University of Notre Dame

Calendar: 1825


Black Bird Chief, Magatag Pineysinijigo L'Arbre Croche
(Michigan Territory)

to the President of the United States
(Washington, D.C.)

All the President's children extend their hands to him. They the chiefs of the Ottawas at Arbre Croche pray and supplicate him to send them a black robe such as teach the Indians at Montreal. They wish to be instructed in the same principles of religion that their ancestors received at the old mission of St. Ignatius before 1765. They come to him as the first and principle chief of the United States and ask his aid in erecting a house of prayer. To that house they ask that he and a minister of the gospel who will instruct their children and they will give him land to cultivate and try to please him and obey his good advice. They will be pleased if he sends a priest of the Catholic religion as their ancestors had. They have confidence in him and shake his hand with all the affection of their hearts. (Copied in the hand of Father Gabriel Richard - apparently a translation and adaptation of the one copied by Marianne Fisher.

III-2-f Copy A.L.S. 1p. 4to.


Fisher, Mary Anna
(Mackinac Island, Michigan Territory)

to (Father Gabriel) Richard
(Detroit, Michigan Territory)

She has transcribed this letter of one of the chiefs of L'Arbre Croche as well as she is able. She is not very capable, however. Richard will find the name of the Indian at the end of the letter with his totem. She has written the name in French at the foot of the letter. (In her own hand and on the same page is the following):

Black Bird
L'Arbre Croche, (Michigan Territory)

to the President of the United States
(Washington, D.C.

He begs the president to hear his prayer. All his children hold out their arms to give him their hands. All the first chiefs of the Indians of L'Arbre Croche beg that he obtain for them a black robe like those that teach in the country of Montreal. The Indians desire to be instructed in the same way that their ancestors were taught in the time of the mission. The Government has promised them to build a church and they will add land so that the new pastor will not be in want. They will be happy if the President hears their prayer and sends them a black robe but one of the Roman Catholic religion. If he hears their prayer, they will give him their hand and will do so with all their hearts.

III-2-f A.L.S. (French) 2pp 8vo.


Leo, Pope. XII

to Venerable Brethren (Catholic Bishops)

A papal letter proclaiming a universal Jubilee. The spiritual treasures obtainable only at Rome last year are now to be opened up to the whole world. The Jubilee and its indulgence is being extended and the bishops are given the faculties to commute or relax the enjoined works according to their discretion. Their good efforts are needed if the Pope's plan is to have a happy issue. The people should be allowed only so much of pomp and celebration as they have shown of diligence in preparing for it. The Bishops must show the pricelessness of the treasure and how easily all can be sharers in it, both because of the abundant faculties given the ministers of penance for remitting sins and because of the very nature of the good works imposed. Before the fourteenth century church discipline in those matters was very severe. Urban II said at Clermont that the expedition to liberate Jerusalem should not be regarded as an exploit of honor, of money gaining, but as a pilgrimage of penance. Cardinal Thomasius said that the rigours of love pilgrimages and the grave perils of death were enjoined that there might be more certainly tested and made manifest a penitential change of heart than a festive relaxation of all penitential discipline. The bishops are to preach themselves and appoint suitable preachers of Christ's words, "unless you have penance, you shall perish together." The Jubilee indulgence is plenary and distinct from all other plenary indulgences which are granted in the manner of a Jubilee, because in the solemn year of remission called Jubilee, a fuller faculty is given the special ministers of penance, of absolving sins and freeing from gands [sic] and impediments in which the consciences of believers are not infrequently entangled, the logic of it being that while the united supplication of the whole Christian people arises to heaven, God, being thus more certainly and fully placated by their penances, will grant more mercies. The cautions of Leo III against lack of care in examining penitents and granting indulgences are quoted: Careless ministers of penance are comparable to doctors who do not take the trouble to diagnose. The cautions of Raymond of Pennagart against harshness are quoted: the confessor should be benevolent, willing himself to arise and bear the penitent's burden. He should be sweet, dutiful, discreet before the variety of sins he will have to hear, should pray for penitents and do alms-giving and other good works for them, should console, hold forth hope for the future, and, when necessary, exhort. The Tridentine Council and Catechism are cited about prudence in hearing sins. The angelic doctor is quoted as saying that the better thing for the priest to do is indicate what great penances the guilt of the sins really demands, and yet lay upon the penitent only what he can tolerably do. Chrysostom is quoted to the same effect. The bishops are to teach clearly why, how, and in what order the good works are to be carried out, that the prayers prescribed at certain definite churches are to stand in place of those pilgrimages made by the early Christians to certain churches to fast and pray in them through the night. Receiving the Holy Eucharist is prescribed among the works. For it is the font of all charismata and gifts, itself the greatest of gifts, Christ himself. The indulgence is to be granted in such a way as to insure the permanence of its fruits. The bishop is to direct his efforts through the preaching and granting of the Jubilee toward rooting those vices which most ravage his flock. The bishops must pray. The people should not merely assist at Mass, but should receive the Body of Christ. Concerning fast and abstinence: there are few who observe these precepts carefully, few who do not condemn them altogether. The Pope laments the current disrespect for the sacrament of marriage, especially that most wicked practice in mixed marriages of raising the sons in the father's religion and the daughters in the mother's. It is invalid. Christians should avoid books poisonous to religion, morals, and public order. Care should be taken that all ages and sexes are reached by preaching and the exhortation to receive Christ's Body. Pious societies should be fostered. As workers in the vineyard the bishops are responsible. They must keep themselves spotless. St. Gregory (the Great) says one with dirty hands cannot wash another's. They must guard their seminaries as the apple of their eye, taking care that none but those who have virtue and knowledge be allowed to continue to ordination. They must guard the spiritual welfare of religious houses in their diocese, and foster schools and colleges. Nuns should teach in the schools. As Authority for this last, the council of Rome is cited. (In the James Alphonsus McMaster papers).

