention will be paid; Geography, Ancient and Modern History; the most approved method of Bookkeeping, Surveying, Mathematics, Astronomy, the use of Globes, Rhetoric, etc.
Full boarders.....$100 per year
Half boarders......$40 per year
Day Scholars......$20 per year
"The same in the preparatory school; $16 per year.
"The classical courses with the higher branches of education, an additional sum of $20.
"The French, German, Spanish and Italian languages are taught at an extra charge of $8 each.
"Music and Drawing, $20 each.
"Class books, stationery, and medicine furnished at the usual rates.
"The payment must be made semi-annually in advance; from this rule there can be no deviation whatever, as the charges are based upon the lowest estimate, the object of the institution to increase the facilities of instruction without any view of pecuniary reward.
E. Sorin, Superior of the Brothers of St. Joseph,
South Bend, St. Joseph's County, Indiana."
"It appears, however, that the edifice was not completed as soon as expected. The ground plan was in the form of the letter H or of a double hammer. The middle or handle part was first erected. Some of the rooms in this were ready for occupancy early in June, 1844, when a few students were transferred increasing the facilities."
-- Bro. Aidan's Notes.
"Father Sorin speaks of one room and one bed. The former (attached to the northeast corner of the chapel) was about 8' square; the latter consisted of two rough planks. The Brothers lived in the garret of the log chapel. Their table was a block from the forest, and their beds were bundles of straw. Still the zealous priest and his devoted companions were perfectly happy. He occupied the room of his saintly predecessor, Father Badin and Father De Seille; his Brothers lived over the tomb of the latter's precious remains."
-- Rev. J.J.Trahey, Scholastic 39:399.
"The night before last we were on the point of losing one of our Brothers. For more than a half hour he thought himself to be at the point of death. Then we promised to dedicate the future chapel to the Most Holy Heart of Mary. Brother is still in bed but is out of danger. Now our good Brothers are convinced there is nothing they can not obtain through the Blessed Virgin. We are all going to join in a month of prayer that God's will may be done in regard to a matter which, from a human viewpoint, is of grave importance; it is the question of obtaining from the government a double charter of income for the Society of the Priests of Holy Cross and for the Brothers of St. Joseph residing here."
-- Sorin to Moreau (1843)
"Father Sorin was constrained to put up a log church before all else, the chapel on the premises being entirely too small. He said his first Mass in the new church on the feast of St. Joseph, March 19, 1843, fervently entreating the good saint to keep his little family under his fatherly protection. Shortly after the feast, he had the Brothers add a two story addition to the structure to provide a temporary residence for the Sisters so eagerly awaited."
-- Flame in the Wilderness, p. 79.
Sale of 1843........
"...the formal transfer of the Notre Dame property did not occur until June 19, 1843. The sale for a consideration of one dollar to Father Ed. Sorin and Brother Vincent Pieau was that day attested by the clerk of Knox Co. Courthouse."
The Congregation of Holy Cross Comes to America Association of St. Joseph, 12:3
-- By Brother Ephraim, csc
"But the more they built and the more they planned to build on a place that did not legally belong to the Congregation, the more urgent it became that the mission be constituted a civil association recognized by the State, and capable of acquiring real estate at Notre Dame and it was all a simple matter, as the right of forming a civil society was quite free in the United States. There a civil society can be formed for any object whatever, religious, educational, commercial, industrial, etc., and, once formed, it becomes a moral person, free to acquire, to seal, and to develop as it pleases. The legislature of each State, or congress, confers on civil societies a legal existence by an Act or a Legal Charter of Incorporation. the charters grant whatever the members of the civil society as for: but ordinarily they limit the amount of movable property or immovable that the moral body in question can possess. When it attains that maximum, the Association is dissolved and asks for a new charter.
"By 1844 the state had a population of 800,000 souls and 30 new families were arriving every day. There were no public schools as yet but many church-controlled and private institutions, most modest of course, but tremendously important as centers of intellectual and social influence. Canals were being built, money was beginning to circulate, and speculation, that parasite of the Renaissance, was already getting out of hand. Such was the world in which the Fathers and Brothers and Sisters of the Holy Cross found themselves on their arrival from France 100 years ago. It was not a virgin forest any longer. But coming from Le Mans, Solesmes and Chartres, these zealous men and women must have thought themselves at the very end of the earth. Their immediate and pressing task was to give the 25,000 Catholics scattered all over the State the advantages which the Protestant majority already enjoyed in Bloomington, DePeuw, and Wabash.... Their hope was to do again in their own particular way what the murmuring pines and hemlocks could not do -- free the minds of the pioneers and fill their hearts with grace."
Centennial Address at St. Mary's College, Holy Cross, Rev. Robert Gannon, S.J. (1944)
"Paper and pens shall be distributed according to the Regulations and therefore, the Boarders shall go two by two to Father Gouesse's room to get them during recreation."
-- Council of Professors. Oct. 4, 1844.
"Brother Paul received orders to distribute papers and pens tomorrow and thenceforth every other week as it has been previously decided. Six sheets and three quills must be given each student. Also he must give as much as they want for copy books and Bookkeeping."
"Steel pens may be used by those who can buy them, but not for the writing class." Council of Professors. May 6, 1846.
"Brother Charles shall teach algebra on Mondays and Saturdays from 2 -- 3. He shall also teach linear drawing and composition."
-- Council of Professors. May 11, 1844.
"The School council resolved that the pupils be supplied with writing paper, pens and pencils every second week, commencing with the first Monday in October." Council of Professors. September 30, 1844.
"5:30 rising, except from May 1 to vacation when they will get up at 5 o'clock. At ten minutes before six: vocal and mental prayer in the study room, presided over by Brother Augustine, followed by Mass. After which they retire to study.
8:15 Class in grammar
12:00 Dinner, followed by recreation
1:30 Orthography or Dictation
4:30 Class, History and Geography alternating or Bookkeeping.
6:00 Spiritual conference preceded by Litany of the Holy Name of Jesus. "
-- Council of Professors.
"After invoking the Holy Ghost the Council ordered Brother Francis de Sales to give Catechetical instruction to all persons in the house, not having made their first communion; the time of Spiritual Reading was appropriated for this object."
-- Council of Administration, Apr. 24, 1844.
"Returning again to 1844.... The barn was an object of peculiar interest to the Community at Notre Dame. Among the first buildings the barn which still stands (1867) was put up, and 80 acres of land was cleared the first year, and the approach to the College was rendered more picturesque and beautiful by the trees that stood like scare-crows in the fields.
"The Manual labor School, as well as the College was chartered in 1844. On account of the land being so encumbered with timber, and the small number of men, the College, manual Labor School, and shops were grouped together too closely."
-- Lyons, (1844)
Giving Habits to Brothers.........
"I arrived at the college the day before Christmas; everyone of the Fathers that remained at home was engaged in the confessional and continued so until ten o'clock at night, then they had to leave to commence the offices of the night. The congregation was really large for so wild a place composed of Indians, Americans, English, Irish, French and Germans, many of whom were Protestants, numbers of them having come over 30 miles to go to their Christmas duties. The midnight Mass was sung by the Rev. Superior at the conclusion of which five converts from the Protestant sects received the habit of the order of St. Joseph from his hands; the scene at times during the celebration was overpowering; the wildness of the place -- the varied composition of the Congregation all conspired to make it one of those heavenly scenes which can never be witnessed upon earth but in the Church of God."
-- Letter New York. "Freeman's Journal"
-- M. R. Keegan December 20, 1845.
"for local news you cannot expect much from a correspondent by no means inventive, living in a western village of about 250 inhabitants." -- M. R. Keegan from Bertrand, Dec. 29, 1845.
"The pupils shall go to confession next Thursday at 2 o'clock p.m. The "Veni Creator" shall be sung in the chapel at 2:00.
-- Council of Professors. (1844)
"The benches shall be so placed and nailed together as to hold only three pupils. The pupils shall go in at the farther end to the altar and come out at the other.
"Order to be observed in going to the chapel: first, day scholars; second, apprentices; third, boarders; fourth, Brothers."
-- Council of Professors.
"Notre Dame has a church in wood and one in brick; population, 200 Catholics; 12 baptisms of adult Protestants, 18 weddings, two with adult Protestants, four with Indians, 120 Pascal Communions, 120 members in the temperance Society."
-- General Archives 70:3 -- 78:3
(Christmas..1844) "By then 140 acres cleared, ploughed 96 acres now in wheat. College four stories high, seven workshops, novitiate two stories, 41' X 18'.
"Students read during meals this early.
"After midnight Mass, Brothers of St. Joseph received habit. Many Indians received communion. Five converts from Protestantism baptized."
-- Catholic Herald, Philadelphia, June 16, 1845.
"Truly, the designs of Providence are inscrutable! On the first arrival here in the 'forest primeval' of seven poor foreign religious, without any human means of success, who could have foreseen such a change? But the spot was already dedicated to the Mother of God. To clear the ground, she called the Brothers of St. Joseph from across the Atlantic, rich only in faith and confidence and in her protection."
-- Rev. E. Sorin, (1884)
"Brother Benedict shall keep the evening school."
-- Council of Professors. Oct. 2, 1845
"The class of linear drawing shall take place on Sundays from 6:30 to 7:30 and there shall be a class of Holy Scripture from 3:00 to 4:00. All the boys shall assist and Brother Francis de Sales shall preside in Father Badin's place.
"There will be no class on the 4th of July; all the pupils and professors will go to Mr. Byerley's and there shall be fireworks after supper."
-- Council of Professors. June 20, 1845.
The pupils who learn Latin shall only take lessons in writing duty once a week but they shall learn drawing and bookkeeping.
-- Council of Professors. (1844)
"Brother Francis de Sales shall move to the ante-room of the new building; the large study room shall stay where it is, but the tables shall be moved so that one lamp may do the whole room."
-- Archives of Notre Dame. 30 - p. 1.
First College Building....
