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1866 Oct.
(Odin, John Mary, Archbishop of: New Orleans, Louisiana)

Odin's address to the Baltimore Second Plenary Council on "Sacerdotal Zeal."

VI-2-l - Printed Leaflet - (Latin) - 5pp. - 8vo. - {1}


1866 Oct. 1
Cronin, Daniel: Detroit, (Michigan)
 to Bishop P(eter) P(aul) Lefev(e)re: (Detroit, Michigan)

Cronin regrets their meeting this evening was not more pleasant on both sides. Cronin refuses to be a member of Trinity parish after nine years, eight of which he has not entered that church. He now asks to be permitted to join St. Patrick's or the Cathedral parish to which he once belonged, or St. Ann's. As long as Father F. J. Peters is pastor of Trinity or his house-keeper the chief manager of the church, Cronin will not belong to the parish. If Lefevere, who is leaving, gives permission, Father P(eter) Hennaert can inform Cronin. Otherwise, Cronin will lay the matter before Bishop (John Baptist) Purcell and also Archbishop of Baltimore (Martin John Spalding) as all the bishops of the States are to meet there this month. If no notice is taken of his letter, Cronin shall send his letter to Rome through the American Minister there.

III-2-k - A.L.S. - 3pp. - 12mo. - {4}


1866 Oct. 1
Garcia Pelaez, Francisco de Paula, Archbishop of: Guatemala City, Guatemala
 to Archbishop (John Mary Odin, C.M.): New Orleans, (Louisiana)

Marriage is proposed between Maria a Doloribus, daughter of Francisco Pineda of Spain, and Aloysius Meany of Guatemala who has traveled twenty years in northern regions such as Mexico. The daughter Maria was born in New Orleans in May 1845 or 46 but in what parish she was baptized is not known. Since the parents cannot provide proof of this baptism the Archbishop asks the Archbishop of New Orleans to help supply the information in the proper form.

VI-2-l - L.S. Sealed - (Latin) - 2pp. - folio - {3}


1866 Oct. 3
Seton, Elizabeth: Cragdon, (New York)
 to Father (Robert Seton: Rome, Italy)

She received his letter of September 4; Will(iam Seton 4) has forestalled her as usual by writing last week. When this reaches (Robert) he will already be at his studies after those sweet rambles at Tivoli. They all laughed heartily at his indignation at finding the "Caxtons" in such good company. She has been reading travels. She agrees with him about female novelists with some few exceptions. They have lately had a pleasant acquisition to their circle of friends in Guy Henry and his wife, stationed at Fort Schuyler. He is a cousin of theirs in a remote degree, being descended from Peggy, (Margaret Seton), wife of the forever-in-debt Andrew (Seton) of whom they see so frequent mention in the old letters. Their father (William Seton 3) and Elise sailed to the fort today and were heartily welcomed. Does (Robert) remember the day he and Elise and Harriet Ogden dined with the officers? Mount Vernon, (New York) has been enlivened by a concert given for their church by a party of amateurs, she and Nell (HelenSeton) included. Father (J.) Kinsella has made probably $500 by it. Harry (Seton) has paid them a couple of short visits and is still at Fort Niagara though he expects soon to remove to Buffalo. He likes his profession very much. Emilie (Seton)'s garden has kept the parlours filled with flowers, also providing for the church. Lilian Griffin is engaged to be married to a Mr. Guliger, a Protestant and no money. Little Charlie was there today. Tomorrow Elise and Nell go to town to hear Jefferson in Rip Van Winkle and Ristori in Elizabeth. Agnes Poole and her brother William (Poole) leave for the South on Saturday; she speaks as if he had thought of joining the Paulist Fathers. Will and Mr. Booth went to the races at Fordham. Their father sailed to the fort again and spent the day there (October 6). He was unable to return in the "Ivy", the boom and bowsprit having given way. Guy sent him home in an ambulance. He had only Jimmy Kane with him.

II-1-a - A.L.S. - 4pp. - 4to. - {16}


1866 Oct. 4
Brownson, O(restes) A.: Eliz(abeth,) N(ew) J(ersey)
 to Rev. E.M. O'Callaghan: Youngstown, Ohio

Brownson has forgotten the precise statement he wrote on the question: "Can there be a gradual return of a mortal sinner to God by a partial remission of his guilt?", and "Is it compatible with the sanctity of God to forgive on attrition and confession?". Brownson recalls that he answered the questions negatively, stressing that both the contrition and remission must be complete or else God will not forgive. Brownson believes he has answered thusly in a former letter to him. Brownson's reasons are that forgiveness on the part of God is intrinsic; this is possible only if all mortal sins are confessed. Brownson refers to the illustration given of one's fifth sin, and explains that remission of the fifth sin is incognosable because of four previous existing mortal sins. One is as far from being grateful to God as ever in such a case. The number of mortal sins is insignificant concerning one's being in the state of grace. To remove one from that state only one sin is necessary. A difference in punishment is to be expected regarding the number of offenses. Brownson cannot understand any such thing as partial remission. Remission must be complete or none at all. If he is repeating what he wrote in a previous letter, Brownson wishes to be pardoned. Should any further doubts linger in O'Callaghan's mind, Brownson wishes him to state the difficulties outright.

I-4-c - A.L.S. - 3pp. - 8vo. - {1}


1866 Oct. 4
Dahlgren, (Mrs.) Madeleine Vinton: Washington, (D.C.)
 to (Orestes A.) Brownson: (Elizabeth, New Jersey)

Mrs. Dahlgren received Brownson's congratulatory message through Mrs. Gerdes, after her marriage to Admiral Dahlgren a year ago. Both Admiral and Mrs. Dahlgren would like to meet Brownson. On September 15, twins, a boy and a girl, were born to the Dahlgrens. Since then, Mrs. Dahlgren has been confined to her bed. The babies are healthy; the girl is very delicate. Both Orestes Brownson and his wife were represented at baptism by proxy. Mrs. Dahlgren trusts that the Brownson won't object to this. The twins' names are Eric and Ulrica Mary. The choice of the Brownsons as god-parents is a symbol with which Mrs. Dahlgren regards the Brownsons. Mrs. Dahlgren hopes her children will emmulate the god-parents.

I-4-c - A.L.S. - 4pp. - 12mo. - {1}


1866 Oct. 6
Brownson, O(restes) A.: Eliz(abeth), N(ew) J(ersey)
 to (George) Bancroft: (New York, New York)

Brownson has read volumes I and II of the History of the Revolution by Bancroft. If the Review were existent he would make amends in it for the unjust remarks on the work. Brownson finds the work marked by the "assertion of the deepest Catholic principles," and conclusions which have never been equaled by any historian in the past. Brownson does not know what Caesare Cantu means by saying that Bancroft, Irving, and Prescott have shown a precocity of historical genius. Bancroft's remarks on the Gallican Church are just, but Brownson also believes that there is undue praise to the Jesuits. The principle which Bancroft claims the Jesuits asserted was leveled at the Court of France by Pope Clement XIII, according to Brownson. The five Provincials of France formally allowed it, and offered to accept the four articles of the Assembly of the Gallican Clergy in 1682. Since the time of Aquaviva, their fourth general, the Jesuits have been harmful to the Church. Brownson considers them to be "the real oscurantists". Bancroft's ascription of liberty to Protestantism, and a lack of such to Catholicism is denied by Brownson. The Puritans fell back on Catholic principles in their revolt against the English government. Brownson says that the Catholic writers at the time of the Ligue asserted not only the sovereignty of the nation as against the king, but almost assert pure democracy. Brownson has found no Catholic writer defending absolute monarchy prior to Bossuet, in his politics of the Bible, written for the Dauphin. Brownson quotes St. Thomas and St. Augustine in this regard, also Pope Gregory the Great, on the question of popular liberty. There is a confounding of the liberty of the feudal nobility with the freedom of the people. The Church was never sympathetic towards feudalism, but the Popes have been toward monarchy. Catholics, today, are partial to monarchy, and this is due mainly to the fright they received during the French Revolution, and that the movement for popular liberty has been associated with anti-Christian philosophy. Brownson agrees substantially with Bancroft. Brownson gives his definition of "people". Bancroft's work has tended to confirm many of Brownson's views, and has given him a new view of "my countrymen". P.S. He asks if Bancroft can send him the passage from Hooke alleged to be from Suarez, Brownson has forgotten it.

I-4-c - A.L.S. - 4pp. - 8vo. - {1}


1866 Oct. 8
Vall(andigham), C(lement) L.: Dayton, Ohio
 to James Alphonsus McMaster: (New York, New York)

Vall(andigham) has made a speech in Butler County, which was reported in the Cincinnati Commercial. Part of it was r:eported roughly and he is sending a corrected copy which McMaster can use as he sees fit. He feels that McMaster will agree, at least in part, with his speech. He feels the time is now come to begin, at least to strike for our Democracy. He feels that the editor has done and is doing his duty, at least.

I-1-n - A.L.S. - 1p. - 12mo. - {1}


(1866) Oct. 9
Malone, Father S(ylvester):
Kilkee, Co. Clare, Ireland
 to Archbishop J(ohn) B(aptist) Purcell: of Cincinnati, (Ohio)

He encloses copy of a Church history of Ireland which he hopes to have published in a few months. Reports received from Ecclesiastics and laity have urged him to the conclusion that Purcell cannot be indifferent to the history of the old Church, and will become a subscriber, in which event his name would be published with those of some 20 prelates who have honored him by their subscriptions.

II-5-c - A.L.S. - 3pp. - 12mo. - {1}


(1866) Oct. 10
Dahlgren, (Mrs.) M(adeleine) V(inton): Washington, (D.C.)
 to (Orestes A.) Brownson: (Elizabeth, New Jersey)

Mrs. Dahlgren remarks that the coincidence that Brownson mentioned in regard to the twins is indeed remarkable. She hopes that Providence will spare her baby as it did Brownson's and Brownson's sisters. She has had a cruel blow to suffer, her husband has been ordered to take charge of the South Pacific Squadron. She has little physical strength to bear this pain now. If her husband will consent she will move to a place where she can see him from time to time. She believes that ordering her husband out to service is unjust because other Admirals have not seen duty recently whereas Admiral Dahlgren served the term during the blockade off the coast of Charleston. He was ordered to a shore station, but (Gideon) Welles has his reason for this act of tyranny. The Admiral wrote a memoir of his son, Colonel Ulric Dahlgren, and he wished to place the manuscript in the hands of a publisher before he leaves on December 1. Between then and now he has a multiplicity of things to do, yet he wishes to have the memory of his son preserved in a fitting manner. He dares not trust his judgment entirely as to what he has written———————-

I-4-c - A.L.(Incomplete) - 4pp. - 12mo. - {3}


1866 Oct. 10
Keane, William Bishop of Cloyne: Queenstown, (Ireland)
 to Archbishop (John Baptist) Purcell: Cincinnati, Ohio

Mr. (John Francis) Maguire, Member of Parliament for Cork, visits the United States for the purpose of collection material for a work on the Irish in America. As a Catholic he has the strongest claims to personal respect. His speeches on Catholic subjects in the House of Common are documents to be read and studied. Keane thanks Purcell for any information he may give Maguire.

II-5-c - A.L.S. - 3pp. - 12mo. - {2}


1866 Oct. 13
Kraemer, Father J.: Niederlauterbach, (France)
 to Archbishop (John Mary Odin, C.M.: New Orleans, Louisiana)

About 10 months ago before leaving the Benedictine Monastery of St. Vincent, Father Kauder offered him a letter of recommendation to (Odin). Kraemer regrets that he did not immediately follow his advice. Kraemer was born in 1824 and ordained in 1848. After 5 years as an assistant he went to the United States. In 1864 he thought he should enter a religious order. But at the end of a year the Chapter did not receive him without telling him why. He returned to France where he does not have enough to do; his heart is in America. Kauder could give (Odin) all the information he wishes.

VI-2-l - A.L.S. - (French) - 4pp. - 12mo. - {2}


1866 Oct. 14
Brownson, O(restes) A.: Elizabeth, (New Jersey)
 to George Bancroft: New York, (New York)

Brownson says that Bancroft can send volume IX to him in care of (Lawrence) Kehoe at the office of the "Catholic World". He asks Bancroft to send volumes VII and VIII, as he has the first six but is too poor to buy the VII and VIII. Brownson will read what Bancroft says of Nationality with great interest. It is idle to attempt at this late date to found nationality an identity of blood or race. Brownson's book has fallen nearly dead from the press, yet he cannot persuade himself that it is without merit. Brownson does not suppose that Bancroft will agree with all the views in it, but he cannot believe that Bancroft will fail to trace in it same independence of thought, as well as long and earnest study of the problems discussed. It is written from the point of view of Catholic theology, but in no sectarian way. Brownson has not heard any opinions of his work, he wishes that Bancroft would tell him what he thinks of it; Bancroft is one of the few people competent to judge it. If Bancroft agrees with Ripley that the book has no value, "save as a psychological curiosity" Brownson wishes that he would say so. Brownson would like to see Bancroft's wife once more before he dies; he would visit Bancroft but his coat is too old to do so. He restricts his visits to a few members of the clergy, and it is seldom that his gout permits him to leave home Brownson inferred from one of Bancroft's addresses that the war had taken a loved one from him as it did from Brownson. Patriotism is exacting.

I-4-h - A.L.S.(Photostat, Mass. History Society) - 3pp. - 12mo. - {1}


1866 Oct. 14
Brownson, O(restes) A.: (Elizabeth, New Jersey)
 to Maj(or) H.F. Brownson: 3rd U.S. Artillery

Brownson has waited to get the election results before writing his son. He is happy to know of (Henry's) good health and is convinced that the salt water and salt air in a cold climate will be necessary to (Henry) for some years. Brownson is dissatisfied with the climate where he lives and finds himself in a disgusting lassitude as a result of it. It provokes the use of stimulants, and at the same time renders them hurtful. The same climate exixts in New York and along the coast from New Haven to the Rio Grande and to some extent through the interior of the western and southwestern states. The finest and healthiest parts of the country are the upland sections of the states lately in rebellion as well as the states and territories on the western slope of the Rocky mountains in addition to the New England States. Old Tom Wally, who had travelled over the globe, always insisted that Boston had the best climate of any city in the world although he did not pretend that Massachusetts has the best soil. Brownson is pleased that (Henry) has furnished his quarters so well and so inexpensively and hopes to enjoy them with him either at Fort Warren or Fort Independence. He hopes to visit his son in the Spring despite his recent attack of illness which left him too lame to walk much. The elections have gone to the Republicans thus far and the constitutional amendments will undoubtedly be ratified. Brownson greatly dislikes the financial and tariff policy of congress and its dealings with the army but wishes it to be sustained supreme and the government to grow into an erective monarchy. It is doubtful whether the President has done anything for which he could be impeached and it is just as doubtful that Congress would support such a move. Butler's Cincinnati speech will do him no credit. He shows too plainly his spite against Grant and the Army and cannot damage Grant in the country at large. His own military record is not half enough for that and neither the regular army not the Boys in Blue will take him as a representative military man. Grant's popularity overshadows Butler's administrative and oratorical abilities. Brownson thinks that the Army will be sustained and placed on a popular footing as soon as reconstruction takes place and the union fairly restored. The President's (Andrew Johnson) pilgrimage to the tomb of Douglas has hurt him and Raymond has returned to the ranks of the Republicans. Henceforth men who love their country will oppose all duties on imports except for revenue purpose, seek to modify the national bank system and to convince the people to rely on a regular army rather than a volunteer militia. Brownson would have the regular army increased to a hundred anf fifty thousand men, containing the cadre for three hundred thousand. He doubts the withdrawal of French troops from Mexico and considers the key to the recent events to be Napoleon's desire to prevent the union of Germany and Austria with her non-Germanic provinces and to prepare alliances which will prevent Russia's advance southwards as well as to settle the Eastern question and sustain the Turks to allay the fears of Great Britain for the Indian Empire. Perhaps the Emperor also wishes to guard against the influences on Europe of the great and growing American Republic. Thus far his policy has been successful but his spinal affliction and kidney disease may prevent the health and peace he needs to consolidate it. Brownson's article on Imperial Policy had been written for the Catholic World before Lavallette's Imperial Circular appeared in this country and is significant inasmuch as it proves that Brownson had correctly sized up the Imperial Policy. (Henry) is cautioned not to believe that Napoleon has been defeated or disappointed but has intentionally abandoned Henry IV's policy of suffering no great power on the frontiers of France. Fathers Howell and David will soon be leaving and as yet the Bishop has made no appointments while they are still in the parish. Brownson expects the Council to come out strongly for the Temporal Sovereignty now that it is lost. He does not think that the Holy Father is in any danger of being disturbed and presumes matters will go on the same until the present Pope dies and a new one is elected. The matter will then be settled amicably but not so advantageously as it might have been in 1860. The press is certain that Maximilian will abdicate but Brownson looks for him to maintain himself on the Mexican throne, a wise move in case he is abandoned by France. The Liberals are fighting each other in Mexico but Maximilian seems to have the strongest party and the majority of the people. He holds the smallest but most thickly populated Mexican territories. Genianism is on the way and Brownson hopes that the nigger question will soon be settled.

III-3-a - A.L.S. - 4pp. - 8vo. - {3}


1866 Oct. 14
Chatard, Father S(ilas) M.: Genzano, (Italy)
 to Archbishop J(ohn) B(aptist) Purcell: of Cincinnati, (Ohio)

Today's mail brought Purcell's letter containing the bill of exchange. They were agreeably surprised at the arrival of the telegram from the Prelates. They are praying for the success of the Council. No doubt Purcell has heard of the terrible insurrection in Sicily. Large bodies of Victor Emmanuel's troops have been collected at the frontiers of Rome to prevent brigandage. Some assert that the French will not abandon the states of the church. Byrne, Cusack, Ullrick, and Geyer are well. Chatard is rejoiced to hear that vocations are becoming more numerous.

II-5-c - A.L.S. - 4pp. - 12mo. - {1}


1866 Oct. 14
Lévèque, R.S.C., Madame E(velina): Paris, (France)
 to Archbishop (John Mary Odin, C.M.: New Orleans, Louisiana)

She asks (Odin) to forward a letter to the Sisters of the Good Shepherd. It is (from?) the sister of their Superior who has just died at New Orleans, who is a religious in their house and learned of this misfortune from the Angers house. She has few details and writes to the Sister of the Good Shepherd for news. Lévèque thanks (Odin) for the news he gives her about her family and especially because of his attention to her brother. The family whom (Odin) recommended to her has not yet arrived. Mrs. Shieff who brought the letter said the trip had been put off until later.

VI-2-l - A.L.S. - (French) - 3pp. - 12mo. - {3}


1866 Oct. 14
Smith, A. Harvey: Rochester, N(ew) Y(ork)
 to Bishop P(eter) P(aul) Lefevere: Baltimore, M(arylan)d

Dr. Smith is on his way to California with his wife, Punch, and Bob. When Smith returned from his Canada visit, he called on Lefevere who had gone away. Father (Peter) Hennaert informs him that Lefevere is not so well, and Smith recommends Dr. Book as soon as Lefevere returns. Smith has Father Hennaert's letter of introduction to Bishop J(oseph) Sadoc Alemany (O.S.D.). In leaving Detroit, Smith is leaving many friends, particularly the clergy of the Cathedral but more expecially Lefevere, whose "kindly conversation, jolly jokes and happy laugh" will always accompany him. Smith "never had a friend whom by nature I loved so dearly." P.S. He sails, with his wife, Punch, on the Steamer "Henry Chauncy."

III-2-k - A.L.S. - 4pp. - 12mo. - {2}


1866 Oct. 15
De Neve, Father J(ohn): Louvain, (Belgium)
 to Bishop P(eter) P(aul) Lefevere: Detroit, Mich(igan)

Before complying with Lefevere's request of September 21, De Neve feels duty bound to inform him that (James) Pulcher and (F.) O'Flanagan have not finished theology, and are unprepared to start parochial duties. Therefore he will keep them at (The American College at) Louvain until further orders. De Neve will always comply with his superiors' wishes, but if asked, would not hesitate to express his opinion; he would sooner leave the people without a priest than to give them one who is unprepared.

III-2-k - A.L.S. - 3pp. - 12mo. - {4}


1866 Oct. 15
Jeckel, Father Bernard M(ari)e: Mexico
 to Archbishop (John Mary Odin, C.M.: New Orleans, Louisiana)

Jeckel is very grateful to (Odin) for confiding to him, at least for a time, the parish of Holy Trinity. It has made him think of the responsibility but with the advice of the excellent Father (J.B.?) Duffy and others, he hopes to satisfy. He will return to New Orleans later, in a month, because he must finish some art work begun in Mexico and in the meantime he is still working on plans for the new church of (St. Joseph) to be erected in New Orleans and commissioned by Father (John) Hayden, (C.M.).

VI-2-l - A.L.S. - (Italian) - 2pp. - 8vo. - {4}


1866 Oct. 16
Bancroft, Geo(rge): New York (City)
 to (Orestes A.) Brownson: (Elizabeth, New Jersey)

Volume IX for Brownson was received yesterday. It will be left at 145 Nassau St. this morning. Volumes VII and VIII shall soon follow. Brownson is told not to fear that "the seed in your book will not germinate". In last saturday's "Times" Bancroft's book is cited as being the true solution of the question of nationality. He feels that both he and Brownson substantially agree. Political History is daily becoming more a history of ideas. Brownson will be accounted among the earliest of those who have shown the dependence of mind and fact. P.S. They will always be glad to see Brownson.

I-4-c - A.L.S. - 4pp. - 24mo; - {1}


1866 Oct. 16
Dahlgren, (Mrs.) Madeleine Vinton: Washington, (D.C.)
 to (Orestes A.) Brownson: (Elizabeth, New Jersey)

Mrs. Dahlgren has received Brownson's favor, and is sending the manuscript memoir of Ulric by the Adams Express. Her husband is away from Washington, otherwise he would thank Brownson for the latter's goodness. The Admiral (Dahlgren) will remain in Washington until November 20. She supposes that the Admiral will try to get his manuscript in press before then. He awaits Brownson's criticism. Brownson's god-children are doing well. They are one month old yesterday. Vinton has gone to New Haven to seek admission to Yale. She supposes she will shock the "old Fogy Catholics" by sending her son to "a Protestant College", but they in turn have so long shocked her that her answer is "en revanche". She believes her son to be well-grounded in his Faith. The Jesuits may have her son when they can form Americans of the XIX Century, and not before.

I-4-c - A.L.S. - 4pp. - 12mo. - {1}


1866 Oct. 16
(Rappe), A(madeus), Bishop of Cleveland: Cleveland, (Ohio)
 to Archbishop (John Baptist Purcell): of (Cincinnati, Ohio)

He signed the petition addressed to the Propaganda because he does not like to be forced to fulfil such a ceremony in a Protestant cemetery. He will hasten to send to Rome his opinion on the candidates mentioned in Purcell's letter.

II-5-c - A.L.S. - (French) - 1p. - 12mo. - {1}


1866 Oct. 17
Masnou, C.M., Father (John M.): Mexico
 to Archbishop (John Mary Odin, C.M.: New Orleans, Louisiana)

He writes to ask a favor for a French priest, Father Renauld, living in Mexico about two months, where he came with the hope of establishing a French parish. The Archbishop not being able to give him a church with all the freedom he wishes, Renauld is discouraged. He wishes to leave Mexico and go to New Orleans if he could be sure that (Odin) would give him a place. He is well educated, aged 45, and his conduct is good. Masnou does not know what is going to become of them in Mexico; he fears the empire will soon fall. He would not be surprised if they were obliged to take the road to New Orleans.

VI-2-l - A.L.S. - (French) - 1p. - 12mo. - {3}


1866 Oct. 17
Smarius, S.J., Father C.F.:
St. Xavier College, New York, New York
 to James (Alphonsus) McMaster: (New York, New York)

He wishes to see McMaster, but cannot spare the time, as he is busy with a student retreat at St. Xavier College. He suggests that McMaster, whose career as a journalist he admires, drop in to see him. He will next go to Fr. Senez, in Jersey City to renew last year's mission. He has just finished in St. James' Newark, where they had 6,000 communions and nine converts. He comments on the beauty of the new church erected by Fr. Gervais, which is in one of the poorest wards in Newark. He asks McMaster to remind the eastern clergy in his own name that he is in New York, and that if they desire missions in their churches, they can reach him at St. Mary's Church, Jersey City, N. J. in care of Father Senez.

I-1-n - A.L.S. - 3pp. - 12mo. - {1}


1866 Oct. 21
O(restes) A. Brownson: Elizabeth, (New Jersey)
 to George Bancroft: Elizabeth, New Jersey

Brownson received from the writer Vol. IX of the latter's history and finds it very soothing to Brownson's inner-self. It corrects the doctor's points of view on some of the early American historical facts. The style of Bancroft is a great advance over his previous volumes. Brownson has not seen the notice in the "Times" to which Bancroft refers. Brownson "is at a loss to imagine what view on nationality of mine can have set over against any view of yours." Both derive political sovereignty from God through the people, both hold that God is the source of all existence, rights, and power. Nationality is territorial, and every people fixed to a given territory is a sovereign nation and has under God the right to determine its own political constitution and to govern itself according to its own judgement. Brownson rejects Hobbes' theory of state of nature and Rousseau's theory on the origin of civil society. "I maintain that nations are founded, providentially created and constituted by historical causes. The new nation is not a new or self creation but a providential development, hence it grows out of the past whether or not the United States were always one sovereign people and united by a league is a question that would come up when Bancroft treats of the Federal Constitution. Bancroft holds that the men who drew up the articles of confederation held the state sovereignty theory. Brownson believes the critic of the Times misunderstood one or the other, also the writer is troubled with Bancroft's expression "nationality can neither be imparted or taken away." Brownson regrets to be found differing on fundamental political questions with Bancroft. Brownson thought for a while that Bancroft leaned toward Humanitarianism and at the time Brownson whole-heartedly denounced such and that is why the latter severly criticized Bancroft, and sincerely believes his suspicion was unfounded. If Brownson can persuade Father Hecker to allow him to write a review of it for the "Catholic World", he will do so, also Brownson asks pardon for his egotism of this long letter.

I-4-c - A.L.S. (first draft) - 4pp. - 8vo. - {2}


1866 Oct. 22
Brownson, O(restes) A.: Elizabeth, New Jersey
 to (George) Bancroft: (New York, New York)

Brownson thanks Bancroft for Volume IX of his History and has read the greater part of it with pleasure and satisfaction. Since reading the History, new light has been thrown on passages of our history which corrects in many important aspects the judgment of men and things which Brownson previously formed. The style is far in advance of earlier volumes. He has not as yet seen the article in the Times but "I am at a loss to conceive what view of nationality I have taken that can be set over against any view of yours". Brownson believes that he and Bancroft agree. The writer believes both derive sovereignty from God through the people. Brownson believes that Bancroft recognizes God as the original source of all existence, right, justice and power. By the sovereign people, Brownson understands, that they are organic people attached to a given territory as their domain and it is this organic people which Brownson terms a sovereign independent nation. Brownson makes it clear that the aim of his book was to be in opposition with Hobbes and Rousseau who maintain that the state orginates in man's social nature and derives its right not from the consent of individual, or the surrender of the right of individuals, but under God from society itself. "There is no society without individuals, but there are no individuals without society."

I-4-c - A.L. (Incomplete first draft) - 2pp. - 8vo. - {1}


(1866) (Oct. 22)
(Brownson, Orestes A.): (Elizabeth, New Jersey)
 to (George) Bancroft:

Brownson has received and read Volume 7 and 8 and has finished Volume 9 of Bancroft's History since he has seen Bancroft. Brownson only wishes he had a review at his command so that he could make amends for a former unjust and uncalled for criticism of the work. Brownson would like to have on record a testimony of his regret. If Bancroft will read Chapters 8 and 9 of Brownson's book, he will find Brownson's view coincides with his. Brownson holds the political people to be the people attached to a given territory and holds the right to govern to the territorial and not personal because the people may change and the territorial sovereignty remains. The hint for Brownson's distinction between civilization and barbarianism was given by Guizot. Bancroft's remarks in Volume 9 in the chapter on confederation proves that he holds the same as (James) Madison and (Daniel) Webster in regard to the unity of the American people but not as they did in holding that unity is of conventional origin. Bancroft describes the process by which that unity began to come into distinct consciousness.

I-4-c - A.L. (partial draft) - 2pp. - 8vo. - {1}


1866 Oct. 22
Figari, Father Hector: Santo Domingo
 to Archbishop (John Mary Odin, C.M.: New Orleans, Louisiana)

Figari has written several letters but never received an answer. He received two letters from P(hilip) Rotchford from Ireland. He tells that he is "broken" but can give Figari 50 pounds. Figari sees by the papers that there have been serious troubles in New Orleans some nonths ago but has not learned what it was about. Since the Spaniards left, this country is in a continual revolution. Money is scarce. Figari has one of the best parishes called Nuestra Senora de Altagracia. He would like to get his boxes if (Odin) could arrange to send them by way of Havana or San Tomas. He hears that Mrs. Louisa J. Sparhawk has them in New Orleans. Figari would like news of Bishop Martin and all news of interest. P.S. He sends the letter by a person leaving for the capital at this moment.

VI-2-l - A.L.S. - 2pp. - 4to. - {3}


1866 Oct. 22
Lamblot, Father A.: Bordeaux, (France)
 to Archbishop (John Mary Odin, C.M.: New Orleans, Louisiana)

Lamblot and (Odin) are compatriots as he is a native of Roanne and has been in the diocese of Bordeaux for 25 years. He has known for a long time an honorable family of Bordeaux who are soon to leave France and go to (Odin)'s city. He recommends them to (Odin). Mr. Longis will present this letter.

VI-2-l - A.L.S. - (French) - 1p. - folio - {2}


1866 Oct. 23
Brownson, O(restes) A.: Elizabeth, (New Jersey)
 to George Bancroft: New York, (New York)

Brownson read volume IX of Bancroft's history with great pleasure. It has thrown new and unexpected light upon even those parts of American history Brownson thought himself acquainted with. Brownson has not seen the critique in the "Times" but he cannot imagine what opinion of his either on nationality in general, or American nationality in particular can be set against any opinion expressed by Bancroft. Brownson's aim was to show that the organic people, or people attached to a given territory as its domain and having a public life of their own, are, in the modern civilized sense of term, a nation. And that a nation is providentially constituted, that is, by the operation of historical cause and events, not made and constituted by its own act in convention. With this Bancroft agrees. The people must exist as a nation before they can perform a national act. A new nation is not a new creation but a providential development of a preexisting germ, its unwritten constitution is determined by the historical causes which developed it, and from this must come its written constitution and laws. As regards the United States, Brownson and Bancroft believe that the American nationality grows out of the past, and what proceeded the Declaration of Independence, and the nationality is in the States united, not individually. In their papers on the subject, Bancroft states that the statesmen of the time placed nationality in the states severally while the popular instincts always meant one nationality. The people were wiser than the statesmen. Brownson maintains that the people were so simply because they were providentially a nation already, and bent upon preserving this national life. Hence, the Articles of Confederation, a work of the statesmen, not the nation, that is, the people, failed and hence, also, secession failed. When Bancroft comes to the Convention of 1787 he will have an opportunity to treat more formally the question Brownson discussed in his book, and with historical aids Brownson lacked. Brownson does not apprehend any substantial difference between himself and Bancroft. If Father Hecker will permit Brownson, he will review Bancroft's book in the "Catholic World" and make atonement for having prejudiced many Catholics against Bancroft's great American work.

I-4-h - A.L.S. (Photostat Mass. History Society) - 3pp. - 8vo. - {1}


1866 Oct. 26
Dénecé, Father J(ohn) M(ary) J(osep)h: Petit Caillou, (Louisiana)
 to Archbishop J(ohn Mary Odin, C.M.: New Orleans, Louisiana)

Since his house is far from finished it is impossible for Dénecé to come to see (Odin) before the end of November. The 20 intentions can be sent by the bearer of this note. If possible (Odin) could and 20 more as he receives none here. The cotton crop is good but the price is 7 and they want 10. The lack of money has prevented him from going ahead with the subscription at bayou Terrebone to build a larger chapel. He hopes to finish it before he goes to the city.

VI-2-l - A.L.S. - (French) - 2pp. - folio - {2}


1866 Oct. 27
Kehoe, L(awrence): New York (City)
 to (Orestes A. Brownson): (Elizabeth, New Jersey)

Kehoe introduces a Mr. Farrelly of Jersey City who wishes to engage Brownson to lecture before a Society to which Farrelly belongs. Mr. Farrelly will explain all the details to Brownson.

I-4-c - A.L.S. - 1pg. - 12mo. - {2}


1866 Oct. 27
(Martin), Aug(uste) M(ar)ie, Bishop of Natchi(toches): N(ew) O(rleans, Louisiana)
 to Archbishop (John Mary Odin, C.M.):

Bishop (Claude Marie) Dubuis finding funds on hand here wished to advance $800 to Martin for which Martin will send (Odin) a draft for 2666.75 f(rancs) on Paris as agreed. Martin found a letter here from Father (Jeremiah) Martin; he has been at sea since the 25th. Martin leaves tonight on the Homeyer(?).

VI-2-l - A.L.S. - (French) - 1p. - 12mo. - {3}


1866 Oct. 27
Raymond, Father G(ilbert): New Orleans, (Louisiana)
 to Archbishop (John Mary Odin, C.M.:

He has just received (Odin)'s letter of the 24th. Bishop (August Marie) Martin and Bishop (Claude Marie) Dubuis arrived last night with Father (Augustin) Gaudet, (O.M.I.). Father (Napoleon Joseph) Perché went home without stopping here. Dupuis asked Raymond to lend him all the money he had, saying he would return it tonight. As (Odin) said he would go to Brown County on his return trip, Raymond thinks it well to tell him that a young postulant came for the choir for (the Ursulines) at Opelousas. She came from France with Dubuis who also entered another postulant for the choir a short time before and he has another one here who is ready to enter. The house now has hope of succeeding if there is a suitable superioress. Raymond sends his respects to Archbishop Purcell, Bishop Rosecrans, and Father Purcell; also to the superior and assistant of Brown County and Father Cheymol.

VI-2-l - A.L.S. - (French) - 2pp. - 12mo. - {6}


1866 Oct. 28
Young, Father N(icholas) R.: Kenton, Ohio
 to Archbishop (John Baptist Purcell: of Cincinnati, Ohio)

He trusts that much good has been effected at the Council and that Purcell had a happy time. He used the dispensation regarding mixed religions for the marriage of Henry Flishman and Mary Blansfield. He regrets that he has been unable to open his parachioal school on account of his sister's health and utter want of place and means. The work on the church is going on slowly. It will be ready for consecration on Dec. 9. He will have a small class for confirmation ready at that time. The Germans are behaving very well. The Fathers of New Riegel seem to be so indefinite in their plans that Young is confused.

II-5-c - A.L.S. - 4pp. - 12mo. - {1}


1866 Oct. 29
Dahlgren, W. (Admiral): Washington, (D.C.)
 to O(restes) A. Brownson: Elizabeth, New Jersey

On his return from Ohio, Dahlgren was pleased over Brownson's opinion of the Memoirs Dahlgren had prepared of his son. He was careful in the writing not to do harm to an object which was dear to him. He was under some emotional stress when he wrote. Dahlgren is not accustomed to that particular style of writing. He has forwarded the manuscript to New York to have it published. When a copy is ready, Brownson will receive one. He thanks Brownson for having criticized the work, and the friendly consideration on behalf of his son.

I-4-c - A.L.S. - 3pp. - 12mo. - {1}


1866 Oct. 29
McGrath, Father M. F.: St. Joseph's, Perry County, Ohio
 to Bishop (Francis P.) McFarland (of Hartford: Providence, Rhode Island)

McGrath wishes to attach himself to the secular mission. He has been Dominican for 13 years and a priest 10 years principally in Kentucky and Washington City. The principal cause of his dissatisfaction is a flaw in his profession by want of jurisdiction in the one who received it. The matter was referred to Rome but because it would take a long time he preferred secularization. He encloses the reply of his superior, Father Sheehy (no enclosures). No force has been used and he is free. He wishes a more active life. Should McFarland want more than he will find about him in the Provincial's and Father Sheehy's letter he refers him to Bishop (Peter J.) Lavialle in Louisville. He gave missions in that diocese the last four months of 1865. He made his profession at St. Rose's in Kentucky. He prefers the east to the west and south.

I-1-b - A.L.S. - 4pp. - 16mo. - {1}


1866 Oct. 29
Manoritta, Father G(ioacchino) A.: Covington, (Louisiana)
 to Archbishop (John Mary Odin, C.M.: New Orleans, Louisiana)

He asks (Odin) to let him know what time next month he is coming for Confirmation. Next Monday he is going to Chiappapiela and the people would like to know at least two weeks before. Besides he wants to know if another priest is coming with (Odin).

VI-2-l - A.L.S. - 1p. - 12mo. - {2}


1866 Oct. 30
Gaudet, O.M.I., Father A(ugustin): N(ew) Orleans, (Louisiana)
 to Archbishop (John Mary Odin, C.M.):

On arriving in New Orleans Friday night Gaudet will leave on Tuesday for Brownsville. A delay of 10 to 15 days would cause anxiety to their priests, so he cannot wait for (Odin)'s return. As soon as he hears from their Father General about St. Rose he will let (Odin) know. General P(hilip) Sheridan told Gaudet that his claim was good and that he had sent it in June to Washington. Sheridan gave him a copy of the endorsement and Gaudet (quotes it). On leaving, Gaudet did not ask Father Raymond for money taking as a statement of account (Odin)'s letter of June 23 in which he acknowledged the receipt of $754.45 from which $361 was drawn, leaving $351.25 in (Odin)'s hands.

VI-2-l - A.L.S. - (French) - 3pp. - 12mo. - {3}


1866 Oct. 30
Gaudry, C: Paris, (France)
 to Bishop Peter Paul Lefevere: Detroit, Michigan

The Central Council of the Association of the Propagation of the Faith has allotted 9000 francs for the diocese of Detroit for 1866. Following custom, the last fifth of this sum will be withheld, because of uncertainty of receipts, until after the closing of the actual balance-sheet. They have received with great interest the information that Lefevere has sent them of the condition of the Detroit diocese and its needs. The principal object of their concern is the shortage of priests, and the American College at Louvain to help increase their numbers. To this end they extend their help.

 On the same paper: 

(1866) (Oct. 30)
Certes, (Adolphe): (Paris, France)
 to Bishop Peter Paul Lefevere: Detroit, Michigan

2/10 of the allocations for 1866 are to be paid. Lefevere can draw on Certes for 1800 francs.

III-2-k - L.S. - (French) - 4pp. - 4to. - {4}


1866 Oct. 31
Spooner, Mary Ann: Rochester, (New York)
 to O(restes) A. Brownson: (Elizabeth, New Jersey)

Mrs. Spooner requests that Brownson glance over the accompanying articles, and give her his opinion of them. The volume she sends herewith was printed by her husband. She presumes Brownson knew him by reputation "from unfavorable causes exceedingly mortifying" to her husband. Mr. Putnam consented to publish the work. Three hundred copies were just issued at the time of Colonel Spooner's death. Although the poems had the approbation of Washington Irving and Mr. Halleck, Putnam returned the books and refused to publish them because of their defective execution. During the next eighteen years the remainder of the books were distributed as tokens. She asks Brownson if the poems are worth being reprinted properly. Mrs. Spooner has been unable to read for the past twelve years. She has versified and adapted to music a Mass for the benefit of some colored children; also, a Litany, and some prayers have been adapted to music. She also has an essay on the "Characteristics of Genius", and the "Christophers", the latter was alleged to have been presented to the Pope. She has not had acknowledgement of it. It was completed as Bishop(John) Timon left for Rome. She believes an embellished original poem, if published, would profit her. She sent the poem last year to Father(Isaac) Hecker, "but the Catholic Wrold was an eclectic". Perhaps Hecker would accept it now. Mr. Fitzgerald of Brooklyn has offered to deliver "these sketches". She would be grateful for an answer.

I-4-c - A.L.S. - 4pp. - 8vo. - {2}