I-2-g Printed copy of L(Latin) 14pp.(incomplete) 16mo.

1825 Jan. 2
Richard, Father Gabriel: (Washington, D.C.)
 to  Father (Simon Gabriel) Brute: Emmitsburg, (Maryland)

(portion of letter) referring to church at Detroit. Some of Brute's students out of interest in Detroit's church may aid him in this transaction. P. He asks to be remembered to Father Jean Dubois and for the prayers of the theologians, sisters and priests. P.S.2 His nomination is no farther certain. Archbishop (Ambrose Marechal) is not far so anxious not to a aument the French influence as not to put his name on the list. P. 3 Gabriel would be pleased to have the book on Galileo that Brute mentioned to him on their journey from Emmitsburg to Baltimore.

II-3-o - A.L.S. - (incomplete) - {1p.} 2

1825 Jan. 3
(Flaget), Benedict J(oseph) Bishop of: Bardstown, (Kentucky)
 to  Father (Simon Gabriel) Brute: Emmitsburg, Maryland

Flaget wishes Brute a happy new year and assures him of his affection. He thanks Brute for having brought back his good Roger whose services have become so necessary. He also thanks Brute for the apparatus and their things which arrived in good condition and for which Brute paid the customs. They arrived some days before Christmas and Flaget has opened the boxes except those containing the apparatus, since the room for it is not ready. Father (Stephen Theodore) Badin has announced that the Duke of Orleans has planned to send him an episcopal throne but Flaget has seen no sign of it yet, unless it is among the machines. All goes well. The Delegate from Michigan (Gabriel Richard) has escaped from prison and the suburbs has asked for $50 as Flaget's part of the customs. But Brute is to tell Father (Jean) Dubois that the books and apparatus are custom free because of a special act of Congress in favor if St. Joseph's college. Brute can therefore reclaim whatever he has paid for them. Futher he does not think the apparatus is worth fifty dollars. He would pay for if necessary but his pocketbook is as empty as Dubois. Nor have they paid for the wing of the building that will house the machine and will cost about $7,000 or $8,000 in the spring. He can see from that how much he does not have the money for a church 4 or 5 hundred miles from Bardstown. He had been pleading for six years for finishing the facade of the cathedral without success. Further they have had two fires without a fortnight in which they lost lumber and their infirmary. Luckily a heavy snow kept the first from spreading to the cathedral. Old Morgan whom Brute might know was alone in the infirmary. A student tried to save him but another student from the college dashed in and brought out the old man who died a few hours later. The young man suffered burns in his hair and on his hands. He is not a Catholic. If Brute has suspicions about the cause of the fires, Flaget thinks they were result of their own mistakes. The citizens of Bardstown worked hard to put out the fires. Brute is to assure Father (Gabriel) Richard about the $50 and his subscription for the church of St. Anne. If Richard has patience in a couple of years he will pay him double. Flaget sends his regards to Father (Jean) Dubois whom he compliments on the second edition of his college. David send his regards, also to Father (John) Hickey.

II-3-o - A.L.S. - (French) - 3pp.3

(1825?) Jan. 22

(Dubourg), Bishop L(ouis William)
(New Orleans, Louisiana)

to Fathers (Anthony) and (John Baptist) Blanc
Pointe Coupée, (Louisiana)

Father (Anthony) Blanc knows that (Dubourg) cannot always do what he would like to. While he is convinced that Father (John Baptist) Blanc suits better at Pointe Coupée and (Anthony) at Baton Rouge, nevertheless he knows it will be the other way around. So if (Anthony) prefers to keep his parish, (Dubourg) will send the younger brother to Baton Rouge. They are to decide between themselves.

V-4-d A.L.S. (French) 2pp. 4to.

1825 Jan. 24

Fisher, Mary Anne
Mackinac (Island, Michigan Territory)

to (Father Gabriel Richard)
Detroit, (Michigan Territory)

She sends him a copy of a letter which she has transcribed as well as she could. She wrote by the last boat but does not know whether (Richard) received. (On the same page is the following. (In her own hand).

La Papois, one of the Chiefs
L'Arbre Croache, (Michigan) Territory

to (Father Gabriel Richard)
(Detroit, Michigan Territory)

All the Indians whom (Richard) visited last year salute him. At present they have fear of those who go among them and pretend to be priests seeking to take (Richard's) place among them. They do not intend to chance however, but would like to see (Richard) as soon as possible. When he meets him, he will open his heart on these matters.

III-2-f A.L.S. (French) 1p. 8vo.

1825 Feb. 9

(Timon, C.M., Father John
Barrens, Missouri)

Instruction for Quinquagesima Sunday on spiritual blindness, 1825 and 1830.

IV-3-i A. Sermon (French) 10pp. 12mo.

1825 Feb. 16
Dubourg, William Louis Bishop of: New Orleans (Louisiana)
 to  Father Simon (Gabriel) Brute: Emmitsburg, Maryland

DuBourg felicitates Brute on his happy return. He had been aware of the almost miraculous restoration of the college which must have pleased Brute. May God preserve his good confrere (Jean Dubois) for his achievement of an edifice so precious. Brute has been in France where again many things prosper. However there is always in France a gnawing worm. They must be on their guard. Some people are still afraid in France but he does not share their views. The government appears solid, the finance prosperous. But they say that there are still in France people who plan evil things. But there are also an infinity of moses who intercede between heaven and the people. The entire court is peopled with virtuous people not only to repair France but to aid the missions abroad. Things are thus before the Revolution; Dubourg admits his glory in France which he can express to Brute with understanding. De Deplores the roos of a Lamennais and Cardinal Clermonterre, but this danger is compressed by the King's character. Brute spoke to him of his friends in France and he appreciates their friendship. He is expecting Father (Anthony) Blanc, but after waiting at Nantes they have heard, he has had to go Havre and has been delayed three months. May God bring him and his two companions safely. Brute tells him that Blanc is bringing gifts. He needs them since the convent of nuns which he has had to transform into a college and a residence was in bad repair. If Blanc brings him money he will immediately send the $200 to Brute. P.S. The widow of Emperior Iturbide is there. She left four daughters and a boy of eight in England. She is taking measures for them to come the north way and wants to send them somewhere for a short time. Dubourg did not hesitate to suggest that the girls go to St. Joseph and asks that Dubourg accept the boy for the short time. The children are on the point of landing in New York. Dubourg is writing to the mother superior at St. Joseph and asks Brute to ask Dubois.

II-3-o - A.L.S. - (French) - 3pp. {4to.} 3

1825 Feb. 22
Richard, Father G(abriel): Washington, (D.C.)
 to  Father (Simon Gabriel) Brute: (Emmitsburg, Maryland)

Mr. Cook has sent him the commencement about the lands and the taxes on them in the state of Illinois since he has not been able to go out for three weeks. As to the 320 acres of Father (Jean) Dubois Mr. McGerry assures Richard that he will do what he can at the General Land Agency with Mr. Watson and Richard will also act when he is able to be out. He has sent the book on the Aposylapse to Father W. Matthews who is pleased with it and is absorbing it. Governor L(ewis) Cass of Michigan wrotes him a king for the book of the Jesuits Father Sagard and others on the geographical limits of the Indians in Canada. The book and the map that Brute spoke in his recent letter is just exactly what he needs. If Brute will send it by McGerry he will be grateful. If Brute will permit him to take it to Detroit he will return it next November. If not he asks that he be permitted to make an estract and have the book returned by McGerry. He has found the Dominicans but he would be glad if Brute could send him a copy of their work Vindica of St. Mary's C. He sends 12 letters views of Jerusalem. He sends his compliments to Father Jean Dubois and the others.


1825 Mar. 9

(Dubourg), L(ouis) W(illia)m, Bishop of New Orleans
New Orleans, Louisiana

to Bishop Edward Fenwick
Cincinnati, Ohio

The bearer M. Chignard, with whom Fenwick is acquainted has arrived at that place and being refused a return to the New Orleans diocese seeks entrance into Cincinnati - Upon the recommendation of Rev. Mr. Dalga, v.g. of Aix in Provence he recommends that he be given a trial on his good behaviour shown in France.

II-4-d A.L.S. 1p. 8vo.

1825 Mar. 13

Leo XII, Pope
Rome, (Italy)

to Bishop Edward Dominic Fenwick, O.P.
Cincinnati, Ohio

Apostolic Letter condemning Secret Societies. Insisting on the obligation of the Pontiffs to protect the faithful and alarmed by the growth of the sect called "Freemasons," Clement XII in his Constitution "In Eminenti" of April 28, 1738 had condemned them. When some claimed that the bull had lost its effect at the death of Clement, his successor, Benedict XIV, had issued another dated Mar. 18, 1751 "Providas" confirming that of Clement XII, which Leo quotes. Leo classifies as the chief of these freemasons the Carbonari, who had been condemned by Pius VII in his bull, "Ecclesiam Jesu Christi" of Sept. 13, 1821, in which he accused them of being against the Church and civil authority. Leo XII, has seen the growth of these societies, including those in universities and having seen their publications, he asks all Catholics not to join or aid in any way these societies under pain of excommunication. Under the same penalty they are obliged to report those who have joined such societies. Their chief evil of these societies is their secret oath against all other authority. He quotes the letter of Clement XII of Sept. 12, 1738. Leo calls on Catholic princes, towards whom he feels affection, to come to his aid in this matter. Quoting the words of Leo the Great, because the cause of religion is so closely united to that of society that they are no longer separable. While Leo begs that the members of these societies be not allowed civil honors, he calls upon the members of these societies to return to the Church. For them the obligation of denouncing is deferred for one year. Witnessed by Cardinal B. Bartholomew Pacca as prosecretary, D. Testa for Cardinal Albani, and Caprano as substitute. (Translation unidentified) (In Detroit Papers).

III-2-f Translation 11pp. 4to.

1825 Mar. 17
(David), J(ean) B(aptist) M Bishop of Mauricastro: Bardstown, (Kentucky)
 to  Father (Simon Gabriel) Brute: Emmitsburg, M(aryland)

Since Brute's letter to Bishop (Benedict Joseph Flaget) they have heard of Brute's return from France. David intended to write several times. Brute told him of the return of Rogers by the same boat, and he wished he had accompanied him to Kentucky. Flaget ordained at the Advent ember days one deacon two subdeacons and eight in minor orders and in tonsure. On Saturday the feast of St. Joseph he will ordain a deacon and a subdeacon (Apollinaire Alement) They have at the seminary a priest who has not finished his theology 4 deacons, 3 subdeacons. He does not count Spalding who remains as he was and twelve in minor orders. The lettle seminary has a dozen of aspirants. The sisters number 52 of whome more than half are scattered in six establishments. They have 6 at the Grand seminary for laundry and cooking etc. Father Derogaud has as many at the little seminary. 3 teach in Bardstown as is Brute they are engaged in building a college. Two wings are up and they are building the body of the building but they are not getting the help they planned. They have lost the Mother at the Nazareth convent. She left more debts than David suspected. The sisters have great confidence in God. David wonders how Brute can persuade Bishop (Edward Dominic) Fenwick to come to Bardstown on his way to Cincinnati since it is out of his way. Brute said nothing of the bishop for Father (Gabriel) Richard Flaget conjectures that if he comes with Fenwick it would be for consecration. David likes the Miscellany but not all its articles. He has written this to the editors. It is too infatuated with republican principles and as ardent democrats beleive in the soberignity of the people. David does not care for accounts of grand dinners and toasts. He is misled in the affaire of the Philadelphia Schism and David beleives with Bishop (Henry) Conwell that the paper's comments on O'Mealy has enclurged his perserverance. He has received the pamphlet on the new miracle but has not read it. He is pleased to receive a denial that the convent of the Visitation at Georgetown had dissolved. Priests from New Orleans said that the Ursulines there were preparing lodgings for ten. Devid desires the multiplication of the community, the miracle does not contribute to that. As to the matter of superrogation he thinks the bishop should write Brute his explanation. Roger has made the matter clear to him. David has read Liguori on the question proposed by Brute and finds no difficulty. It is question of when the law is sufficiently promulgated. He argues from the obligation of the laws made congress. The Church order determines when a law is decreed. David is not surprised at the end of Father (Angelo) Inglesi. David sends his regards to Father Dubois, Hickey and the rest. Father Byrne conducts his college with marvelous succes. Father Derigaud has built a college at St. Thomas and has thirty scholars, it is a nursery for the little seminary since the death of Father (Charles Nerincks) Father (Guy Ignatius) Chabrat has been superior of the Lorettine Sisters. He perfects their rules and builds a large convent on the place where Badin lived.

II-3-o - A.L.S. - (French) - 3pp.9

1825 Mar. 25
Richard, Father G(abriel): Cleveland, (Ohio)
 to  Father (Simon Gabriel) Brute: (Emmitsburg, Maryland)

Richard arrived at Fredricktown on Mar. 8 where he was told that Bishop Edward Dominic Fenwick and Father (Josue M.) Young had gone on ahead in the carriage of Mr. Dugan. He saw Father (John) McElroy who delivered the various articles mentioned in Brute's letter. These books and articles were gratifing. As to the books on the Indians he has no doubt that Brute's name will stand very high with Governor (Lewis) Cass. The reading will give him a correct idea of the Catholic missionaries. The same day he over took Bishop Fenwick at Hagerstown and on Mar. 9 they continued their journey on the 11 their carriage was upset and its upper part demolished. Young was not hurt. Fenwick had a bump on his head, Richard several bumps on his head which gave him a servere headache. But they lost the driver who seemed to have no bones broken but who was incapable of rising. They went to a neighbor's house for bed and wagon and carried him to Cumberland but he died the next morning. They buried him at Cumberland at which Young said the Mass and preached the sermon. The next Sunday they started at noon with Young saying the last mass and catching up on horseback. At Brownsville they comforted the widow of the driver. At Brownsville they met 2 of the drivers brothers and his mother. Gabriel left St. Clairsville of Saturday the 19th. By wagon and horse they went to Cleveland arriving there the 24th. A vessel is expected from Buffalo but the winds may not let it come ashore. If it does not they will go 60 miles to Sandusky City where there are many skiffs sailing every day. He sends his regards to Father Dubois, the clergymen, the Mother and the Sisters. P.S. He preached at St. Clairsville, Centerville and Canton and if he does not start today he will also preach in Cleveland. The mustard seed may produce fruit at some future day.

II-3-o - A.L.S. - (English) - 4pp. {4to.} 4

(1825) Apr. 6

Young, Father N(icholas) D.
Lancaster, (Ohio)

to Bishop E(dward) D(ominic) Fenwick
Cincinnati, Ohio

They seldom meet afflictions but they are followed by others. Fenwick should prepare himself for other sad news. Young has received word from his brother's letter. He is sending a copy of this letter to St. Rose so that Fenwick will have the news immediately. He asks that Fenwick join him in prayers for her repose and that the Dominicans in Cincinnati offer a few masses for her. Young is not ready to answer Fenwick's letter. He will write to Canton to find out how things are there. Father (Stephen) Montgomery will look after the church in Zanesville. They are attempting a church at Somerset, although Young wants to do no more than make the bricks this year. Mr. Dittoes is very zealous but wants to know how much Fenwick will give. They must know how much money they will receive so they can plan. Young feels that a church in Somerset will be an immense advantage to religion. All goes tolerably well. Father ( ) Martin does not want to go to Cincinnati but is bend on St. Rose and Young thinks he will go there next week.
P.S. Young's disgusted because "old" Boyle of Lancaster promised to bury a non-Catholic and a drunkard in the graveyard. If he is permitted to do this Young will require a positive obedience from Father (Augustine) Hill to remain there.

II-4-d A.L.S. 4PP. 8VO.

1825 Apr. 7

(Badin, Theodore Stephen)
Chelsea, London, England

to Bishop Edward Fenwick
Cincinnati, Ohio

Summarizes England and France for Fenwick - Discusses a Mr. Widener - Imposter collecting in his name in Europe - Speaks of Rev. Dios Santos as Coadjutor, also Father John Austin Hill O.P. - outlines his letters and shipments to and from the diocese - Speaks of his desire to be a Dominican. Of other collections and prospects in England, of his experience with Bishop Flaget - Mentions the Duke of Polignac - Quotes a letter to Fenwick of the Duke of Damas - Speaks of the progress of the Irish Emancipation Bill.
Added note dated April 23, speaks of money and notes second reading of the Bill in the House of Commons.

II-4-d A.L. 4pp. 8vo.

Note in Fenwick's hand that this be shown to Father Hill who is to write petition to persons suggested by Badin.

1825 April 8
(Flaget), Benedict Joseph Bishop of Bardstown: Nazareth, (Kentucky)
 to  Father (Simon Gabriel) Brute: Emmitsburg, Maryland

Brute's arguments have convinced him that he should give the $50 to Father (Gabriel) Richard. They must not let a simple matter of money break up their friendship. His situation is very unpleasant. The subscriptions for the cathedral are not being paid. Flaget has simply told his agent to get the money here and now. He needs $4,000. The Sisters of Charity through the maladministration of a mother need a like sum. To this he has added a personal debt for a house costing $5,000. He explains his insenability to the misery of others by his own troubles, although God gives him some ray of hope. They await the arrival of Martial at the end of the month who announces twenty boarders. They already have 35 with 60 or 80 externs. P.S. He sends his regards to Father Dubois and his families. He asks to know who is elected Bishop of New York.

II-3-o - A.L.S. - (French) - 2pp.3

(1825) Apr. 22

(Dubourg), L(ouis) W(illia)m, Bishop of
New Orl(eans), L(ouisiana)

to Bishop E(dward) Fenwick
Cincinnati, (Ohio)

(Dubourg) hears from Father (Anthony) Ganilh of Fenwick's scruple about taking Dominican property for the diocese. The decree of the pope and General of the Order settles the matter. He advises him not to break with Father (John A.) H(ill, O.P.) and advises Fenwick to handle his own money matters, also to acquire a Dominican foundation.

II-4-d A.L.S. 4pp. 8vo.

1825 Apr. 26

Fenwick, Edward, Bishop
Cincinnati, Ohio

to Mr. George Guilford

Thanks him for the loan of a pamphlet of Oen's Syster - Considers it very good as regards temporal prosperity but entirely wanting as to eternal things. Encloses a pamphlet having another point of view.

II-4-d A.L.S. 1p. 8vo.

1825 Apr. 26

Kenrick, Father F(rancis) P(atrick)
Bardstown, (Kentucky)

to Father Frederick Rese
of Cincinnati, (Ohio)

He is induced to violate the laws of correspondence by answering Rese's two Italian letters in English. He has been delayed by a fracture of his collar bone resulting from a fall from a horse and the expectation of a visit from Bishop (Edward Dominic) Fenwick to explain the enigma of the kidnapped nun. When Fenwick's heartrending letter came he judged that he must explain his refusal to go to the diocese of Cincinnati more fully. Though they promise not to kidnap him, he feels that they want him permanently and that his remaining there would be involved. He is now busy with this large congregation, that of Bullet and with classes in the seminary with Father (John) David. Despite the flourishing condition of the diocese, all their priests are needed and the withdrawal of any might be fatal. The Dominicans at St. Rose have suffered from the withdrawal of some of their members to go to Cincinnati. Rese must remember that the institutions of Bardstown were not founded all at once but are the product of long years of labor and toil. He himself feels that like Rese he is not long in the missionary field and that he needs the direction of old and experienced missionaries. If he left he would become the regulator of his own conduct. Further, Rese's new foundations need a man skilled in temporal matters. He has omitted to mention also that since he was sent by the Propaganda for Kentucky he does not feel that he can leave there without a command from Rome after the matter has been well understood. He is, however, anxious for Rese's and Fenwick's success. The results of his inquiries concerning Father Chignard have not been favorable. Father Evremond had but a few months acquaintance with him. Rese might write to Father Niel of St. Louis for more exact information. (Flaget) does not insist on the amount of land Rese indicates for establishing a church in Indiana. Kenrick asks that the Dominicans bring the package for David. Father (Stephen Theodore) Badin left a book for Rese.
P.S. Monsignor (Peter) Caprano has written him against the custom of baptizing the children of heretics even with the promise of the parents and quotes the decrees of the Inquisition of Nov. 29, 1764 and Jan. 21, 1767 on the matter.

III-2-f A.L.S. 4pp. 8vo.

1825 May 15

Flaget, (Benedict Joseph) Bp. of Bardstown
(Bardstown, Kentucky)

to (Bishop Edward Fenwick)
Cincinnati, Ohio)

(Part of letter)...........Recalls the conditions of his coming to Kentucky - No money - A debt of $200 for his traveling expenses - no lodging - Father Badin did not want to give him the least thing while he remained - Tells Fenwick to compare that with his own troubles for consolation - He built up his diocese and Fenwick should do greater things - He does not claim credit for the things Fenwick has accomplished. On the day of his consecration Fenwick asked only one question, about leaving all the Dominicans at St. Rose, (Kentucky). Since that Fenwick has not consulted him. His own duties are enough - he does not regret suggesting Fenwick for Cincinnati.

II-4-d A.L.S. (French) 4pp. 8vo.

1825 May 16
(David), Jean B(aptist) M Bishop of Mauricastro: (Bardstown, Kentucky)
 to  Father (Simon Gabriel) Brute: Emmitsburg, Maryland

David has received Brute's letter of April 16. Father (George) Elder, the President had not seen the college yet he boasts to Father Jean Dubois. They will have soon 56 boarders from New Orleans, nearly all Catholics. From a letter from St. Joseph in January he heard that Sister Angela was near death and had a letter from her saying that she was going into comsumption. She has an angel. David has lost five of the Sisters of Charity last year. The letter continues June 9. The feasts obligations that succeed each other are the cause. Their building grows, 120 feet long and 40 wide. One wing already built houses the old college and is 60 feet long. The other is more than a hundred and houses the kitchen, the meat house and other like needs and rooms for other purposes for the sisters and a piazza for use in the winter, and rooms for various purposes which he enumerates. The inspiration of all this is Father Martial who is very devoted to us. Fouche and Evremond are his disciples and good men. David is still professor of English but has only one student Apollinaris Sherman from Rhodes who is a subdeacon in theology. June 25, his feast day has come and he had not finished his letter. Yesterday he celebrated solemly in the presence of the Bishop, priests and seminarians and blessed the chapel at Nazareth. It is brick 55 feet long and 30 feet wide with a sacristy 12 feet square. David described the services. A Jew and his wife and little girl were there. The Mother expressed a desire to be Catholic. The mother told the Mother of the Sisters that she wished the daughter to be raised a Catholic because of the father but wanted the girl to make the decision herself. They plan to add to the chapel 15 feet of wall which would provide two rooms below and sleeping rooms above, while they are waiting to build a new house for the Sisters. He dedicated the chapel to St. Vincent de Paul. He lists several paintings he desires. June 27, he speaks of his sicjnesses. Because of them he is exempt from singing and teaching. It is necessary that he be superior of the seminary and teach the seminarians, and that he be superior and confessor to the Sisters and there are always novices to instruct. He also sings the mass, since he is the director of the choir. He hopes to die before the Bishop because of his incapacity as bishop. He sends his regards to Father Dubois and Hickey and to Mother Rose.

II-3-o - A.L.S. - (French) - 3pp.6

1825 May 18

Badin, S(tephen) T(heodore) Father
London, England

to Bishop Edward Fenwick
Cincinnati, Ohio

Arranges to send money by Tiernan of Baltimore for Fenwick. Little success in England. The Prince of Polignac works for Fenwick - Sends books, vestments, chalices - Lawyers say Badin's transfer to Flaget of seminary land is null - Prefers retirement in Rome to America. Added note sends copy of Letter of Rev. Mr. Andreis. Advises missionaries to take notes.

II-4-d A.L.S. 3pp. 8vo.

Note of Fenwick on back of answer to Badin.

1825 May 31

Hill, (O.P), John Austin St. Joseph's
Somerset, Ohio

to Young, Nicholas D.
Cincinnati, Ohio

Discusses the division of provinces commanded by the Superior General and difficulties in the division of property. Proposes a solution which he asks Young to submit to Bishop (Fenwick). Proposes as more desirable the location of nuns at Somerset. Objects to leaving Somerset.

II-4-d A.L.S. 3pp. 8vo.

1825 Jun. 2

Montgomery, S(tephen) H.
Zanesville, Ohio

to Bishop Edward Fenwick
Cincinnati, Ohio

Has to borrow even postage money. His calculations on the building were correct but despite the efforts of Mr. Dugan and Mr. Hughes who promised to bear most of the expense, he finds himself without sufficient funds to complete his Church. Expects Father (Nicholas D.) Young to help bear the expense as he had promised. Ask the Bishop's help mentioning the sun of $200. Lists prices of material and labor.

II-4-d A.L.S. 4pp. 8vo.

1825 Jun. 18

Badin, Father S(tephen) T(heodore)
Chelsea, London, (England)

to Bishop Edward Fenwick
Cincinnati, Ohio

Extracts from Fenwick's letter of Apr. 16 will be printed in the Catholic Miscellany in order to keep interests in the mission alive. Badin has been unable to preach in London, but Father ( )
Cuddon has been very helpful. With the scarcity of money in the U.S. they should be realizing more on their mission. However, Badin's expenses are still too great and returns too small. England is filled with foreign solicitors from all over and Fenwick's chances would have been best had he not left Europe just when he was about to be well known. He wrote to Father (Didier) Petit on the subject Fenwick mentioned in his last letter and he said Fenwick should lose no time in converting the Indians, because the purpose of the Association is for the conversion of infidels, not Protestants. Fenwick did not receive the entire sum voted for his mission last year. One or two letters each year to the Archbishop of Rouen will be of great service. The Prince of Polignac has been applied to for the assistance of Charles X and 80 pounds was received the day after the king's coronation. He has written a letter of thanks to the Duke of Dond(eauville). The Marquise de Clermont-Tonnerre is a great friend of the mission. The nephew of Father Dias Santos tells him that Fenwick's former condisciple is very attached to him and may leave a donation or legacy. Badin sent him Fenwick's letter. He has drawn on Wright & Co. for 1000 pounds and there is still 2000 pounds with Tiernan & Co. in Baltimore. In regard to Fenwick's proposed purchase of a 5 acre lot with house for $26,000, Badin realizes it is a great deal of money, but by buying it Fenwick would not have to worry about building himself and would have his Cathedral and seminary already built. He supposes Fenwick has the means to purchase, since he has still 2700 pounds with Wright & Co., almost half the purchase price, he could sell his present house and Cathedral, and the lots and small house and out of the other lots he could parcel off the ground into smaller plots, reserving a few for increase. By purchasing now Fenwick would be able to have his new college and could realize a return from boarders and day students, with professors from Bardstown (Kentucky). Cincinnati will grow, as will the congregation and he will be assisted by subscriptions. Even if something did happen, the worst that could result would be another trip to Rome to obtain funds with the help of Badin who is always ready to serve him. Father Wheeler is now in this city. Mr. Liter is going to America and will carry some effects for the mission. Badin may go to Ireland in September.
P.S. He has not heard of Fathers Chignard nor de Grendel. He asks Fenwick to send Badin's letter to Mrs. Jumel. He has not received the letter from Father (Gabriel) Richard that Father Vincent (Badin) promised to send. Bishop (Benedict Joseph) Flaget's last letter was Feb. 10. Wright & Co. forwarded a bill of credit on Tiernan & Sons for 1000 pounds payable for Fenwick on Archbishop Maréchal.

II-4-d A.L.S. 4pp. 8vo.

1825 Jun. 25

Van de Velde, James O. (S.J.), Georgetown College
District of Columbia

to Bishop Edward Fenwick
Cincinnati, Ohio

Mentions writing to Archbishop of Malinez for help for Cincinnati - Speaks of some cases or religious goods sent from Flanders for Georgetown which had been lost - Suspects that Fenwick may have them - Seeks information about it. Has had the company of Munes.
Postscript that he understands that Bishop Flaget is appointed administrator of Father (Charles) Nerinckx.

ii-4-d A.L.S. 2pp. 8vo.

Fenwick note. Received 11th answered 15th of July.

1825 Jul. 8

Fenwick, Bishop Edward
Bishop of Cincinnati

to Superior (of the Sisters of Mercy probably)

Speaks of his esteem for a Sister Paul recently come to the Diocese. Asks for sisters to aid her in this work to establish a convent of the Sisters of Mercy.

II-4-d A.L.S. (French) 3pp. 12mo.

1825 Aug. 6

Somalia, Julius M. Cardinal de Pro-prefect
Rome, (Papal States)

to Father Frederick Rese
Cincinnati, (Ohio)

It has been reported to the Sacred Congregation that Rese has been writing to Father (Francis Patrick) Kendrick of the diocese of Bardstown seeking to draw him from that diocese to Cincinnati. For this purpose Rese had no permission from the Sacred Congregation, nor would it have been given if asked. It is evident to the Sacred Congregation that Kenrick is a great aid to Bishop (Benedict Joseph) Flaget and it is the mind of the Congregation that he persevere there. Rese is to desist from his invitations to Kenrick. The Sacred Congregation reminds Rese that he is expected to render an account of himself to the Sacred Congregation as one of their alumni. A year has now passed and they wish such an account. No. 1. Archbishop Peter Capranus signs as Secretary.

III-2-f L.S. (Latin) 1p. 8vo.

1825 Aug. 12

Badin, Father Steph(en) T(heodore), Catholic Chapel
Chelsea, London, (England)

to Bishop Edward Fenwick
Cincinnati, Ohio

He accompanied Father ( ) Wheeler from London to Paris where he collected 400 fr. at McChapellier, $170 at St. Nicolas du Chardonnet and $110 at Mme. De la Rianderie's. Wheeler is leaving for New York from Havre de Grace. Fenwick's interest in France is in the Association of the Propagation and the amount depends upon Fenwick's letters concerning the activity among the Indians. He saw Father Didier Petit in Paris. The Prince of Polignac influenced Mgr. le Duc de Dondeauville to obtain a donation from Charles X of 2000 francs. The Bureau is allowing Fenwick 11,000 fr. which Badin will deposit with Wright & Co. All the priests in Fenwick's diocese should write of affairs that would interest Europeans and Fenwick should condense this and send it to Badin or Petit so that it would be received at Lyon (France) before May 3 each year. A decree of the King in Flanders has suppressed the little seminaries and a great seminary is to be created and no candidates will be accepted who has not been previously trained by government-appointed professors. The Nuncio has been recalled by the Pope. The Dominicans will die in England without successors. Father Angier has come to Hincley with the consent of the Provincial at St. Rose, Father Tuite. The condition of Church government in England is disgusting and scandalizing. Even the Jesuits who are the most zealous and pious are objects of contempt and aversion. The Bishop of this district reprimanded Badin for visiting a dying man "absente parocho." He has not collected enough in six months to meet expenses in this proud, prodigal and vicious country. Father Scott is about the only man who would assist him, but he hasn't the time to spare. John Bull is rude and inhospitable compared to the Americans. Mr. Closey died in May. Mrs. Moriss wishes to know about young Wallis. The tailor, Leifer left with Wheeler. Badin has a trunk load of Church furniture and books which he will send when he finds an opportunity. The Misses Le Riche spoke to Badin about working in Fenwick's diocese, but Badin thinks there are in Bruges several nuns better trained for educating youth, who have contracted for many years religious habits. Father (Guy) Chabrat has written to Father (Charles) Nerinckx for two young ladies to teach French. Father Vincent Raymaker's parents died at Louvain according to the Curé of St. Nicolas at Bruxelles. Badin is thankful that Fenwick escaped when his friend, Mr. Dugan, was killed. Fenwick should write to Monsignor Chamberlain, superior of the Holland mission, who has ordered a collection for Fenwick in Flanders, regardless of the persecution. There are many Flemish religious who would like to go to the United States. He sent a bill of credit given Archbishop (Ambrose) Maréchal for Fenwick by Wright & Co. on Luke Tiernan and Sons. He is afraid the building of the Cathedral will leave Fenwick destitute of a livelihood and a seminary. He recently read of canals opening between the Ohio and the Lakes and that the population of Ohio is 750,000. Badin has been informed that a bill of credit on Maréchal for Fenwick is the best way of sending funds, since Maréchal is in Baltimore and can call for the funds any time when they exchange is not under par.
P.S. Badin quotes from the British Guardian of June 22, a statement by Capt. Pollard of the Seneca Tribe, in which Pollard thanks the Catholic missionaries for bringing the faith to his people and asks their aid in preventing the Indian tribes from being driven farther back. Father ( ) Crane, for many years a missionary among the Tuscarora Tribe made a few remarks alluding to Pollard. Such communications should be sent to Rome. He has not heard from his brother (Father Vincent Badin) or from Father (Gabriel) Richard. He hopes they are well. Badin has not forgotten that Monsr. Ferere of St. Nicolas has promised Father de Gaussancourt as President of Fenwick's seminary. He has not heard from Father Chinard or Father de Grendel. If he has the opportunity, Fenwick will go to Manchester and Liverpool. Father Sewall thinks that in 2 or 3 years he might send some Jesuits to Arbre Crochu. Richard should visit Stonyhurst when he comes to Europe. The son-in-law of Mr. Rusand asks Badin for 63 francs for the printing of the 1500 prospectus. He asks Fenwick for directions. His address is the same as before: Au Seminary St. Nicolas du Cahdonnet, Paris, (France).

II-4-d A.L.S. 4pp. 8vo.

1825 Aug. 28
England, John Bishop of: Charleston, S(outh) C(arolina)
 to  Father Simon (Gabriel) Brute : Emmitsburg, Maryland

England answers Brute's French letter in English but Brute may write in either language to him. Aug. 30. He could not continue the letter for want of time. He has too many occupations. He teaches theology, philosopghy, algebra besides his episcopal duties and his contributions to the Miscellany. Other things are inserted in it which he does not see, especially when he is on the missions in others parts of the diocese. He thanks Brute for his remarks some of which he agrees with. Others he will note although he does not fully agree with them. Yet he wants Brute to write as frankly on what he disagrees with. His vocation has allowed him to study human nature in its best and worst features. Much of his life was spent in dungeons as their chaplain, with the depraved and those in Magdaken asylums, in the superintendance of convents of Ursulinenuns under the frown of the persecutor and the councils of public office. Nine years thus spent left him little time for books. For a part of his time he was teaching theology and the superintendance of a seminary, after which he was again taken from his books to have charge of a large parish and vicar al inspection of ten others as vicar forane. Then he was sent here where Brute knows what he has to do. He writes that Brute will see his opportunities to study and he is not yet 39 years of age. But he has had opportunity to know the world. He has had some conversations with William Gasten about Brute and asked him to request Brute to supply his wants of reading. He knows mankind better that Brute but Brute knows the world of books better. If Brute will write in English England will correct it but if he writes in French he will do with it what he can. He is almost as destitute of books as of proper reading. Brute will have to pay for his Miscellany by his contribution, as many copies as he wishes. He thanks Brute for his "Dictionary of Heresies" and is about to send to Father Tessier for Brute. He could use any duplicate that Brute can afford. If he will say 2 or 3 Masses that will do for the subscription. The Ami de la Religion was stopped because they were in arrears. They do not publish American news because only the Bardstown people send any. He feels he can defeat the enemy by the utmost candor but he agrees that if they should not publish the falsehood without its antidore. He thinks that Brute and he agree for the most part and quotes a proverb on righting with candor. He has much to communicate. He asks for the history of Galileo and the Inquisition and the authorities Brute can command. England was delighted with that what Brute published on that in Baltimore. Brute is not to pay the postage on communications to the Miscellany, since they will cost him nothing. What Brute wishes private will remain so. (On back a list of books received.)

II-3-o - A.L.S. - (English) - 4pp. {4to.} 3

1825 Sept. 2
Egan, Michael DeBurgo: Mt. St. Mary's (Emmitsburg, Maryland)
 to  Father J(ohn) B. Purcell: Paris, (France)

He wrote to Purcell in August telling of the great changes that were taking place in the Mt. St. Mary's since the elevation of Father (Jean) Dubois to the episcopate of New York. As sole proprietor he is reasonable personally for its debts and cannot leave without finding someone to releive him of them. He first approached the Sulpicians in Baltimore to take back the institution but they would have to get the permission of the General in Rome that the delay would be too much. (Brute) adds that Father (John) McGerry then approached the Sulpicians again who again declined and then with the entreaties of Archbishop (Ambrose Marechal) they took charge of it. They had consent to take it for see it sold Fathers Simon Gabriel Brute McGerry and Egan agreed to take over the institution with the approval of the Archbishop. They decided that it was the divine will that they do so. As to theology he has given no express permission except to continue with those of other dioceses that have begun and for as many of his as are necessary to the college. He has granted our cell as his subject permission to remain with them. The Archbishop said it was a sacrifice for the welfare of the house. Egan tells Purcell to be ready to return to them. If the desire of McGerry, Brute and himself that he return as soon as possible in the spring. As to the expense of passage Brute will ask a man in Havre to forward the funds. In the mean time he is to lay up supplies of the he thinks useful for the seminary. Purcell is not bound to Dubois but the seminary with the approbation of the Archbishop. Dubois counts on his joining him and will write to that effect, but the Archbishop will not consent to his leaving the diocese. He is going against his own nature in accepting his part. P.S. He will write soon again. Edward Purcell is well and doing better. on the same pages:

II-3-o - A.L.S. - (French) - 4pp. {4to.} 5

1825 Sept. 24
(David) Jean Baptist Bishop of Mauricastro: (Bardstown, Kentucky)
 to  Father (Simon Gabriel Brute): (Emmitsburg, Maryland)

He has received two letters from Brute without finding time to replay. He has only daily happenings to report except for Father Martial. One if that Father (Anthony) Garnier has been named vicar general of Paris in the absence of the Archbishop. Also he and Bishop (Benedict Joseph Flaget) have received a letter from Monsignor Benedict Fenwick announcing has nomination to the bishop of Boston. He says nothing about New York. Martiel received this news with pleasure as a friend of religion and a Frenchman. Most of the American there were pleased. At St. Joseph's Seminary the great building is up to the fourth storey. The basement is above ground and is their first floor. Perhaps it is vanity that suggests that Brute make a trip to visit them. The secretary pro temps of the United States has written to the Bishop asking an account of the literary establishment and the Bishop has outlined to him the great progress of the Church in the fourteen years for the public in answer to those in Washington who say that Catholic is the enemy of republican governments. The College goes well. They have 90 boarders, as many as they can lodge. Fifteen have made their first Communion the first Sunday of October. The Bishop said the Mass and preached a sermon in French at 7 o'clock. Every Sunday they have at least 50 communions. The number of externs is nearly a 100. The school of the Sisters also grows. They have 52 boarders. They need a building. Father Derigauds is finished his college which can hold 150 students. It is 70 feet by thirty, a continuation of the seminary which is thirty square. That makes a hundred feet of building at two stages without counting the cellars which contain the large refectory, the offices, a kitchen, laundry and so on. And it is all paid for. They are going to print at Bardstown a catechism for the diocese larger than the little one. When it is ready he will send a copy to Brute. It will contain 150 pages and sell for a quarter dollar. It will have a preface by the Bishop and contain morning and evening prayer and some hymns and a cathechism of the feasts of the year. He has at hand the controversies of St. Francis de Sales. He will return the book at the first opportunity. He is much displeased with the Miscellany with its public dinners held and toasts Bishop (John England) changes the nature of the journal from a religious to a secular one. David has written to him but received no reply. David speaks of his health. His attacks of asthma care light but there is irritation in his speech which is almost continual because of his many duties, at times he has haze before his eyes for a half hour or three quarters. He has consulted doctors and they may be no remedy but to cease speaking public. He asks Brute which he should give up. He does not fear death but does not want to survive the Bishop. He asks prayers for the two afflicted bishops since Flaget is not well either.

II-3-o - A.L.S. - (French) - 3pp. {} 4to. 5

1825 Oct. 5

Badin, T(heodore) S(tephen)
London, England

to Bishop Edward Fenwick
Cincinnati, Ohio

He remains in London. Only a few are friendly to the missions - The College of Bornheim has been sold - Fenwick should get a share of its price - Has books etc. London funds low - Recommends the help of the Association - Bishop should have stayed instead of himself and Rigagnon. Happy Seur Paul is working. