University of Notre Dame


1860 Oct. 1
Kindekens, Father P(eter): Adrian, (Michigan)
 to Bishop P(eter) P(aul) Lefev(e)re: Detroit, Mich(igan)

Kindekens was surprised on arriving in Adrian to find the buildings in bad condition. He was inclined to blame his brother, (Father Joseph Kindekens) but he was soon convinced that since the division of the mission his revenue could not meet his expenditures. They have put in $400 to $600. The mission at Adrian is not too small and poor to leave to the care of Father (Peter) Warlop. Kindekens can think of no good reason for his brother being changed to Adrian and can only think it was done to make room for him. He does not wish to supplant anyone and certainly not his own brother after inducing him to abandon his mission at Flint to come to Adrian. There is not enough work for Kindekens in a congregation of 150 families.

III-2-j - A.L.S. - (French) - 2pp. - 8vo. - {3}

1860 Oct. 1
Seidenbush, O.S.B. (Father) F. Rupert: Newark, N(ew) J(ersey)
 to O(restes A.) Brownson: (Elizabeth, New Jersey)

The writer asks Brownson for the amount of money he is supposed to pay for his son, William (Brownson). Seidenbush is leaving and must give an account to his successor.

I-3-o - A.L.S. - 1pg. - 12mo. - {2}

1860 Oct. 3
Ivory, William W.: Dakota City, Nebraska Territory
 to O(restes) A. Brownson: (Elizabeth, New Jersey)

Ivory has been reading the Review for ten years He has heard that Brownson is pro-Lincoln and that Brownson thought Lincoln would be elected. He looks upon Brownson as the leader of American Catholics. He expects to be home in Pennsylvania for the presidential election. He has fought two years against the Republican party in Kansas. He wishes Brownson to send him any speech he has made or may deliver. He wishes to have the October Review.

I-3-o - A.L.S. - 3pp. - 8vp. - {1}

1860 Oct. 4
Langevin, Father Edmond: Quebec, (Canada)
 to Father (Napoleon Joseph) Perché: New Orleans, Louisiana

He recommends to Perché's protection Alfred Morin of Quebec whose father is upset over his departure and for this reason asks Perché to act like a father towards him.

VI-2-c - A.L.S. - (French) - 1p. - 16mo. - {2}

1860 Oct. 4
Marco, Father M(artin): Grand Rapids, (Michigan)
 to Bishop (Peter Paul Lefevere): (Detroit, Michigan)

After many promises of the German congregation and the petitions of the neighboring parish, he is unable to recognize his duty to remain among a people who for the moment have forgotten their duty to him; he is willing to suffer in Grand Rapids, provided that good may come of it and the Catholic Faith may spread. Two Protestants are under instruction.

III-2-j - A.L.S. - (French) - 2pp. - 12mo. - {2}

1860 Oct. 4
Seton, Jr., W(illia)m: New York, (New York)
 to Orestes A. Brownson: (Elizabeth, New Jersey)

Seton is a subscriber to the Review. In it he finds the link "between the Old and the New". He finds freedom upheld without the Democracy which he detests, and "the church man fully defended". He gives credit to Brownson for not being partial to nationalities.

I-3-o - A.L.S. - 2pp. - 12mo - {1}

1860 Oct. 4
Seton, Robert: Genezano, (Italy)
 to Wil(liam Seton 4): (Cragdon, New York?)

Robert is disappointed at not hearing from Wil(liam) since his arrival in New York. Affairs are gloomy. Robert writes to calm any apprehension for their safety. Although for a while it was thought the Pope (Pius IX) would have to leave Rome, later accounts speak of large reinforcements of French troops. May the fear of what the Congress of Warsaw will decide actuate (Garibaldi) to keep his promise, at least in the Pope's case. Most of the colleges have returned to Rome and they still remain in the country. Rome is not in proximate danger. Although Wil reads infamous accounts concerning de La Moriciere, sooner or later the truth will out that the reason for these stories was to incite public opinion against de La Moriciere and his troops. However, the royal troops have licked the Garibaldians at last. Mazzine, Everazzi, Victor Hugo, and others of that vile stamp have congregated in Naples as vultures hover over quarry. As an American citizen, Robert is ashamed of Edward Everett for the way he spoke in his oration in the Academy of Music and his answer to a toast in Faneuil Hall last July 4. Robert will not send a translation and leader of the "Armoria" of Turin entitled "the 13 consciences of Napoleon" for which that journal was confiscated. Robert is ashamed of the insulting language in one of the late numbers of the "Freeman's Journal" against President (James) Buchanan. A Catholic paper should not offer the public an opportunity of charging Catholic citizens of being disloyal. Father (William) McCloskey has given Robert permission to spend next vacation in America. It is only a question of money whether he goes or not. He hopes he can spend a few weeks out west at Dixon. He sends his love to his father, Liz, Uncle Sam, the Setons. (Patrick) Hennessey has arrived.

II-1-a - A.L.S. - 4pp. - 12mo. - {5}

1860 Oct. 5
Barry, W(illia)m Ja(me)s: Mt. St. Mary's, Cin(cinnati, Ohio)
 to O(restes) A. Brownson: (Elizabeth, New Jersey)

Barry was pleased to see his article in the July Review. He is sending a longer article dealing with education, for the October number. Fortunately he came across the essays of Hamilton and Newman; these gave him the data he needed. He doubts that Brownson will agree with him on the question of Common schools. He does not like superstition in religion and he thinks Brownson's remarks on this point justified. The article on Rights of the Temporal will give more offense than any article Brownson has written since 1854. Father (Jeremiah W.) Cummings has cut out for himself a fight with the Western Banner, the Boston Pilot, and perhaps the Telegraph. Barry has heard from Father (Joseph) M. Finotti on the article on Catholic Colleges. His correspondence with Sister Eulalia has convinced him that the nuns teaching in convents are not sufficiently well acquainted with the modern world to train girls to be good Catholic wives and mothers. He closes by asking if Brownson did not promise a photograph of himself to a Western friend.

I-3-o - A.L.S. - 3pp. - 8vo. - {7}

1860 October 6th
Montalembert, Count (Charles) de: la Roche en Breny, Cote d'Or
 to (Orestes A.) Brownson: (Elizabeth, New Jersey)

The Count has been indisposed because of illness. The last three numbers of the Review from April to October have pleased him greatly, especially "Catholic Education," "O. Arnold," "Rights of the Temporal." He agrees with Brownson on the inferiority of the Catholic Contiental System. He points out the superiority of the Rightist system in his Avenir politigue del'Angleterre. He believes Brownson is wrong on the Italian question. He believes that the Italians have a good end in view, but the means are bad. If not in cruelty, the Italians have out done the French in treachery. He believes Father Ventura does not deserve the praise Brownson bestows on him. Ventura is a man without honor. Ventura betrayed Pius IX in 1849, and insulted the old French kings in their own royal chapel. The French clergy dream of an orthodox Caesar "who will kindly under take to do their work". The Count is sorry to have missed Brownson's son in Paris when he was en route to the novitiate in Angers. He hopes Brownson has received his work Moines d'Occident which he sent two months through Bossange. The work has been denounced by the irreligious press. Catholics are ignorant of real history. The Count believes in honor and in freedom and in revealed religion.

I-3-o - A.L.S. - 4pp. - 12mo - {2}

1860 Oct. 7
Pabisch, (Father) Francis Jos.: Anima, Rome
 to Archbishop John Baptist Purcell: Cincinnati, Ohio

Pabisch would have acknowledged the receipt of the $100 from Purcell earlier but he supposed the banker had attended to it and he was also busy with his examinations. He tells of his tours which lasted for about two months in the company of Mr. Kinney. He is sorry he missed seeing Bishop (John) Quinlan of Mobile while he was in Rome. He saw Father (William) McCloskey of the American College of Rome, and can understand why he can justly charge $200 a year for each student. He answered some points concerning the American College and certain decrees for Purcell. Pope Pius now has the rule of only Rome since Napoleon III has taken the other provinces, and he is said to have intention of leaving for Spain if the powers of Europe do not better respect his dignity. Pabisch intends to study some civil law for the next two months. He sends his regards to Purcell's brother.

II-5-a - A.L.S. - 4pp. - 8vo. - {3}

1860 Oct. 7
Vignot, Antoine: Savannah, Georgia
 to Father (Napoleon Joseph Perché: New Orleans, Louisiana)

He has received (Perché)'s letter of Sept. 23 and paper of the 29th. He studied at the School of Agriculture of Grignon, near Versailles and came to the United States upon the recommendation of his patron, Mr. de Loisy of Autun. He had the most solid letters of recommendation: one from Mr. Abatucchi, then minister of Justice, and even several from (Perché)'s own city. Arriving in America he found everything to be completely contrary to what he had expected. At New York Mr. de Montholon told him to return to France and that he had nothing to offer him. He wrote to Mr. Heyme and also to Mr. Caillat whose brother was professor of Chemistry and Vice-Director of the School. Both told him not to leave New York and promised that when they had a position suitable for him they would bring it to his attention. Nothing has come yet, and he can not wait any longer. After two years he finally found a position as manager of a very small plantation. Instinctively, he senses that he will not remain there much longer. He has been told of French Creole plantations in Louisiana but is reluctant to go there with so little knowledge of the situation. If (Perché) should learn of a planter who has need of a manager he will be available to accept the position. His brother has been mayor of Orleans (Loiret) for four years and has just been reelected for 5 more and named a member of the Legion of Honor. He taught for a year at New York under the direction of Father (Annet) Lafont (S.P.M.).

VI-2-c - A.L.S. - (French) - 4pp. - 12mo. - {7}

1860 Oct. 8
Barq, Aug.: Waterloo, (Louisiana)
 to Father (Napoleon Joseph Perché: New Orleans, Louisiana)

A year ago he asked (Perche) to insert an advertisement in the Propagateur Catholique for a job as a teacher. After receiving (Perche)'s reply, he was compelled to accept a job at Philadelphia academy directed by a Protestant minister. The academy closed several months after his arrival. For the past year he has been living on the proceeds of some French lessons. He has finally decided to come to Louisiana to look for a job. Father Leon Fillion of Charleston warmly recommended him to Professor Magruder of Baton Rouge but he fears that the letter arrived too late. Perhaps (Perche) could indicate a job as a teacher in one of the parishes of Louisiana. He can teach all branches of an elementary course. He speaks English and Spanish. he incloses a letter from Fillion to let (Perché) know the interest Fillion takes in him.

VI-2-c - A.L.S. - (French) - 3pp. - 8vo. - {3}

1860 Oct. 10
(Charbonnel), Armand de Bishop of Toronto: Paris, (France)
 to Archbishop John Baptist Purcell: Cincinnati, Ohio

Mr. Cadue, their former professor at St. Sulpice, is occupied in writing the life of Father M. Mollevaut for whom they have much veneration and affection. Charbonnel along with many others gave to Cadue the letters which he received from Mollevaut. He regrets having destroyed the notes which he took under him. Cadue would like to have Purcell's letters, notes, and impressions of Mollevaut. He wishes Purcell a long life and commends him to do the good that (Archbishop Anthony) Blanc has accomplished. Having made Bishop (G.J.) Lynch coadjutor of Toronto, he was pressed by Lynch and others to go to Rome for a case against many prelates of their province. This gave occasion to the administrators of the Propagation of the Faith to recommend Charbonnel to the Pope as the preacher-bishop of their work and also gave him occasion to solicit his resignation and his entrance into the Capuchins. This has been accorded. Now after five months he is a Capuchin especially charged to preach the propagation of the faith. There is talk of sending him into the three united kingdoms and to the United States. But he must be assured of the spontaneity of the bishops and have the assurance of a zealous agent in each congregation. He asks what does Purcell think of the project. Good Bishop Lynch does wonders. Charbonnel is full of hope for France, basing his opinion on certain recent events.

II-5-a - A.L.S. - 4pp. - 12mo. - (French) - {4}

1860 Oct. 11
McMullen, Father J(ohn): Chicago, (Illinois)
 to O(restes) A. Brownson: (Elizabeth, New Jersey)

Father McMullen did not like the last Review, the first one that displeased him. He believes that too much stress is laid upon "natural rights". This emphasis on the natural tends to put people on their guard against the supernatural. Catholics desert the church by unduly separating the natural and supernatural orders, not because they are unable to combine the two. There is little or no dogmatic opposition to the Church. The trouble is they either forget or do not recognize the Church. Brownson is on the wrong side; he should continue to vindicate the prerogatives of the supernatural. Brownson proposes to drag down questions which pertain exclusively to the Hierarchy to discuss. The last number is opposed to Catholic interests and is wanting in Catholic spirit. J.H. who wrote the article on Ireland is a disgrace to any publication. J.W. C(ummings) is practical and strong as usual. The explanation Brownson offers in his note is by no means satisfactory. He would write publicly against him were it not for Brownson's good work and his belief that they should not wrangle in their own camp. If Brownson thinks him too severe he can remember he may meet him in a more public and severer way. P.S. He expects no answer.

I-3-o - A.L.S. - 4pp. - 4to. - {3}

1860 Oct. 12
St. Gabriel, (O.S.U.), Mother: Quebec, (Canada)
 to Father (Napoleon Joseph Perché: New Orleans, Louisiana)

She could not write to Mother St. Seraphine without offering him their thanks for the pleasure which his letter gave them. Everyone joins them in hoping that he returns to (Quebec) soon. Nothing new has happened since his departure except that their classes which were almost empty then are now filled. They have 150 boarders, 95 part-time boarders, and a great number of day-scholars. All but the latter have just made their annual retreat. They hope that Perché's health will experience for a long time the good effects which their climate appears to have produced. Their chaplain's room will always be ready to receive him and Messrs. Faribault and Hamelle would be delighted to have the pleasure of his company again. The latter gentleman has kindly loaned them all the numbers of the Propagateur Catholique which interests them so much more now that they know its editor.

VI-2-c - A.L.S. - (French) - 3pp. - 4to. - {2}

1860 Oct. 12
Whelan, R(ichard) V., Bishop of Wheeling: Charleston, Virg(inia)
 to Archbishop (John Baptist) Purcell: Cincinnati, (Ohio)

Mr. George Temple, a convert, is seeking employment in Cincinnati and Whelan asks Purcell to aid him if possible. Whelan is sorry he arrived in Parkersburgh too late to see Purcell, but thanks him for visiting the diocese.

II-5-a - A.L.S. - 2pp. - 12mo. - {1}

1860 Oct. 12
Wood, Bishop James F(rederick) of: Philadelphia, (Pennsylvania)
 to (Father Stephen Rousselon: New Orleans, Louisiana)

At the last session of Congress a new tariff bill, #338, was passed by the House and will be considered by the Senate at the next session. Section 22 exempts many articles for academies, seminaries, and schools. Should not all articles ordered for the use of churches and other places of worship be exempt also? If (Rousselon) agrees, he should urge its adoption on such Senators and Representatives as he may know. (Addressed to the Bishop of the place.)

VI-2-c - A.L.S. - (French) - 2pp. - 12mo. - {1}

1860 Oct. 13
Luers, J(ohn) H., Bishop of: Fort Wayne, (Indiana)
 to Archbishop J(ohn), B(aptist) Purcell: Cincinnati, (Ohio)

Father (J. N.) Thisse of Piqua wrote Luers stating that a small church could be erected at Union, (Ohio) if the Catholics of Indiana would assist. Luers sent the letter to Father (Patrick Fitzmaurice who approves of the church being built on the Ohio side. Luers is willing and now asks Purcell for his view. Luers was in Philadelphia some time ago and was received by Bishop (James F.) Wood very cordially. Archbishop (John Hughes) spoke of taking a trip out West next summer.

II-5-a - A.L.S. - 2pp. - 12mo. - {5}

1860 Oct. 15
Duquercun, Aug(uste): New Orleans, Louisiana

License for Father (Stephen) Rousselon to marry Eugene P. Brugere and Zelia Lafaye.

VI-2-c - D.S. - 1p. - 12mo. - {3}

1860 Oct. 16
Marco, Father M(artin): Grand Rapids, (Michigan)
 to Bishop (Peter Paul Lefevere): (Detroit, Michigan)

Three Protestants, after 7frac12; months instruction, will be received into the Church the first of next month, the Feast of All Saints. His health is good in spite of numerous difficulties.

III-2-j - A.L.S. - (French) - 3pp. - 12mo. - {2}

(18)60 Oct. 16
(Seton, Elizabeth): Cragdon, (New York)
 to (Robert Seton) Bob: (Rome, Italy)

(Elizabeth) was delighted to receive (Robert)'s letter. Bill's (William Seton 4) letters are so capital that hers feel shabby alongside. Robert's letters are not very reassuring, neither are Em(ily Seton)'s. If (Elizabeth) were there she would help Em make "charpie" for "les Braves". Robert should hear Bill talk of Robert's intended visit to him next vacation, a little trip to hunt buffalo included. Carly (Carleton) Bayley is in town for three weeks or so. Bill is thinking of going out with Bayley on an inspection tour to Dixon. Bill lives with them altogether now, preparing to pass the bar. They went chestnutting - the same old tree Robert and Hal used to climb. Alice Wilks(?) just sailed for Europe so Em will probably hear of her. Robert is to tell (Isa)Bell (Seton) that (Elizabeth) received her last letter. Yesterday (Elizabeth), Harriet Ogden, and Mr. Rogers went to West Point. The Prince of Wales was there also. Molly Lee is at Cousin Emma's and asked about Em. Tom (Lee) is going to Europe for his health. (Elizabeth) saw Charlie; he is a doctor. Cambell Short is appointed surgeon in the Army; he is shortly to marry Miss Dallas(?).

II-1-a - A.L. - 4pp. - 12mo. - {9}

(186?) Oct. 16
Peabody, Elizabeth P.: Concord, Massachusetts
 to (Orestes A.) Brownson:

Elizabeth finished reading the extract from Brownson's Review. She is glad to find out that one man knows what should be done. The Boston papers have made small extracts. She believes every person in the country should read it. Elizabeth wants Brownson to put it into pamphlet form and see that every government official gets one. She wants Brownson's decision on this matter. If she had the money to have it stereotyped, she would. Titles are suggested by her. Elizabeth explains what she thinks to be the gist of the articles. It is important to know whether the Negroes received as a passive gift their freedom or whether they help to achieve it by fighting for something more important than themselves. The whole of Brownson's plan is important. She believes that if Brownson's initiative were given to the salutation of the country, it would be a great triumph. The dream of his youth would be accomplished. Democracy was the triumph of man over his accidents, of all the accidents, slavery seemed the most inveterated. Congratulations are extended to Brownson for having such a mind when the country is in the greatest need. The book in which Brownson relates of his becoming a Catholic, was much enjoyed by Elizabeth and Miss "C.S."

I-3-o - A.L.S. - 5pp. - 12mo. - {1}

1860 Oct. 17
Rousselon, Joseph: Lyon, (France)
 to Father (Stephen Rousselon: New Orleans, Louisiana)

Rousselon's nephew wants a death certificate for Florent Vielfaure, alias Vezian, born in Sanilhac, a clockmaker who around 1825 left France for New Orleans where he died in 1845 or the beginning of 1846. Vielfaure's brother-in-law wishes this document as he is concerned with a matter of succession. The consul was unable to supply it. It appears that this Vezian knew Bishop (Anthony Blanc) who assisted him in his last moments and notified his family of his death by a long letter. For almost a year Rousselon has been a clerk with Mr. Duqueyt, a notary, (Rousselon's) old pupil. He has no news to give of the family. He believes Uncle Henry has had a sad correspondence with (Rousselon). Uncle Camille has come to spend the winter at Lyon. He is going to spend 15 days vacation at Paris with Uncle Darmes and Henry who are well.

VI-2-c - A.L.S. - (French) - 2pp. - 4to. - {3}

1860 Oct. 18
Clarke, Mrs. C.E.T.: Burlington, (Vermont)
 to O(restes A.) Brownson: (Elizabeth, New Jersey)

Clarke is discouraged because Brownson has not answered her past letters. For the past three years she has been a cripple due to a fall. Hence, she has been unable to be about her business, and is depressed because of business reverses. She would like redress on her book "Lizzie Maitland." She has not received anything from Mr. Fisher for two years, never a business statement. Fisher wrote her a letter saying the book was not being stereotyped. Clarke reminds Brownson that he told her in Albany that it was being stereotyped. Fisher now claims Brownson did not wish it to be. She encloses Fisher's letter. She has written another story and has sent it to Mrs. Sadlier. Clarke will never write another Catholic story, because she finds it more profitable to write for Harper's and other Magazines. There is no demand for Catholic stories, for the publishers prefer little translations of childish simplicity. Clarke asks whether she could get "Lizzie Maitland" republished elsewhere. Mrs. Sadlier obtained a publisher for her. She is sorry to learn of Brownson's affliction. Mr. Clarke is not as well as he used to be. P.S. She sends this letter in care of Mrs. Sadlier, as she is Brownson's publisher.

I-3-O - A.L.S. - 4pp. - 12mo. - {3}

186- Oct. 18
McCloskey, Father Geo(rge): (New York, New York)
 to (Orestes A.) Brownson: (Elizabeth, New Jersey)

McCloskey and (Father William Everett wonder if Brownson has bid farewell to his friends as well as to the public. They say that he has pondered this question for some time but now that he wants a book that the previously loaned to Brownson he is moved to do something about it. He asked him to bring the book personally or else send it by Capt. Henry (Brownson).

I-3-o - A.L.S. - 3pp. - 12mo. - {2}

1860 Oct. 19
Brownson, O(restes) A.: Elizabeth, (New Jersey)
 to (Henry) F. (Brownson):

Henry's mother has received his letter of the 28th. Brownson had been told by (Father Remigius) Tellier that Ed. Oaksmith had left the novitiate and gone to college in Paris, but infers from (Henry's) letter that he is still there with him and (Henry) is asked by Brownson to make him his affectionate remonstrances. Brownson was too busy with his Review to answer Henry's letter of Aug. 8. Brownson finished Mr. Ward's philosophical introduction to his Treatise on Nature and Grace just on the previous day and he considers it a most difficult and perplexing job. Ward is Brownson's old opponent in the Dublin Review and in the latter's opinion Ward has an able but very crooked mind. The matter of sending (Henry) tobacco through the source suggested has become extremely difficult since his friend has left the steamer. However, Brownson promises that if it is in his power to send it, he will do so at the earliest possible moment. Brownson has not seen Dan Bryan since the day (Henry) sailed. The Visitor has made no change in the provinces, Father Tellier remaining Superior of the Mission. The Scholasticate is to be located in Conewago, Pennsylvania, but for the present it will remain in Boston with Fathers Gresslin and Verdun as professors of theology. St. John's College promises a better year than last. Ned's professor is Father Vetter, who appears to be an able man and is, according to Ned, an Austrian, an Alsatian or from the Debatable Land, and uses F. Rathenflue for a text book. Brownson's October number has kicked up a babling and made Archbishop John Hughes perfectly frantic. His article on the Rights of the Temporal together with Dr. Jeremiah Cumming's on vocations to the priesthood have done the work. The greatest wrath is shown at the Dr. and a trial is threatened. Although lawyers have been retained Brownson feels the storm will blow over. He expresses the wish that (Henry) have the opportunity of reading this issue which he thinks to be the best yet and cautions (Henry) that none of his former positions on papal power has been abandoned nor does he endorse the Emperor's conduct on Count Cavour but has merely attempted to place the temporal principality of the Pope on its true basis as well as to apologize for the Italian people. He does not believe the temporal principality of the Pope necessary to the exercise of his spiritual sovereignty nor that the political and religious interests of Europe require the unification of Italy and elevation of it to the rank of a great power either as a federal state or a unitarian monarchical state. Brownson, however, recognizes no one's right to dispossess the Pope against his conduct. Father Gary, a Benedictine monk of St. Gregory's College, Dawn Side, near Bath, England, has sent Brownson the plan and outline of a philosophy text-book which he is writing in English and in which he takes the system defended by the Review. Brownson is not certain that he can answer (Henry's) question but discusses the fact that while Descartes holds extension to be the essence of matter, Leibniz, for good reasons, denies it. That extension is not the essence of body, or is only an accident of body is known from the Real Presence in the Blessed Eucharist, a point disputed between (Henry) and Brownson at a time when the former was translating Balmes. Brownson holds, in the main, F. Boscovich's doctrine, rejects the atomic theory, and agrees with Leibniz that substance is vis activa, and semper involvit conatum. Our bodies in the future state will be transformed or glorified, made like unto the glorious body of our Lord, which we know was impassible, and encountered no resistance in what we call matter. What we call extension, according to Brownson, is simply the force of the body, or the energy of the vis activa, and he sees no difficulty in supposing it to retain in the future its exterior form or circumscription. It would then have extension in heaven in the same sense as it has here. Brownson cautions (Henry) against supposing that even now it is a congeries of molecules. These, he maintains, are accidents and can be changed without changing the body and disappear without its disappearing. Returning to (Henry's) difficulty of the vis activa Brownson points out that the soul is separable from the body in one sense, but not from the living body, otherwise communion in a way would not suffice. In the living body the flesh and the body are inseparable, indivisible, as communion in one. The body and blood are indivisible in the Holy Eucharist and Brownson questions (Henry's) right to say that blood is not of the species of the human body, for when the blood is omitted the body is destroyed, which is, properly speaking, no longer a human body but a carcass monad. For Brownson, the soul is the forma corporis and he is not prepared to maintain that the body is a simple or rather single monad or vis activa. He sees no objection to supposing the body as composite, the union of two or more monads, a living union produced and sustained by joining soul and body. The stigmata which our Lord showed to Thomas may be explained by supposing that His body was not yet glorified since He had not yet ascended to the Father or else they may be regarded as habits of the body retained in the glorified state, as are the habits of the soul. The soul carries with it its habits or else it would not retain the divinity infused or a priori in this life and so why should not the body then retain its habits. Heaven and hell Brownson regards as primarily as a state rather than a place, heaven not being above the stars any more than hell is under or in the centre of the earth. However, he will not say that heaven is not a place but that he is not in the habit of thinking of it as a place. God is here and everywhere, in us and outside of us; the souls of the departed are not physically at a distance from us; the saints, though above us by virtue and beatitude, can hear us when we pray to them. Space and therefore place has nothing in it and space is only the relation of existences to one another and simply designates the relative degrees of their respective forces. Hence, the distance of two existences from one another is not a distance of space, but a difference of their respective forces. Equalize in all respects the vis activa of each and there will be no distance, no space between them. The different orders in heaven Brownson attributes to various degrees of participation in Being, which God has as His first and formal cause. This is substantially what (Henry) claims only he speaks as an ascetic and Brownson as a philosopher or speculative theologian. Whether all souls are created equal or not, all souls do not attain to equal virtue and hence do not participate equally in beatitude. Brownson believes that (Henry's) main difficulty grows out of some remains of the old doctrine or false notions of space and from regarding it as place rather than a state. Space is the different degree in which existences spiritual or material participate in being, that is in God as first cause. And the various degrees of our virtues may be called moral space. In some sense space may be considered as being in heaven activity as well as on earth though not time because heaven admits of no change or vicissitudes. Brownson admits that these are only crude thoughts of his own reflection, not having had time to consult what the theologians say, and suggests that they will meet (Henry's) difficulties. If they should not, Brownson wishes his son to state to him wherein the difficulties lie if the house rules permit. -- He has taken a slightly active part in elections lately and favours (Abraham) Lincoln of Illinois, the Republican candidate whom Brownson claims will be the next president without much difficulty. Horace Greely and Brownson both addressed a political meeting a few evenings previous at the Port. The Democratic party is very much divided and has two candidates in the field, Douglas and Breckinridge. The Americans have Bell of Tenessee and Edward Everett for president and vice-president. The South threatens terribly, but will submit. (Henry) is urged to tell his friends in Europe to have no fear. Brownson fears that some of his friends in France are in political movements not friendly to the Imperial government and declares that he himself is no friend of the Empire or of the Imperial regime but is opposed to a new revolution in France and to any dynastic change. Only such changes, as those not detrimental to the dynasty or to the position and powers of the present Emperor as chief of the state, are favoured; nor does he wish a republic or the Bourbons. In regard to Italy, Brownson wishes matters there were permanently settled. He does not share the general distrust of the Italian people and has no fears on the score of religion should the Pope ever leave his temporal principality. The pastorals of the bishops Brownson has rejoiced in, since they prove their attachment to the papacy but they contain many things as to the temporal principality of the pope which he thinks unwarranted either by history or theology. These are matters in which his son can but take little interest just now since it is his business to sever his affections from the world and to acquire the habit of being in himself in interior communion with God. (Henry) seems happy in the Jesuits and the choice of a vocation has been a great relief on the rest. His absence left Brownson very lonely at first but he has since became reconciled and remarks that he would follow his son's example were he a young man again. He is weary of the cares and vexations of the world and finds it no easy matter to take care of his soul. (Henry) is to remember his father in his communions. He is remembered in his father's. Brownson urges (Henry) to persevere in the good that he has entered and admits that while the life may be rugged, God's grace is sufficient if relied upon. (Henry) is to fix his eye on God, to guard against melancholy and anxiety, to cultivate cheerfulness and learn to laugh at trials and difficulties; to take his crosses good humoredly, to attempt no more than he can carry through and to exercise his American habit of being in a hurry. The well-prepared workman will do more in a year than an ill-prepared one in a lifetime and God rather than the person himself is the one Who does the work. (Henry's) mother has almost completely regained her former health of a year ago and Sarah's health and temper have much improved. Ned is doing well; Orestes is working along, but is having a hard time of it; Brownson's health is passable and his spirits are good and his Review is going so, so. He has not received the Etudes de Theologie since the previous December and suspects the fault to be with F.O.A., who probably neglected attending to it. Brownson mentions the beginning of a new era in the life of the Review. All questions, not pertaining to faith or discipline from the American point of view, will be discussed. Its stand is taken and it is now live or or die. They are about to be no longer expatriated in their own country. Brownson will be a Roman Catholic but not European or Greek. (Henry) is told to write as often as he can. P.S. Father Mac Clellan late of the Church of the Transfiguration has resigned his parish to become a Jesuit. He is supposed to go to France for his novitiate and Brownson is in the hope that Mr. Runsal (?) will go with him, although he has been recently suspended for a trifle. The seminary is discontinued.

III-3-a - A.L.S. - 8pp. - 12mo. - {8}

1860 Oct. 19
Menard, Father Charles M.: Thibodaux, (Louisiana)
 to Father (Stephen Rousselon: New Orleans, Louisiana)

He has learned from Mr. Mathieu that Father (Amédee) Beccard does not worry about leaving (New Orleans) or even the state. He should not forget that he has to appear in court on the 29th. The only difficulty which he forsees is that if the jury does not unanimously condemn the guilty parties it will have a bad effect. However, he is hopeful. No one has come to retract, repudiate, or excuse himself, but, in case someone should do so by next week, he asks (Rousselon) to give him authorization to negotiate a compromise at his own discretion. Beccard should also send him two notes of authorization. The petition of the parishioners of St. Mary's for a new pastor has been commenced. P.S. He asks for a dispensation of mixed faith between Auguste Ribbeck and Marie Daigle.

VI-2-c - A.L.S. - (French) - 3pp. - 8vo. - {5}

1860 Oct. 19
Saucier, Arthur: New Orleans, (Louisiana)

License for Father (Stephen) Rousselon to marry Joseph Wilson and Marie Ellen. (Notation on back): Marie Rosa 22 months.

VI-2-c - D.S. - 2pp. - 32mo. - {2}

1860 Oct. 20
(Brownson, Orestes A.): Elizabeth, New Jersey
 to (Father John) McMullen: (Chicago, Illinois)

Brownson has received a letter dated "Episcopal Residence, Chicago, Oct. 11, 1860" and signed with Father McMullen's name, but he does not believe that McMullen could have written such an unfair criticism. The writer accuses Brownson of being un-Catholic in spirit, of claiming the right to discuss and decide questions reserved for the clergy, of giving too much importance to the natural order. Yet he does not give particulars or offer any proof. The writer does not like the article in the last number signed "G.H.". It was written by an Irishman about Ireland and Brownson thought it would be of interest to Irish subscribers. If Father McMullen wrote the letter against these articles, what is Brownson to do? Another priest has approved them. Brownson has a right to his opinion, and is not bound to obey the clergy in matters temporal. We obey the law, not the man. He does not decry the spiritual power of the Pope, but such power does not extend into the temporal field.

I-3-o - A. Drafts(2) - 27pp. - 12mo. - {3}

1860 Oct. 22
Thompson, Geo(rge) W.: Wheeling, (Virginia)
 to O(restes) A. Brownson: (Elizabeth, New Jersey)

Thompson has "lost or missent" to Brownson one half of the manuscript of an article he sent for publication in the Review. If the article will not be published, Brownson is requested to return it. If Brownson has not his manuscript will he send the copy to him?

I-3-o - A.L.S. - 1pg - 8vo - {1}

1860 Oct. 23
O'Shaughnessy, Lucy: NewPort, (Rhode Island)
 to Orestus (Orestes A.) Brownson: (Elizabeth, New Jersey)

Having secured a copy of a French book some years ago she decided to translate it. She sends two chapters and asks Brownson's opinion as to the possibilities for publishing and marketing her translation. She has always believed that if a certain class of minds believed the Gospel, they would be Catholics. She sends the book because Brownson is the best judge. The book is by a French abbe.

I-4-b - A.L.S. - 3pp - 16to - {1}

1860 Oct. 24
Maddock, John: Dubuque, Iowa
 to O(restes) A. Brownson: (Elizabeth, New Jersey)

Maddock addresses Brownson as the "champion of Romanism in the United States" saying that only ignorance or prejudice could make one ignore Brownson's powers. He is not a Catholic. Further he finds the organizations of Christianity repulsive christianity, if of divine origin should be a unit but no one can say that existing forms of christianity are uniform. He inquires about the distinctive features of Christianity, how one can discern them and who has them. He asks Brownson also concerning the doctrines of the Church against private interpretation of the Scriptures.

P.S. If Brownson finds it convenient, he asks him to indicate where he can get this information.

I-3-o - A.L.S. - 2pp. - quarto - {1}

1860 Oct. 25
Menard, Father Charles M.: Thibodaux, (Louisiana)
 to Father (Stephen Rousselon: New Orleans, Louisiana)

He has been visited by the defense attorney, L. Bush, who came to speak about the possibility of settling the affair in question. Both Bush and the prosecuting attorney are working together to stop the suit. Father (Amédée) Beccard must not fail to show up for the trial next Saturday as his absence would have a very bad effect. (Rousselon) should advise Beccard to act with prudence and not to talk too much. The affair is more delicate than he thinks.

VI-2-c - A.L.S. - (French) - 2pp. - 8vo. - {3}

1860 Oct. 25
O'Connor, Father John B.: Philadelphia, (Pennsylvania)
 to Bishop Peter Paul Lefevere: (Detroit, Michigan)

O'Connor asks admission to the Detroit Diocese with the consent of the Bishop of Philadelphia. If affiliated, O'Connor promises to be faithful in all things; he is young and willing. He is staying at St. Patrick's with Father W(illiam) O'Hara since he left Cleveland.

III-2-j - A.L.S. - 2pp. - 12mo. - {3}

1860 Oct. 26
Hofman, Father P.: Antwerp, (Blegium)
 to Archbishop John Baptist Purcell:

The news that Bishop (Amadeus) Rappe gave them of Purcell's health caused great joy. He assured them the happiness of seeing Purcell in Europe in 1861. Rappe will have told Purcell of the news of the family Van Aerden. Rappe wished to honor Hofman with the title of honorary vicar-general of his diocese. He would have declined the honor if Rappe had not spoken to the Cardinal of Malines. He implores Purcell's assistance in the affair of his young cousin, a jeweller, who wishes to go to America to seek his fortune and to help the business of Charles Van Aerden. He thinks New York is too big and dangerous for him, so he suggested Cincinnati. He asks Purcell for information. Van Aerden and his children are well.

Van Aerden, Charles: Antwerp, (Belgium)
 to Archbishop John Baptist Purcell: of Cincinnati, Ohio

His wife and children enjoy perfect health. His daughters Caroline and Maria have finished their education and work in his store. His son Andre is at the seminary of Malines. His second son Charles has started the 6th form in Latin. He takes the liberty to recommend the young nephew of Hofman. One can have the greatest confidence in him. If Purcell can find means to place him, he will find nothing to complain of in the young man.

II-5-a - A.L.S. - (French) - 4pp. - 12mo. - {3}

1860 Oct. 29
(Duggan), James, Bishop of: Chicago, (Illinois)
 to Archbishop (John Baptist Purcell): Cincinnati, (Ohio)

Father (E.) McMahon, formerly under Purcell's jurisdiction, desires to be received into the diocese of Chicago. His exeat has a narration. Duggan desires the truth regarding him since he cannot afford to make experiments. He hopes to visit Purcell before long. He first intends to visit the parts of his domain never before visited by a mitre. Duggan sends his regards to Father Edward Purcell.

II-5-a - A.L.S. - 2pp. - 12mo. - {2}

(186-) Oct. 29
Dubreul, S.S., Father J(osep)h Paul: Baltimore, (Maryland)
 to Bishop (Francis P.) McFarland of Hartford: Providence, Rhode Island

Dubreul has not yet answered McFarland's letter concerning Walsh, who had accepted a situation in some college in Canada and left the next day. Following McFarland's suggestion Dubreul observed Walsh closely and found him very critical of rules, professors, and management. He advised Walsh to weigh the matter and to think of his mother's needs. Lest he become a malcontent Dubreul consented to his leaving. His conduct has been regular and his successes medium. His vocation will be tested in his new situation. Kesseler is with them and Sheridan has arrived.

I-1-a - A.L.S. - 3pp. - 8vo. - {2}

1860 Oct. 30
Conlan, Father Ja(me)s: Cleveland, (Ohio)
 to Bishop (Peter Paul Lefevere): Detroit, (Michigan)

Conlan is grieved he cannot give a very favorable account of Father J(ohn B.) O'Connor. O'Connor was received into Cleveland diocese by Bishop (Amadeus) Rappe after being dismissed by the Bishop of Pittsburgh, (Michael O'Connor), by whom he was ordained. He began to relapse into his old habit of drinking. Lefevere might place O'Connor with a well-tried priest; it would be a great charity to do so. In other respects O'Connor is a very amiable person.

III-2-j - A.L.S. - 1p. - 12mo. - {4}

1860 Oct. 30
(Duggan), Bishop James: Chicago, (Illinois)
 to Father (Stephen) Rousselon: N(ew) Orleans, (Louisiana)

He received Rousselon's letter upon his return from an absense of several weeks employed in visiting the diocese. (William?) Welsh had begged him to take his money, something which he almost never does, promising to leave it in his hands from several months at least. Welsh also gave him the address of his parents fearing that some accident might befall him. However, he will send it to Rousselon when Welsh sends him the certificate which he had given him or when Rousselon informs him that he already possesses it.

VI-2-c - A.L.S. - (French) - 2pp. - 12mo. - {2}

1860 October 30
Maturin, Edmund: Halifax, Nova Scotia
 to (Orestes A.) Brownson: (Elizabeth, New Jersey)

Brownson will probably remember his name and some letters he published since his entrance into the Church. Maturin asks if Brownson knows of any teaching position now vacant. He is teaching at St. Mary's College in Halifax but finds the salary too small for himself and his family. He tried to get a position in Ireland through Archbishop Cullen but did not succeed. He feels he could do Library work or serve as secretary in a public institution.

I-3-o - A.L.S. - 3pp. - 16mo - {1}

1860 Oct. 31
Menard, Father C(harle)s M.: Thibodaux, (Louisiana)
 to Father (Stephen Rousselon: New Orleans, Louisiana)

It was impossible to obtain either an excuse or a retraction on the part of the authors of the attack on Father (Amédée) Beccard. As a result the affair was taken into court on Monday and ended last evening. The grand jury declared that there was not sufficient matter for prosecution. Beccard remains therefore duly tarred and feathered. The parties are satisfied. In two or three days he will send the details of the sad affair.

VI-2-c - A.L.S. - (French) - 1p. - 8vo. - {2}