"In the winter of 1845 they (Sisters) moved to the Brick House which till then had served as a temporary college building. This house contained three rooms on the first floor; one large room the whole length of the house which was used as a clothes room for the priests, Brothers and students; a refectory and an entrance room. On the second floor were a large dormitory of the same size as that of the clothes room, and two small rooms. The chapel was in the cupola.... Under the house was a fine brick cellar, half of which was a bake shop." (The first Dujarie Hall; present Mission House)
On the King's Highway. p. 145, by Mother M. Eleanore.
(Bertrand, August 7, Editor of Catholic Herald, Philadelphia) "I attended the public distribution of premiums to the students of the University of Notre Dame de Lac, whic h took place on the first of this month; and, being the first thing of the kind which ever took place in this section of the country, the number who attended the novel scene was large and respectable. About nine o'clock in the morning, the entire vicinity of the University was crowded with all kinds of traveling vehicles.... The different apartments of the University were closely examined by many strangers who had never before visited the institution; all expressing themselves as highly pleased with everything they saw, especially the clean, airy, spacious dormitories of the pupils.... The Catholic portion might be seen clustering around the chapel on the island dedicated to Our Lady of the Lake.... But the greatest rush was to the salon occupied by the splendid museum lately purchased by the institution from Dr. Cavalli, of Detroit, who had been collecting it at great expense for many years. It is a splendid collection of beasts, birds, fishes, reptiles, and antiquities from various parts of the globe.... All were deeply engaged and apparently had forgotten what brought them to the 'Lake', when the warlike sounds of the big drum of the South Bend band was heard booming through the woods. Shortly after, the band came into view, drawn by four horses, and accompanied by a number of ladies and gentlemen; on the arrival the music salon was thrown open.... As soon as it was filled, the students commenced a play, which for the space of an hour kept the audience in a roar of laughter; after which the great work of the day, the distribution of premiums, commenced. Among the number who received the greatest number of crowns and premiums, was a little fellow named Macquin, about 12 years of age from Philadelphia.... Feeling a more than ordinary interest in the little lad, I ascertained that he is an orphan boy, and was brought to the University from St. John's Orphan Asylum, Philadelphia. But there he stood, equal, aye, superior to the cherished sons of the rich, carrying away the marks of honor and distinction which would occupy such conspicuous places if acquired by his wealthy competitors; but he, poor fellow, has no place for them but a small wooden box, where they will be unseen and un-cared for by all save himself. But they will not be useless, for they will encourage him to greater efforts, and remind him of the unceasing are and more than paternal kindness which God has provided him with in place of his natural parents. I select this from many similar examples at this institution as being calculated to give a better idea than the most general description of things, noiselessly and silently being done at the University of Notre Dame de Lac." I am, Mr. Editor, yours truly,
-- Mr. M. R. Keegan* Scholastic, 31:201
"The Niece of the Pleader's" shall be played on the Fourth of July, and Father Superior (Sorin) will preside at it."
-- Council of Professors. May 12, 1848
"Up to the year 1848 the number of students steadily increased. The Industrial School was developed, the farm was cleared and drained, the Novitiate sent forth new members, and that lively movement of youth and vigor, which still prevails at Notre Dame was evident in every department of the establishment."
-- Scholastic. August 25, 1885.
"Miniature catalogue of the University gives an account of a solemn distribution of premiums July 4, the Commencement exercises being made to coincide with the celebration of the national festival. Premium awarded to Thomas Lafontaine, son of a chief of the Miami nation."
-- A. J. Stace, Scholastic. (1888)
"You will doubtless be pleased to learn, my dear sons and daughters in Jesus Christ, that, at my request, the central council of the Propagation of the Faith has alloted 3500 francs ($700) to our colony at Notre Dame du Lac. On this occasion, we must once more thank Divine Providence which always accompanies trials by consolations."
-- Moreau, Letter 35. (1849)
"Scholastic year better and more numerous attendance than before. Average of 58 students. Ended with brilliant address by Hon. D. Gregg, Illinois Secretary of State. Discourse printed and circulated to great advantage of University."
-- Sorin (1849-50)
"The Mission Brothers in the forties frequently refer to Notre Dame as the 'Lake'. At that time there was but one lake on the ground as the two lakes were then joined by a small stream."
-- Provincial Archives. (1849-50)
"Notre Dame was only one small building surrounded by a picket fence. The country was wild, the discipline strict, and the city of South Bend was for all practical purposes far away. The picket fence was the boundary for the students, except when Father Sorin or the prefects would lead them in ranks for walks in the surrounding country. Occasionally, upon some important mission, a student would be allowed to visit South Bend, but the fortunate visitor to the city was accompanied by an eagle-eyed prefect and the pretext must be strong.
"There was little desire to go alone into the country surrounding the school. The report that a panther was seen at the west end of St. Mary's Lake on the campus kept the boys in fear for weeks, and on one of their organized walks, an old bear and three cubs crossed their path on what is now the Dore Road. The boys treed one of the well-grown cubs, and Father Vagnier stated that next day he enjoyed his first and only bear steak."
-- South Bend Tribune. Oct. 8, 1925
"We have lately come across a fly-sheet entitled...'University of Notre Dame du Lac, 1850, South Bend, Indiana'.
"Title page bears imprint of 'S. Colfax, Printer'-- a gentleman who little thought that he would ever be Vice-President of these United States, Student number 56."
"Observe that 'Ia' means Indiana, not Iowa, a State then not even dreamed of.... Old students will be surprised not to find Brother Benoit's name mentioned, he having been generally regarded as one of the antiquities of Notre Dame; but 'Vixere fontes ante Agamemnon'. The eye -- spell it with a capital E, Mr. Printer, nothing less would do it justice -- with its unquestioning power of looking 'through the dex' had not yet stricken terror into the denizens of the Senior study room. ('dex' means desk) (Bro. Benoit)."
-- Scholastic, 19:273
"Considering the keeping and feeding poor persons a source of blessing for our community, we shall receive here the Negro at the poor house and the old Mr. Bertrand at our charge."
-- Local Council. January 7, 1850
"No lightning rod shall be placed over the college, at least for the present, by reason of confidence in God's Providence."
-- Local Council. April 29, 1850.
"Brother Patrick shall make the candles in the goose house."
-- Local Council. Sept. 11, 1850
"It was resolved that Mr. Jennick's farm should be bought for us in the name of Mrs. Coquillard."
-- Local Council. Dec. 29, 1850
"The soles wear out quickly unless shod with iron The best thing in favor, from the view point of economy is that any old kind of leather will do for the uppers, as the soles do not bend, and so the uppers do not crack."
-- Local Council. .
"The number is increasing rapidly. We are at present 53 or 54.
"December, 1857: 150 students at University.
"All the pupils shall have Gospel books, and learn a verse for every class.
"Mr. Gouesse shall be prefect of health for the University."
-- Council of Professors (1846)
"Mr. Shawe being present at the Council observed that the pupils of the preparatory course knew their Catechism better than anything else, and that paying greater attention to the religious instruction of our pupils than to literature gave a bad repute to the house."
-- Council of Professors Aug. 1,1846
"Father Granger will be requested not to let parents see their children before they have been reviewed by the Prefect of Discipline in order to see whether they are clean."
-- Council of Professors May 19, 1846
"I am at this moment preparing a Latin discourse to be read at dinner for Father Badin who arrive last night. I tell you my heart beats. I have to declaim it myself."
-- Student. Nov. 5, 1846.
"A sheet of letter paper shall be given every month to the Boarders."
-- Council of Professors Dec. 21, 1846
"That checkerboards should be made and marbles bought for the pupils."
"A religious, scientific, or literary article was read at each meal."(1854)
"The refectory was under the care of Brother Patrick; it contained a reading stand and tables with benches for the accommodation of 30 or 40 boys." (The college then consisted of a four story building, 36' X 80') (1845)
"Brother John will make the soap and candles and smoke the meat and salt it."
-- Local Council, Aug. 26, 1847
"...next year green potatoes shall not be served at table, as several persons pretend that the fevers of the summer and fall are occasioned by them."
-- Local Council, Oct. 2, 1847
"The bear shall be fixed so as not to break his chains."
-- Local Council, (1852)
"Brother Timothy should light the candles in the play room every morning for the washing of the Boarders." Dec. 13, 1852.
(Barter at Harvard too...) "When Harvard was young, almost three centuries ago, livestock was accepted as payment for tuition."
"Most of the Brothers who entered were rather old, poorly educated, and with no desire to teach."
-- Sorin's Chronicles.
"2. that the pupils should assist at midnight Mass at Christmas."
-- Council of Professors, Dec. 10,1847.
"Nearly one half of the students went home to spend the holidays. It seems that there is no abatement in the homeward force; if anything it grows worse year after year. Some of the students will do not less than 1,000 miles of traveling before we see them again."
-- Scholastic. December 27, 1873.
"The Latin class will be taught in the dormitory." Dec. 13, 1847.
"Brother Matthias will be overseer (prefect) and teacher of the German language."
-- Minor Chapter. Dec. 13, 1847.
"Cheese and (or) butter will be bought and some of the workmen will be employed fishing." (Lent) March 27, 1848.
"The question of the Superior's journey to Indianapolis having been presented, the members of the council generally agreed on the utility and advantages of the journey, but the circumstances of the journey and the teaching of the classes induced the majority to postpone it."
-- Minutes of Minor Chapter (Local Council) April 19, 1847.
"The evening school shall be attended by Mr. Steele in Father Cointet's room.
"The workmen shall go to evening school. Half boarders, instead of taking their recreation with the boarders after supper, as the council decreed, shall go to evening school."
-- Council of Professors.
"At Notre Dame du Lac, near South Bend, Indiana....The "Association of Holy Cross" whose Mother House is in Le Mans, France, founded an establishment in 1843 at Notre Dame du Lac, where it possesses an extensive farm, a university, a novitiate for the Priests and for the Brothers, and a manual labor school, in which orphan boys are taught by the Brothers, the most useful trades of the country, together with a good common English education."
-- Catholic Almanac, p. 110 (1850)
"Brother Fintan and Brother Gatian were among the petitioners to Bishop de la Hailandiere that he would approve the Charter granted by the State Legislature, January, 1844.
"He gave his approval February 21, 1847.
Extraordinary of State to grant charter, inasmuch as the legislature had not seen the college in operation. Sorin says charter 4th of kind in the United States, first in Indiana. -- (1844)
"They dared not risk their lives in it, however, for the night, until, after the labor of the day (whole), they rendered it less inhospitable and dangerous.... It was in the designs of divine providence that the first founders of the work should be left for something in the destitution of every comfort at least for a time, and be thus prepared to receive with more gratitude even the least favour from above.... Wearied though they were, and intensely cold as was the atmosphere, they would not retire before contemplating again and again, and from every point around the lakes, the new scenery now before them."
-- Circular Letter of E. Sorin, Provincial, (1852)
(Sorin to Archbishop Purcell) "We have here 80 boarders, and our three novitiates are doing well. Our income exceeds our expenses. I can see days of success and development." (Letter written as Sorin had just refused an obedience directing him -- he had the foreign mission vow -- to go to Bengal as a missionary.) (1852)
"It's true that it (Notre Dame) has been in a prosperous condition since my return. We have 80 boarders and our three novitiates are doing well. Our income exceeds our debts." Sorin to Purcell, (1852)
Rev. Father Superior decided that all the Brothers and others of the House should be employed for the harvest.
-- Council of Administration, July 5, 1852.
"for a number of years after the departure of the Sisters, the entire basement was used as a bakery. Brothers Vincent, Michael, Augustine, and John the Evangelist, are names associated with this primitive bake shop. They were holy men and respected the traditions of the Sisters regarding vocal prayer during work. Brother Augustine's partial deafness often contributed to the edification of his fellow religious. Many a time he was detected kneeling on the brick floor before the oven, praying like Benedict of old for the blessing of God and the multiplication of the loaves.
"A new bakery was built in 1880, and from that date till last summer the brick house, or so-called first college was used alternately as a dwelling for some of the Brothers and for the hired men in charge of the farm at Notre Dame."
-- Scholastic, 39:400-01.
-- Rev. J.J. Trahey: Dujarie Hall,
First Formal Catalog.....
Brother Stephen, Treasurer; Brother Basil, Professor of German and Instrumental music; Brother Amadeus, assistant Secretary; Brother Bonaventure, J (Josephite), bookkeeper; Brother Bernard, Tutor of Junior Department; Brother Benedict and Brother Edward, Prefects. (J. for 'Josephite') (1855)
"'Bon gre mal, gre', the work of Holy Cross in the United States will ... be marked with its own family arms with the royal seal of the Cross. This year more than any other has been a year of benediction, but all were received at the foot of the cross.
"The Approbation of the priests and Brothers by the Holy See, the general health of the institution which lost only two persons by death the whole year, the foundation at Chicago, including a college, three new Brothers' schools, a trade school -- that of Philadelphia; Buffalo with four Brothers in charge of Orphan Asylum since September under Protection of Bishop Timon; that of Columbus where we have only one Brother, although an addition is ready for next year. Increase in College, Notre Dame, to 140 boarders, development of two novitiates which were filled by the end of the year...good spirit of the house. Record number took the Habit during the year. Growing reputation Notre dame.
"Boost given to making of brick and lime at Notre Dame.
"Debit: Deplorable misunderstanding on New York, a scandal to the initiated. Financial embarrassment next to a crisis. Fire in first building, loss $3,000.
"Benedictions of 1856 more than balanced adversities. In public eye, work developed more this year than in five ordinary years."
-- Sorin's Chronicles. (1856)
(Chemistry) Formation of class postponed till more names handed in.
-- Council, Sept. 28, 1856.
Catechism taught for ten minutes in all classes from two to three thirty p.m.
-- Council of Professors, (1857)
Faculty met weekly, chose Table of Honor, discussed questions of discipline and studies. (1858)
(Change of name) (Footnote in 13th Catalogue) The name of the Institution has sensibly changed from 'Notre Dame du Lac' to the simple one of 'Notre Dame' from the alteration made by the (Post Office) Department at Washington at the time when a post office was granted to the University. Correspondents will therefore direct their letters to 'Notre Dame', St. Joseph County, Indiana, without the addition of 'near South Bend'. -- (1857)
(Growth) "This year remarkable for the growth of the college. There were 200 enrolled, a considerable number (being) belonging to a higher and more comfortable class. School all around gained more than in any previous year."
-- Sorin's Chronicles.
(Plans) "However great may have been for the past fifteen years the improvements successively made here, it would be wrong to suppose that we are going to rest; for we never felt more sensible the necessity of enlarging and building again. We have expanded here freely since our first commencement from $15,000 to $20,000, and for ten years to come we feel ourselves under the necessity of increasing rather than diminishing our disbursements." Concluding remarks in Catalog of 1857.
(Council of Administrators, 1857) "First meeting an extraordinary one held in Father Moreau's room to regulate the group to conform to new Constitutions. Moreau assigned each his office, viz., Sorin, de jure, head; Granger, Master of Novices, assistant superior; Patrick Dillon, steward of Community; Brother Lawrence, procurator and assistant steward; L'Etourneau, Master of Novices for Josephites; Gillespie, Director of Studies, Secretary; Brother Amadeus, college steward, charged with the disposition of students' money; Brother Bernadine, General Treasurer, Secretary of Community. Brother Francis Xavier, Director of shops."
"My recollection of Notre Dame is not particularly associated with natural scenic beauty. My first sight of it was from the Bertrand Road; it was early spring; the roads were muddy; we turn to the left, pass a pond in a marl bed with an unsightly lime-kiln; around the corner of an ancient orchard with scraggly limbs and up the court to main building.
"This old apple orchard was the first football stadium of Notre Dame, and, as a shining member of the 'Gimnacs' I took part in the first game.
"The Gimnac Association was originally organized to promote and exploit the appliances of the gymnasium and the various athletic contraptions scattered about the campus.
"Besides the usual recess periods, two days in the week were recognized by us as recreation days -- Wednesday and Sunday. For instance, Wednesday: the entire aggregation of Seniors line up before the main building; thence to Church and brief morning Mass; thence back in line - inspection - break ranks. at this stage the Gimnacs form en mass."-- J. H. O'Brien of New York, coach...
Our first field activity was cricket. The interest in this died an early and natural death and was succeeded by football.
"We hacked along amongst ourselves, eliminating and replacing, until we developed an invincible eleven."
Alumnus, Thomas Clarke, Student 1858-1860 November, 1930.
"A regular porter must be placed near the gate to prevent buggies and wagons from entering the yard."
-- Local Council. Oct. 23, 1858.
"The students are allowed to build for themselves a smoke house.
-- Local Council. Nov. 18, 1858.
"...refreshments of every sort (except liquor, beer, and cider) shall be procured for them at home. Consequently a store to that effect shall be made in the play hall under the stage." Local Council. Nov. 9, 1863 .
"This institution, chartered in 1844, numbers at the present time, in connection with St. Mary's one mile distant, more then 500 inmates. It is situated in the valley of St. Joseph, a region, one of the healthiest and most invigoratin g to the constitution in the middle- west, between two railroads either of which places it within thirty hours of New York or Philadelphia and within three of Chicago. The students are divided into four distinct departments: the College department combining full courses in the Liberal arts and Exact Sciences, has a full corps of able professors, mostly European. The Commercial, which has heretofore been the largest, is in the hands of competent and experienced Professors, chiefly American. The Preparatory is designed to fit students for the College proper and comprehends thorough regimental instruction. The Department of the Minims contains twenty-five of the youngest boys, of ages ranging from six to ten years, and is exclusively under the charge of an American lady.
"The discipline of the Institution though mild and easy is regarded as the main foundation of success both for teacher and pupil. A peculiar advantage of Notre Dame as a place for Christian Education is its retirement and seclusion from the moral contagion of large cities. Full of life, as it is, it has yet a life of its own -- an atmosphere of Catholicism which a child rarely breathes elsewhere.
"terms, $1.25 per annum.
-- Rev. E. Sorin, President, Jan., 1, 1859
"Despite natural difficulties the institution is prosperous beyond any previous epoch.
"Hope is expressed that the University may continue to enjoy peace for the sake of successful studies." (1862)
(Fields bear Saint's name...) "You observe at this point those four large fields laid out with much precision and regularity, two on either side of the highway. Each of these contains 50 acres and they bear the names respectively of St. Peter, St. Paul, St. John, and St. James."
-- Guide to Notre Dame (1859)
"You observe those two small porters' lodges in the corners facing the public road. That one on the east side is the Notre Dame Post Office. This post office is acknowledged with gratitude as a favor obtained from the department through the influence of the late Honorable Henry Clay, whose memory is ever cherished here as that of a benefactor of the institution and the neighborhood."
-- Guide to Notre Dame du Lac, p. 7. (1859)
"Year 1860 saw first General Chapter of Congregation...was awaited to make history in annuals of Congregation. For Indiana Province it opened brilliantly, full of consolations hopes, and encouragement. Mild winter which prevented suffering that seemed inevitable in a country exhausted by a three year depression. Success of fall planting promised to be better than ever. Novitiates filled. New and more desirable requests for foundations. Schools functioning well. Floating debt reduced. Dangers menacing work and existence diminishing. More public confidence. Better spirit in community, peace in Provincial house and dependencies."
-- Sorin's Chronicles. (1860)
"Hard times, in fact, has several advantages for Notre Dame: 1) Suggested method of taking bills of each school principal, payable in three, six and nine months for each account to each establishment. An excellent way of furnishing without embarrassment a considerable total and to force each director to economize to be able to pay his bills on time. 2) To save professors, the novices of the two novitiates followed the University courses of study, which were better than ever, and where they advance better without giving any embarrassment, a plan which was never abandoned. 3) Hard times forced all to economize, and if suffering in one sense, there was gain in another, morale of works strengthened, the principal thing."
-- Sorin's Chronicles (1861)
"The year 1862 was for several reasons a remarkable one in the annals of the Congregation of Holy Cross in the United States. The continuation of the Civil War, the sending of new chaplains...the lack of pecuniary resources to meet the constantly growing needs of the institution; the prosperity of the college in spite of the hard times; the success of the Brothers' schools; the necessary enlargement of their novitiate; the urgent request for new foundations at Alton and Springfield and Lafayette -- these are the principal chapters that deserve attention if they could be developed without danger of offending anyone."
-- Sorin's Chronicles (1862)
"Never was prudence more necessary to follow the ideas of the times, to fasten the eyes of Providence on our work. Although the situation was brilliant, it was none the less ephemeral -- a false step could compromise us, ruin all. The larger number of students, the greater the danger and the more serious. Among them were two camps keenly divided. If the Blessed Virgin didn't protect all, quarrels and bloodshed would have been as in Virginia and elsewhere. But boys with all these differences lived amicably through the war though their fathers and brothers were fighting to the death a few hundred miles away.
"Fortunately Providence inspired the sending of chaplains and Sisters to the northern armies. The death of several of these victims at the post of duty increased the good will of the country. Their devotion also was appreciated by the Government, the generals, and other officers whose public praise of them bore testimony to the esteem in which they were held in the service.
"Increase in students this year due first to Blessed Virgin. Other reasons: 1. The harmony and devotion of the professors, religious and secular; a higher salary for laymen; feeling in them that the administration esteems them, desires to see them happy -- in short, this year more than any other, contentment and devotedness among all for the success of Notre Dame. 2. Each loving his duty did it. Progress of students immediate result. Parents understood it as soon as their children. 3. Food better, nothing lacking. No complaint. The good Sisters, who three times a day fed not only the 360 students but 600 people in all deserve praise for satisfying such a family with the imperfect means at their disposal. But the devotedness for which the good Sisters are noted makes up for many things. The Sisters are now 20 years at Notre Dane and the success of the work is in no small degree due to them. During the first twelve years when they formed an integral part of the community, their faithfulness to all their hard jobs was constantly above praise.
"Most important improvement at Notre Dame was the rebuilding of the Infirmary, which from a dingy place was changed at Christmas time into a fine building. 100' X 45' with four floors, steam-heated. At present, second floor is used entirely for classes and part of ground floor for professors."
-- Sorin's Chronicles (1864)
(1865.....a notable year) 1. Principally because of extraordinary Provincial Chapter ordered by Holy See and presided over by an Apostolic Delegate -- Bishop Leurs. 2. Rebuilding of College.
The General Chapter of 186 (3)? decreed the union of the Provinces of Indiana, Louisiana and Canada.
(Notre Dame... the name) "We mean to speak of Rev. C. De Seilles and Rev. B. Petit.... We were not the first here to invoked the holy name of Mary. They had made every nook and every tree, as it were, vocal with its sweetest harmony. They had given it a name expressive of their heart's love, which we only translated, as a slight improvement, for we could not drop the sweet name of Notre Dame. Every inch of its ground was consecrated to Mary. Et nomen ejus Maria: The name of the place to which we were sent was Mary's Ave Maria! Mary seemed to re- echo over the lakes and through the wild woods as we pronounced the words, as though they were familiar sounds."
-- Rev. E. Sorin, Ave Maria 1:474 (1865)
(Notre Dame... Buildings) Father P. Dillon appointed superior of works at College Council; Brother Lawrence, Mr. Thomas, architect; Mr. March, hand carpenter; Brother Alfred, head mason.(Feb. 23, 1865)
"Every day from the first to the last should have its chapter, and each one, as the work on developing itself and increasing the number of its devoted laborers, should multiply its pages in order to show the real and true cause of the growth of such a small and insignificant seed into a tree the shade of which already protects so many innocent souls and pure hearts.
"I hence repeat without hesitation, but with a readiness equaled only by an absolute conviction, that if there is anything praiseworthy in the rapid growth of the mustard seed brought from the Old World and planted by us in this new one, it is to the abundant dews, the incessant and ever increasing blessing from Heaven that it is due. Non nobis, domine, non nobis, sed nomine tuo da gloriam."
-- Sorin (1866)
"Community since return of Sorin from General Chapter gained in religious life by being separated more and more from the College. Passed year in this happy seclusion, occupying alone the second and third floors of the printing office. Missions gained too."
-- Sorin Letter. (1866)
(Students...) Six hundred students just finished year; forty passing vacation at Notre Dame. June 30, 1867
"Students increased very rapidly this year. Problem to lodge them."
-- Sorin, October 3, 1864.
"College largest in number of students on continent. Notre Dame has children from best families in the West."
One hundred and four Sisters, eighty Josephites, forty eight minims, fifty classical course, forty three scholastic s, fifty two commercial. Decrease due to general distress of country.Dec. 1878
(1867) Rev. W. Corby, Superior; Father Gillespie, Prefect of Discipline; Brother Edward, Secretary; Brother Lawrence, Steward; Brother Constantine, Director of Manual Labor School.
"Then the erection of two lodges on the principal avenue (Notre Dame) at the point of intersection with the (Dore) road toward St. Mary's with a view to prolong thither the parterre that begins under the windows of the college. The lodges are joined by a rail fence which closes the road. The east lodge is used as a Post Office, the other as a porter's in which also Brother Francis Xavier keeps a small store of religious articles."
-- Sorin Chronicles (1866)
Prefect of Discipline...Rev. D. J. Spillar, C.S.C.
Senior Prefects: Brother Benoit, C.S.C., Brothers Charles and Alban.
Junior Department: Brother Florentius, C.S.C., Brother Paul.
Minim Department: Brother Albert, C.S.C. (1868-9)
1846: Mr. (Father) Shawe shall be corrector at table.
-- Council of Professors. Oct. 1, 1866
"A floor 25' square should be laid in the playroom of the Seniors as a dancing floor."
-- Local Council (1867)
"Outgoing student mail, collected and read by Brother Gabriel."
-- Local Council March 12, 1870
"Use of tobacco strictly forbidden except one has parents' permission."
-- Scholastic, 9:1,14
(Teachers....) Brother Simeon, C.S.C., Irish language, Brother Benjamin, Adjunct professor of English and arithmetic...Brothers Philip, Alban, Celestine also adjunct professors of English and arithmetic, Brother Basil, Professor of Music, Brother Leopold, Professor of Music. Assistant Prefects of Discipline: Brothers Benoit, Florentius, Camillus, Albert, Paul and Francis.
-- Silver Jubilee (1870)
"1st Geometry...The class works well but considered as a whole, is not so good as the Algebra class.
"1st Arithmetic...This is such a good class that it is difficult to particularize the best. The whole class deserves Honorable Mention, but those who are quickest and surest in solving the hard problems given the class are in the following list...."
-- Scholastic (1868)
"Rev. Father Corby, Local Superior and President of the College. Three hundred and two students. There are in the college six priests, professed Salvatorists, fulfilling various offices in the institute. The staff of Professors is 32 altogether, viz. 12 Salvatorists, eight Brothers, and twelve laymen.
"Nearly two thirds of the students are Catholics. The spirit of the institution is good in general, but it would be better still if all the officers of the house acted more together. The college, old as it is, has not yet a well-defined code of laws. Each officer seems to be ignorant of precisely what he can and must do. Too much is left to arbitrary measures. There is also a lack of resolution; in some instances, extra-recreation, going to town too often are yet too frequent occurrences. There should be in the Catalogue a well-settled resolution on these matters. Excursions should be done away with as much as possible as a source of great abuse. A great discrimination should be made in the choice of dramas for the stage. Plays, if tolerated, should be rare, as they are a source of dissipation for those engaged in them, and often a loss of time.
"Great attention must be paid to the real progress of students in their respective classes. Studies should be made more solid every year. There has been great improvement in the new method of examination; it must be encouraged and developed.
"Religious instructions are not yet what they should be, though some improvement has been introduced. The letter of the catechism is not well learned, and the Juniors perhaps have not enough of it.
"The dancing taught here is objectionable in several parts; waltzes forbidden by the Pastoral of Archbishop M. J. Spalding continue to be taught.
-- Minutes of Provincial Granger's Visit." (1869)
(Kitchen...) "Sisters aided by hired girls to do the work. A complete change should be effected here. A regular cook should have the direction, assisted by Brothers. For the present, the Sisters' direction of this place is economical and does well enough. The kitchen is rather small and the pantry entirely too small and unhealthy. The House should try to reduce the number of hired girls here. There are at present in the service of Notre Dame thirty two Sisters and twenty hired girls, besides several women from outside."
-- Minutes of Granger's Visit." (1869)
"The competitions of the various classes have all been bound in very neat volumes which are now in the Parlor open to the examination of visitors.
"The first volume we laid our hands on was the papers in English Literature, Rhetoric, etc. The volume opens with the composition of Mr. M. Keelegon, "The Evil Tendencies of the Ape." The French and German Compositions form a handsome volume of some five hundred pages. The Commercial Department figures in two large volumes and makes a quite showy appearance. The next volume on which we laid our hand was that of Philosophy, Ancient Literature, Greek and Latin. The compositions in the Philosophy classes are in their way excellent and worthy of good praise."
-- Scholastic (1871)
"After Mass (May 31st, laying of corner stone of church) the students partook of dinner; then the invited guests.
"We think of hospitality as a good thing, and having so frequently experience it from others, our hearts warm to all who come to Notre Dame, and we feel assured that all belonging to the establishment endeavor to their utmost to secure the comfort and well-being of our guests. Yet we think that in such a great concourse of people as that on the 31st a certain order should be preserved not only for the protection of the college property from 'bummers' who intrude, but also to secure more comfort and enjoyment to our friends whom we invite and who do us honor to come. Many from a distance come to see the pomp and ceremony of religious festivals, or to encourage students and professors by their presence at our College exercises.
"We hear, therefore, with pleasure that the authorities of the College have determined to adopt a plan that will, we hope, prevent our halls from being filled by persons, who may be worthy in their proper places, who however take up space in the halls to the exclusion of invited guests.
"Our friends are hereby requested to preserve with care the tickets which will be enclosed in the invitations sent them for commencement of June 21."
(Notre Dame Cornet Band...1871) :Brother Basil, Assistant Leader, Soprano, Brother Placidus, President, Second Bass, Brother Paul, Treasurer, Brother Leopold, First Altos, Brother Francis, Second Altos, Brother Emmanual, First Tenor, Brother "Albert, Second Tenor, Brother Ferdinand, Second Bass, Brother Wilfred, Bass Drum."
-- Scholastic. April 8, 1871
(Commercial Department....) Faculty of six. One of the three grand divisions of study at the University. Candidates for graduation have to pass an examination in each: Bookkeeping, Commercial Law, History, English, Geography, U.S. History, Penmanship. (1873)
"Rising as usual on free days. All must attend the exercises in the Exhibition Hall at 8:00 when medals, prizes and diplomas are distributed and the valedictory delivered. There is also a program of music and song. Finally, the commencement address.
In vacation, rising is set at 6:30, retiring at eight for the Juniors, and at nine for the Seniors. During vacation, the Director of Studies or his representative should so organize things as to offer facilities to any student desirous or self-improvement. At all meals students are permitted to speak after the reading of a short passage from the Bible. The meals close with reading a sentence from the Imitation of Christ.
Three extra recreation days are observed: October 13, February 22, and March 17. Rising on these days at 6:30. On the first and third of these days, solemn high Mass is sung at ten. No study in morning. Otherwise same as regular recreation day.
Petty recreation days...That is days on which no afternoon classes are held, for experience teaches it is rarely or ever advisable to grant recreation only in the afternoon.
"No institution ever commenced its existence in more absolute poverty and destitution of human means on which to rest any reasonable hopes of success. Let this be acknowledg ed without blush or regret."
Sorin's Report as Visitor from Sept. 29 -- Dec. 1, at Notre Dame, (1878)
Old student Writers in 1879.....
"In the primitive days of our dear Alma Mater, college life was full of fun, frolic and exciting adventure. In thos e days several of the students were sons of Indian chiefs, other distinguished braves among the tribes then occupying the northern counties of Indiana and Southern Michigan. These Indians lived in houses, cultivated their farms, and hunted only in winter. They were all Catholic and spoke some English. Bears, wolves, deer, turkeys, raccoons, possums, and prairie hens roamed the primeval forest undisturbed except by an occasional incursion made on their dominions by the rising young nimrods of the neighborhood. The lakes and streams were covered with flocks of geese, ducks and aquatic game of different kinds." Letter from Old Student, Chicago.
-- Scholastic, November, (1879)
"Whoever leaves Notre Dame hopes to see it again." Patrick V. Hickey,
-- Catholic Review. (1879)
"It was decided to build but one wing of the college this year and to finish the Exhibition (Washington) Hall."
-- Local Council. Feb. 24, 1882.
"The work of building the east wing of the College is to be pushed forward."
-- Local Council. Feb. 10, 1882.
"Three churches and three college buildings have occupied the first sites. The first church and the second college were destroyed by fire. The first college and second church were ruthlessly pulled down to make way for others." A. J. Stace, -- Scholastic, 22:44 (1888)
"At a meeting of the faculty held this week some changes were made regarding entrance requirements. Heretofore no high school graduates were admitted to freshman standing without an examination. At their meeting the Faculty decided the graduates of reputable high schools would be admitted without an examination if they had satisfactorily completed their preparatory course.
"Three years' preparatory Latin are required for admission to freshman standing." Scholastic, 34:390
Early Notre Dame....
"See also:...Lakes, Food, Sadlier, Granger, Sorin, Chapel, Meals, Fuel, Turf, Farm, Bricks, Lime, Clothing, Community House, Draft, Deaf and Dumb, Day scholar, Furniture, Commencements, Finance, Studies, Health, Farming, Harvesting, Printing, Publicity, Teachers, Brothers.
(The log chapel house, 1832) "Choosing an eligible site on the South bank of the more westerly of these lakes, Father Badin began at once to erect, 'from the stump', the first Catholic sanctuary in St. Joseph County, or in Northern Indiana. This structure was a story and a half high, and 20' X 40' on the ground. The loft was reached by a stairway from the hall on the inside and served as both chapel and a schoolroom. Only the bare clapboard roof and the crossed poles that supported it met the upturned gaze in this apartment and shut out the sun and stars. The room was so low at the sides wither the roof sloped down that it would have been a small person indeed that could have stood erect there. The first story was little less scant as to head room. This floor was partitioned into several rooms, one or more for dwelling apartments, and one for a repository for the altar. This altar was of simplest design, and was set within a sort of canopy of cedar boughs, the entrance of which was festooned about with cotton cloth of different shades. Here knelt the motley devotees of the faith -- the Miami, Chippawa, Pottawatomie, mixed caste, Caucasian, thus illustrating the beautiful tenet that for one and all there is one law, etc."
-- "Notre Dame Lake". p. 1. D. R. Leeper:
(Bishop Brute -- 1836) "On Thursday evening we arrived at South Bend, a little town beautifully situated on the high banks of the St. Joseph River.... Crossing the river, we visited St. Mary of the Lake, the mission house of the excellent Mr. Badin, who has lately moved to Cincinnati. He had a school there, kept by two Sisters, who have also gone away, leaving the place vacant. The 635 acres of land attached to it, and the small lake named St. Mary's, make it a most desirable spot, and one I hope soon to be occupied by some prosperous institution. Rev. Mr. Badin has transferred it to the bishop on condition of his assuming the debts, a trifling consideration compared with the importance of the place."
"Some Early Local Footprints" -- Bishop Brute
-- Leeper: p. 2.
(Notre Dame School in 1837) "Let it be remembered that this foundation of Notre Dame was carried on without the least local assistance; that the neighborhood was deeply imbued with anti-Catholic prejudices and low bigotry; that even the name Catholic was a term of reproach; that the very spot given by Bishop de la Hailandiere for the purpose of the foundation was nothing but a forest of 524 acres, only ten of which were cleared, and they were worn out; that the Jesuits had refused to accept it, and that no one would have been willing to pay the money at which the property was appraised, namely, $3,000.
"Every cent, therefore, had to come from outside; the labors of the members of the institution supplied the rest. Providence blessed their united devotedness beyond all their hopes"
-- Sorin Chronicles (1858)
(Early Notre Dame; Neighbor's help) "From the day that Mr. Alexis Coquillard of South Bend, enrolled as the first student of Notre Dame, there was no question in the minds of the founders regarding the success of the work. They were men of intense prayer and of tireless energy. It is well to record also, the help given by the few Catholic families in the neighborhood. Though their means were scanty, they more than once came to the aid of the few religious who were striving to set up an outpost of faith in country none too friendly"
-- Rev. M. J. Walsh.
(Early Notre Dame; 1841; Co-founders*) "Father Sorin, and his six companions, the co-founders of Notre Dame, sailed from France as steerage passengers, on August 5, 1842"
-- "Historical Records and Studies", Vol. II.
-- Rev. M. J. Walsh,
(Early Notre Dame, 1842-3; Students)
Name Arrival Departure Remarks
C. Reckers winter, 1842-3 Aug. 1845 Paid in work.
Theo. Coquillard winter and spring 1842-3 Spring Did not board
Perhaps a few others came whose names have been forgotten and who never paid. (See under "Granger")
"Notre Dame du Lac has been given to us by the Bishop o nly on condition that we build here a college (and novitiate for the Brothers). As there is no other within 500 miles, this undertaking cannot fail of success, provided it receive assistance from our good friends in France. (St. Gabriel's College in Vincennes was less than 300 miles distant). Soon it will be greatly developed, being evidently the most favorable located in the United States. This college will be one of he most powerful means of doing good in this country, and, at the same time, will offer every year a most useful resource to the Brothers' novitiate.
-- December 5, 1842
(Zeal at pioneer Notre Dame) "Records leave no doubt as to the religious zeal of the men at that time; days when, as we are told, 'obedience was much easier than having your own way' ".
(Early Notre Dame, 1842) "As in Indiana, so in Canada the first years were years of anxiety and hardships. True children of Basil Moreau, they turned readily to him whose duty it had been to care for the Holy Family of Nazareth, an d St. Joseph repaid their filial devotion a thousand fold. As the invisible mantle of God's Holy Mother served to protect Father Moreau's children in the United States, so the staff of St. Joseph well symbolizes the paternal care of the Carpenter of Nazareth for the little family of Holy Cross that grew and prospered in the sister Dominion of the North."
-- "Juxta Crucem", p. 108
(1842, pupils)....See under Pupils in large file. (1842)
(Early Notre Dame, 1842, November 26) "They had left their beloved home in sunny France on the Feast of Our Lady of the Snows (Aug. 5, 1841) and on their arrival here they found the entire premises wholly covered with a thick, rich and beautiful mantle of snow, such as they had never seen before. Was it not a delightful reminder of the lesson imparted on the memorable fifth of August? For full five months the virginal, stainless mantle covered the domain of our Blessed Mother. The object could in no way be misunderstood. It made upon all an indelible impression: evidently the Blessed Virgin wished to see this glorious spot of her own adorned and shining, above all, with holy purity, reflecting not alone the limpid waters of its lakes, but from every heart breathing on it the purity of the sky, nay, the purity of the angelical spirits of the kingdom above. Man's designs often change, Heaven's designs never change."
-- Sorin's Letters, p. 198.(1884)
(Weather: 1842) "On Thursday afternoon there was a sudden change in the weather, and for forty eight hours it has been the coldest weather we have ever witnessed at this season of the year"
South Bend Free Press, Saturday, November 19, 1842.
(Early Notre Dame; 1843; Advertisement) "For a long advertisement of the Seminary St. Mary's of the Lake, etc. (See Leeper's "Some Local Footprints", p. 5)
See also under "Bishop Hailandiere"; "Finances".
(Early Notre Dame...1842; Arrival) "It was on November 26th that Father Sorin arrived at Notre Dame du Lac with seven Brothers: Mary (afterwards Francis Xavier), Gatian, Patrick, William, Peter, and Francis, after a journey of more that a hundred miles through the snow. This property was then known as St. Mary's of the Lake; it is situated on the east side of the St. Joseph River, a league from South Bend, and one league from the Northern boundary of Indiana; about twelve leagues from lake Michigan; 35 leagues from Chicago; 70 from Detroit, and 400 from New York.
"It contains about 524 acres, 10 cultivated, 50-90 acres occupied by two pretty stretches of spring water, and an inexhaustible mine of white marl, which worked like glazed earth is used to make lime. Without being very rich the land is advantageously cultivated for wheat and Indian corn, potatoes, clover, buckwheat, and all kinds of garden roots. The only building then was an old log cabin 40' X 24' in which the ground floor was used as a priest's room and the upstairs as a chapel for the Catholics of South Bend and thereabouts. To this poor cabin had been added a few years earlier a small frame house two stories high, a little more decent and habitable that the first. Nearly 20 Catholic families were found within a radius of six miles about this wretched sanctuary, the only one in northern Indiana. There an Indian and his family lived who acted as an interpreter for the priest and the tribesmen. Add another little house and we have all the buildings in existence near the lake shore. (Blue lake, St. Joseph's -- Mud Lake (St. Mary's)
"Six miles from the lake above South Bend there is a little town, then famous for its forges and smelting and casting and about the same size as the first, i.e., have about a thousand inhabitants....
"Having but one priest at the time in the region the Catholics of South Bend, Niles, Bertrand, and of the countrys ide used to come to the church by the lake. For two years previous there had only been rare visits of a priest from Chicago, then in the diocese of Vincennes. In this part of the diocese the Catholic religion was then little known. Bigotry abounded among the country non-Catholic folk. There was hardly a Catholic in the whole countryside capable of avenging his faith against their insults. The conduct of a great number, on the contrary, often furnished the basis and proof of the blasphemies of the wicked and ignorant. All the area was decidedly Protestant, and more or less embittered against the Church From the pulpits of Mishawaka and South Bend each Sunday as soon as the missionaries arrived were heard bitter invectives against the'12 priests and 20 monks at the Lake', inflating their number so as to put all on guard. Besides they added that the Pope...had already sent $90,000 and $10,000 more would come to round out the number. Later when they saw the walls of the college rise, they said that they would wait till it's finished and then shall set it on fire. Humanly speaking it would have been wiser to withdraw without delay, but while they saw more opposition, our pious champions hoping against hope conceived a brighter future and a more glorious end for their holy purpose (cause). They placed all their confidence in God and let their neighbors rage against them .
"...sold by Badin in 1836 to Bishop Brute who gave it to the Abbe Bache on condition that he build a college within two years. Unable to do so. Bishop Hailandiere considered it his right to offer it to the Society of Ste. Croix, provided they build a college and a novitiate for the Brothers. Farm was worth from 15 to 20 thousand francs ($4,000). Badin had made it the center point in 1830 of the handful of Catholics in northern Indiana, and western Michigan. He also found later a number of Indians of the Potawatami tribe of which he was the first apostle in this country; with the help of Father Deseille (died 1837) he converted hundreds of these savages. Later Father Petit was to be an apostle. In the log chapel he baptized more than 300 and confirmed as many as 200 at once. Only about 200 remained in 1842 -- the rest had gone across the Mississippi."
(Notre Dame...1842-3: Resources.) Sorin arrived with 2,000 francs. Bishop who received the bulk of Delaune's collection might have 4-5,000 francs, including 2,600 francs granted by the Propagation of the Faith. A meager sum to establish a community of more than 20 members. Besides, another colony of priests, Brothers and Sisters was coming soon from France. Nothing daunted the pioneers -- the barrenness of the place, the bigotry of a section almost entirely Protestant were dreams. Thought only of building the college, planned carefully at St. Peter's- -a double hammer 160' X 36', 4\|F (1,2)stories. They put their hand to it without delay. 60,000' of lumber, 250,000 bricks, and necessary lime were ordered. These were made on the property itself. Marl bed. Bishop's architect who drew the plans sent estimates and price for the work -- all being done under the eyes of the bishop -- was acceptable without much study. The winter that year unfortunately was long and unusually severe. For five full months the snow lay heavy on the ground. Cold didn't let up for even a week. Impoverished country was the result."--
-- Sorin Chronicles.
(Notre Dame: first year, 1843) "Although not such strangers to the manners and customs of the country, the good Brothers were still far from acting with the liberty of Americans.
"The house was sometimes in a state of confusion, but at the same time a truly religious spirit reigned everywhere. The Community was more than once visibly protected. It is rare that works of this kind undertaken are continued to the end without accident, but there was no such thing as a fall or wound during all the time"
(Early Notre Dame; Sisters, 1843) "...the little colony (of Sisters) finally arrived at Notre Dame in July, 1843.... They immediately took charge of the housework and the clothes of the men, which, having been delivered over to needles of the Brothers all this time, were in a forlorn condition"
-- On the King's Highway, p.126
(Advertisement of University of Notre Dame; 1844) "The University of Notre Dame du Lac under the direction of the Priests of Holy Cross associated with the Brothers of St. Joseph.
"The teaching consists of English, Arithmetic, Spelling, Reading, Writing, Grammar, Geography, History, Accounting, Mathematics, Astronomy.
"Board and tuition (ordinary) $100 a year."
"There was in addition an Apprentice School conducted by the Brothers for farms and trades. The Brothers conducted four schools and their collaboration in teaching at the University allowed the priests to go to the Missions in the diocese of Vincennes and Detroit"
-- South Bend Free Press.
"This institution founded for youth is being opened under the auspices of the Bishop of Vincennes, who gave the Brothers the land on which the buildings have been erected.... The faculty is composed of the Priests of Holy Cross and the most capable Brothers"
-- South Bend Free Press.
1844: See the "Life of Father Moreau" by his nephew, Book 2, Chapter 15, p. 68.
(Sacred Heart Church, 1847) "The nave of the church to be erected under the title of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, will be immediately begun, but the plan must not require a total expense of more than $1,500, nor must we, according to the plans expend in cash more than $500. The rest is to be taken and paid in lime, brick, and work of our own...." (See the poem on the taking down of this old church in Howard's "History of Notre Dame").
1840's: for student life then see "Silver Jubilee" by Lyons, p. 34- 5.
(Early Notre Dame to 1848) "Up to the year 1848, the number of students steadily increased, the Industrial school was developed, the farm cleared and drained, the Novitiates sent forth new members, and that lively movement, indicative of youth and vigor, which still prevails at Notre Dame, was evident in every department of the establishment"
-- Silver Jubilee, p. 38.
(Infirmary, Notre Dame, 1846) An infirmary and kitchen built in 1846.
(Marl beds, Notre Dame, 1848) "The Brothers also began the manufacture of lime from the extensive marl deposits at the foot of the lower lake, and alleged that their business was damaged by reason of the backwater from the dam. (The dam was located in the ravine a hundred yards or so east of St. Mary's) This complaint was made the cause for an action of trespass in our circuit court, at the October term, 1848"
-- Leeper's "Footprints", p. 9.
(Sacred Heart Statue, Notre Dame) "It was decided to order the status of the Sacred Heart, costing 1,200 francs or $231.60, and a granite pedestal, $875 to be erected on the college lawn on the Feast of the Sacred Heart, 1893"
-- Local Council, December 28, 1892.
(Notre Dame teachers, 1849) "The professors at the College, in addition to the priests and Brothers were Messrs. Gardner Jones, Denis O'Leary, Max Girac, James Byrnne, and Moses L'Etourneau"
-- On the King's Highway, p. 158.
(Tests in use, 1853) See under "Texts" in the large file.
(Sorin; Circular Letter, December 8, 1852) "Only ten years have elapsed since Providence first brought the sons of Holy Cross to a wild and deserted spot in the north of Indiana. They were six in number -- five poor religious Brothers and a Priest -- all equally destitute of those human resources which insure success in life. Ere they arrived in the place of their destination, the memorably long and severe winter of 1843 had set in, with an alarming rigor; and when they reached their journey's end, each one of the new pilgrims had paid, in one part or another of his body, his tribute to the inclemency of the country. An old and miserable log cabin, well nigh open to every wind, was the fear that Notre Dame was going to fall like many others. Holders of mortgages, hearing that Sorin's titles were defective, were frightened, searched the registers. Far from deceiving anybody voluntarily, Sorin, it was proved, had deceived only himself. All his creditors were in the same boat. Two links were missing in the chain of titles which Hailandiere had never had enregistered. In the very title which Bishop Bazin had given Sorin the work West was repeated instead of East. This assured twice the possession of 75 acres worth little and left Sorin without title to all the building erected in the last fifteen years. Error was palpable. The lawyer who made it recognized it immediately and urged Sorin to ask Msgr. de St. Palais to correct it, that it was urgent and could brook no delay. Provincial Council wanted otherwise. St. Palais hesitated, put it off week to week and finally gave Luers a general title to all the property he (Bishop Bazin) possessed in northern Indiana, leaving Father Sorin (Congregation of Holy Cross) without a title to the 75 acres in question....
"The immediate consequence of this failure of Father Sorin to prove his titles was to increase public distrust:
-- Sorin Chronicles.
"Bishop Luers on his March visit gave full title to the 75 acres and so the famous error was corrected. To give value to the document, it was necessary that the title of Bishop of Vincennes to Fort Wayne Bishop be also enregistered. The Bishop was twice humbly asked to do so. At last the week he left for the General Council he had his Vicar General write that he wouldn't send it till he returned from Cincinnati. This time it was a greater mystery to Notre Dame. Now it was abandoned to Providence. Result of this strange failure of Sorin to prove his title was to increase public doubts. The week Sorin was to go to the Council, South Bend Court was in session. Notre Dame had to defend a case which in a large part was due to the unfortunate affair. Sorin was told if he tried to leave Indiana he would be arrested. He had to abandon his ideas of attending the Council.
"Perhaps it would have been better to tell the Archbishop of things as they were, but that would have been a complaint. Instead Sorin preferred writing, saying engagements prevented his going to the Council. Here, as in many other circumstances Sorin made a mistake. His absence was severely criticized. Bishop of Vincennes, the cause of it, didn't hesitate to say so and to accuse him: 1) of neglecting the only thing for which we came, and the only important thing: the Brothers and their school; 2) of having collected immense sums on the Railroads and to have spent all to build Notre Dame, doing nothing for the Missions; 3) to have turned all resources and attention to building a college whose usefulness was a question, and of multiplying Sisters who could be found anywhere, while doing nothing for the Brothers; 4) of ordering all his priests to make collections at Christmas for the orphans and of having kept the money.
"Naturally the bishop was believed by all his colleagues, especially on points he ought to know best. Letters said Luers admitted all and said that since the Council the ex-Jesuit had made things worse. Bishop Luers was reported to be ready to take all the missions from Sorin and limit him to the land at Notre Dame, and without mercy.
"Fortunately in the month of Mary all was placed in her hands, and Sorin wrote not a line in defense for a week. Then he defended himself for posterity.
"Did Sorin neglect the Brothers' work: Reply: 1) at present 107 Brothers are here. 2) they teach in twelve establishments, 2400 pupils. (We leave aside Louisiana, which has been made a distinct Province, and which would increase considerably the numbers). We know several Communities of the same kind in the United States for which we have great esteem, but we don't know of any that has succeeded better on these two points. We omit the De la Salle Brothers as they belong to Canada and have resources which Holy Cross hasn't. Wouldn't it be more just to say that up to now, generally speaking, the clergy has taken little interest in procuring vocations and after having obtained them, of giving them little help to make them useful? We recall that the Bishop of Vincennes himself, who wanted only one Brother, could but offer him his kitchen to live among his servants and for school only a miserable little cabin where it seemed ridiculous even to try a school- -Yet such was the state in which the Brother was left until a feeling of pity of his Superior who withdrew him, heedless of consequences. That, of course, was the end of our schools in the diocese. We had to seek sympathy elsewhere."
(1858-9) "The school year 1858-9 had just ended successfully, despite the money crisis which continued to worry the West. Receipts only slightly less than those of two preceding years. 187 registered and ensemble of 'pensions' gave a proportion above average of 125 for the year, a gain of several on the year before. What was consoling was the fine spirit that prevailed which presaged a fine return in September.
"Brothers' novitiate now filled with postulants. At annual Retreat there were twenty in it. The house was filled. They had just razed the old novitiate and rebuilt one on a larger scale, 5,000 francs allowed for the new building, erected by the Brothers themselves.
"The Harvest of wheat better than last year, though not rich. 2,500 bushel or half of the year's consumption. A big help, for the year just ended had cost 20,000 francs (?) for wheat alone, for prices rose and stayed at $1.50 or seven francs a bushel, the last six months. There is reason to hope for some fruit, wine, corn, and even sugar, or at least some molasses.
"Provincial Chapter adopted this year measure for buying for six months: sugar, coffee, tea, leather, butter, etc.
"Workmen dismissed and work put in the hands of the Brothers. Had to keep a carpenter until a Brother learned the trade. This all meant reduction of expenses, and also preserved the Community spirit through less contact with strangers."
-- Sorin Chronicles.
(1858-9) "On the other hand the Salvatorist Fathers were recalled from the missions and finished with their work as pastor, (A new diocese now. Bishop unsympathetic?) to teach with the Brothers. however, they are determined to accept parishes as a means of establishing Brothers' and Sisters' schools, but only where two priests could be employed."
-- Sorin Chronicles. (1858-9)
(1858-9) Sorin's Defense: "The work of the Brothers was an undertaking full of difficulties, especially in a land where all is danger for a young man of talent desired. Msgr. Hughes, New York, when consulted on the subject fifteen years ago didn't see how it could succeed. One reason that Hughes gave was that capable men wanted to become priests; all the difficulties mentioned by the Bishop were proved by experience and often all at once. Real vocations were rare and far from being encouraged, were discouraged rather by the indifference of a great number of directors, or by the desire of keeping about them the few edifying ones they found. In the novitiate, where liberty and comfort were lacking, they have continually before them the pleasures and money they could easily have. If they persevere and are sent to a mission, dangers multiply and help disappears. Most often they have few things necessary for the success of their school. Here only a poor cabin which offers no attraction, there a damp unhealthy cellar, elsewhere, tables, benches, textbooks, cards, etc. are lacking. Sometimes they have to wait whole months for them until their patience and that of their students is at an end.
"If the Brothers live with the pastors, they are usually well treated, but sometimes learn more than they should. If they live by themselves and are often left too much to thems elves, soon they become disgusted with everything
"The work of the Brothers if undertaken alone would probably have been a failure. It would not have been able to support itself and would not have developed. Far from losing any of its chances of success, therefore, from its union with the two other branches... it has therein a new element of life in itself. It is in this union of the three branches that we find the cause of the development of each, every member being equally interested in the welfare of the three Societies.
"If the number of foundations is not greater, what we have just written ought rather to show the protection of heaven over what has been done and the better founded hopes of doing still more before long, since in only two years the number of the Society of the Brothers has almost doubled itself, and the novitiate has now more members than ever.
"The first thing to be done was to live; that is to say , to create means of subsistence, for the subjects and the novitiate. Up to the present time the schools have made a very poor showing in the column of receipts for the Community. It was found necessary to put a number of the Brothers in jobs that were better calculated to pay expenses. Hence Brothers were taught to be farmers, tailors, shoemakers, carpenters, blacksmiths, bakers, coopers, gardeners. And when a college was started wherein all these branches of industry could be utilized, another group of the Brothers had to be organized to do the work of the college....
"Once more we say, a work of this kind was very difficult; before thinking of building the edifice, time was required to lay the foundations."
-- Sorin Chronicles.
" 'The College and Sisters have absorbed our attention too much.' If they mean by that besides the work of the Brothers, for which we are principally desired, we did also what wasn't asked for, namely, founded a college and established Sisters, we agree. But in that we can only see ourselves as being wrong. Not even from the point of view of the Brothers' advantage, since already we have proved that they benefited by the erection of the two other branches which interested themselves in them as in themselves and who in effect procured from them their best vocations. No doubt they (the Bishops) don't want to do us true Justice, since they well know we came to the United States at our own expense and that the diocese never gave us anything except land which had already been offered to two other communities. Hence, since we are working at our own risk, they ought at least to grant us a certain freedom of action. That is what Bishop Hailandiere himself gave us. The University Charter bears his seal, the Sisters likewise had his sanction and even his gifts. We are not unaware that certain American Bishops are not favorable to colleges, but everybody knows that the majority show by their acts that they feel otherwise. If then a bishop, who knows us very imperfectly, questions the usefulness of our college we have only to rejoice since nine years ago the same bishop expressed regret that the college was not burnt instead of the shops which were reduced to ashes. We are no less grateful to God who built the college, as it is written in the frontispiece: "Dominus aedificavit domum", nor less convinced that for us it is a means of doing good and especially a means of facilitating it for our successors. If there is no occasion for boasting there is none either for despairing of an establishment which every year shows further growth and which this year has nearly 150 boarders, and the confidence of the region.
"4) 'That Sorin kept money collected for the Orphan Asylum of Vincennes' has need of no other denial than showing the receipt of the good Bishop, written entirely in his own hand, and who must have forgotten it. Here it is:
Vincennes Mar. 22, 1858.
Bro. Laurent, Econome.
The money for the orphans came here yesterday by express; receive my sincere thanks and believe me always,
Your very devoted,
St. Palais, Maurice, Bishop of Vincennes.
...in conclusion: a resume of the last fifteen years in this region -- let it be added that the work received hardly any sympathy real and permanent, except from the illustrious Archbishop Purcell. Heaven wished, no doubt, that a part of its trials be found in this painful disappointment. But the more it felt the emptiness of this lack of encouragement from those, it thought, it should receive it, the more appreciative it was of the numerous proofs of the benevolence and protection of its glorious archbishop, who sufficiently repaid for all the rest.
"These pages will remain for our successors and it would not be right to ignore the appreciations of their predecessors concerning the men and things about them. Probably each according to the views and designs of God, although differently, has served to strengthen and develop the work. On all we call with all our hearts blessings from above, and beg always that His Divine Majesty, that He give us the time and means of proving to all that in sacrificing our existence to found a work, which we thought worthy, we had in view no other end than the good of the Church, without any personal view, since each of those who work today may be far away tomorrow. According to the thoughtful expression of the most eloquent prelate who visited Notre Dame, we have had to consent to burying ourselves in its foundations. If the edifice stands we shall never forget the tears and sweat it cost us"
"1858 went out peacefully, but existence of the house no more assured than a year ago, but confidence of each member increased. Debts diminished, but so did the income. Balance shows that despite economy establishment established at all points, the place hardly paid its way, and yet all extraordinary expenses were avoided. Things which were called necessities in normal times were not now available, and the Community in several ways was deprived even of clothing.(1859)
"The college didn't seem to suffer from the depression. Number of students maintained was about the same as last year. Payments made as regularly. Novitiates were in better condition and more solidly established than ever.
"Statistics and budget delayed by six weeks owing the illness of Bro. Vincent, who was to undertake this great task. Regular statistics have been sent to the Mother House for years, but had never before asked for a budget. Work ended February 3 and signed by members of the Chapter. Amount of 1859 expenses couldn't be reduced despite pledge of all members to pay the debt of the establishment. Had petitioned Moreau to authorize an expense of $ 64,000. Work of making the budget slow, but useful in that it threw light on the administration. In signing the budget each member felt he was acquiring a certainty he hadn't till then. Each felt, too, the need of closer attention, new devotion, a new effort to bring down benediction of Heaven on the work. amount of the floating debt had decreased a little since Moreau's visit in 1858, but still very high. For the present hardly enough income to meet the daily expenses. Nevertheless, had to borrow $10,000 by February 19, i.e., 40,000 francs or the chance of exposing ourselves to loss of $25,000. Worry great. Tried to borrow, but without result. But each felt in his soul that Providence would bring us out of our embarrassment. The very day that the Budget was signed and that a crushing debt was recorded, a letter arrived from Paris announcing a gift of 10,000 francs, instead of 7,000 francs, from Propagation of the Faith. Next day a man brought too small pupils to the college and gave Sorin a mortgage for $2,000 as guarantee for tuition he couldn't yet make for the education of his children. The mortgage was worth its face value in gold at Notre Dame. It was at least the beginning of hope that Heaven was again going to save Notre Dame. Again it was the opening of the school year plus the $2,000. The number of students....
"At the annual Retreat in August the Congregation had an air of health, life, and zeal which it never had before. The Society of the Priests was represented by 11 Professed and four novices. The Brothers by 107 members (Professed, Novices, and Postulants), totaling 122. On the 5th day of retreat they heard the 7 bells of Notre Dame in full swing during particular examen"
-- Sorin Chronicles.
"The year 1860, which was destined to have the first General Chapter of the Congregation of Holy Cross, was looked to by all the members of the Society as a year that would mark an epoch in the annals. For the Province of Indiana it opened with brilliant colors and full of consolations, and encouragement.
-- (Notre Dame; General Chapter) (1860)
"...a reassuring appearance for the success of the crops; the college better equipped than ever; the Novitiates filled; more numerous and more advantageous applications than in the past for new establishment: the schools already founded giving general satisfaction; the amount of the floating debt diminished a little....
"At the beginning of the year the Administration decided to make an effort to fill the new Brothers' Novitiate...which was soon to be finished, and which seemed to justify some new sacrifice to find candidates. Father Patrick Dillon, Vice President of the college, was chosen to preach a new crusade against the invasion of infidelity and Protestantism, and to get young men of faith and devotion to enroll. he received also the obedience of Visitor and went to the Bishop of Alton, who had just opened a Brothers' school and who seemed desirous of obtaining subjects for several other localities. After several weeks it was seen that here was no doubt but that this should be continued and that the Congregation could gain thereby precious advantages. In America one has to make oneself known, show oneself to the world, if one expects something from the world.
"For the same reason several months later we hired an agent in the West to find students, sell scholarships, and collect the debts of the University. A non-Catholic chosen, a man well-known in Chicago, as it was felt that he would break down prejudice against a Catholic institution and that he could say himself that he had for three years his son at Notre Dame, where he is happy, etc. It was a trial only, which ought to justify the fee of 3,500 francs for six months.
"Depression continued to grow more severe. Money scarcer; fears for the future of the college felt. But number of students increased by 50. Payment of tuition relatively better than recent years. 178 enrolled. As to the finances of the work...not much movement. Debts reduced a little, which meant a great deal at a time when we had to live by our own resources, face enormous interest charges, and without selling anything.
"The Houses of the Province gradually regularized and a little more productive for the Provincial house. Baltimore, Cincinnati, Toledo, Columbus, Zanesville, began to take on the aspect of regular foundations and not without a future.
"Known for some years as one of the first Catholic Institutions in the West. Has 700 acres on the banks of the St.. Joseph River, two miles from south Bend. Today looks like a little village with a romantic and agreeable aspect. Principal Buildings: Church, Novitiates of Salvatorists and Josephites, workshops, farm house, etc.
"In the back of the college, the infirmary, kitchen, and Sisters' house, all brick buildings, except for the new workshops. Number of student 224. Each year shows an increase not only in the students, but in the courses of studies. The Classical gained one third this year over 1858-9.
"The reputation of the University more encouraging than ever. Has urgent needs, such as classrooms, observatory, etc....with land holdings it can live by itself without least dependence on public patronage. Its small domain, lime ovens and brick kilns assure more certain existence than the number of students. What has hampered its development for a long time is the floating debt, the interest on which absorbs all our profit. Otherwise it should now have a large salary, the best professors in the country. When it can add $10,000 to the present faculty budget it will soon find them. The religious character of the institution draws a class of young people from whom the Society of Salvatorists will naturally recruit each year for its novitiate. It is thus that two thirds of today's membership came in, and it has never been better. At present a dozen novices, all choice young men and full of hopes.
"Opposite and near the novitiate of St. Aloysius is the Brothers' novitiate, recently built on the same site as the one preceding, but enlarged by one half. Contains about 50 novices and postulants. It is the only house at Notre Dame where the Brothers are represented exclusively by themselves. St. Joseph's Novitiate is built on a charming little island, which forms a considerable elevation between the two lakes. It is the best spot on the whole property and will be beautiful when finished."
-- Sorin Chronicles. July 1, 1860
Congregation of Holy Cross and Notre Dame, 1864) "This year was marked by several events. The sudden increase in the college which enrolled 360 boarders...; the decree of the Holy See reuniting the three Provinces of Indiana, Canada, and Louisiana, and fixing the seat and the novitiate of the American Province at Notre Dame....
"On this occasion Father Basil Anthony Moreau was invited jointly by Msgr. Luers, Bishop of Fort Wayne and Father Sorin to come and preside over the Chapter and to regulate....
(Notre Dame; Regulations, 1869-70; 1877-78) See under N.D. in the Large File.
(Building costs at Notre Dame, 1879-89) see under "Finance" in the Large File.
"Early Notre Dame, Casey's Article) See under "Notre Dame in the Old days" in the Large File.
(Notre Dame Dome) "At various points in the trip (from South Bend) the visitor has caught glimpses of a golden dome which dominates the horizon. It seems out of place as well as unexpected in that simple agricultural country, being a spectacle which Americans associate with rich cities, not with rural landscapes. Nevertheless, its emphasis becomes more intense as the visitor advances"
-- "Catholic World", Rev. John Talbot Smith, May, 1917.
(Early Notre Dame) See also under "Brothers"; "A Modern Monastery", John Talbot Smith.
"Notre Dame, March, 1941 Articles of Academic Organization, see under N.D." in the Large File.
"While Heaven was blessing the Congregation, the demon was at work to destroy it. Elections in U.S. usually cause some commotion. This year in a Civil War they were subject to and of universal interest, since continuation and ending of war was attacked. Notre Dame realized how necessary it was to be prudent in such delicate and dangerous circumstances. Made it occasion of special celebrations and passed resolutions which were to give best results. Unfortunately badly executed, or rather wasn't at all, the member in charge having awkwardly relied on one third who didn't realize the consequences and so did nothing. Result badly compromised University in public eye of the region. Colfax, Speaker of House of Representatives, an old friend of Sorin's, counted on Notre Dame's votes. Now, as most of the Irish of the country imagine, rightly or wrongly, that the Republican Party is hostile to them, three fourths of them voted against Colfax. Colfax and friends flabbergasted. Next month the exemption that Carrier had obtained for the five members chosen by lot, was revoked, the Postmastership menaced, all in the twinkling of an eye, and all privileges were going to be suppressed, In the crisis Sorin, as best as he could, directed all minds and hearts to the glorious patron of Notre Dame, and there as ever she showed that her arm was not shortened nor had her maternal heart grown cold. Each member promised 1,000 "Aves" to her. Colfax again sent to Washington, where after a week of long and hard effort he succeeded in having the revocation of the exemptions recalled. Fortunately for the Community, Mrs. Sherman, the General's wife, a fervent Catholic, and a friend of Notre Dame, had come several months earlier to live in South Bend for the purpose of educating her young family at Notre Dame and St. Mary's. She took a lively interest in the cause of the five conscripts. She wrote directly to Lincoln and to the Secretary of War, Stanton. Her letters arrived the same day that the General telegraphed to them of the fall of Savannah. Clearly, the Blessed Virgin used Mrs. Sherman for aiding Notre Dame.
"Incredible success of College gave rise to the desire of enlarging it. Repairs also needed. Petitions to the effect sent to Mother House, thence on its advice to Rome, asking authorization for the use of 10,000 scudi (gold).
"In time of war and especially of civil war, all the passions of the poor human heart are unleashed. More than once we should have trembled for the existence of Notre Dame except for the protection of Our Lady. Notre Dame center of considerable region the object of hostility rather than friendship."
-- Sorin's Chronicles.
See "Life of Father Cointet", a booklet.
See under "Advertisement of Brothers' First School at N.D.".
See Bishop Bazin -- Contract; "Community Life" "Farm at N.D." "Founding of Notre Dame" "Finances" "Farm" "Granger" "Ireland" "Stationery" "Tuition" "Badin" "Earliest N.D."
(Notre Dame Bells) see under "N.D." in the large file . 4 page article by Sorin.
(Notre Dame University,) "The Notre Dame University has been well called the 'most splendid sanctuary of religion and science to be founded on the continent'. The work of the Congregation prospered in other places, and scores of institutions, educational and charitable, presided over by the Brothers and Sisters, are monuments to their zeal and labor.... The University has 18 buildings, 75 professors, and averages 800 students....
The Congregation in the United States numbers 230 professed priests, Brothers and 82 Novices and 73 Postulants, making a total of 385, with 13 Congregations (parishes)" "Our Church, Her Children and Institutions", pp. 110-2. (1908)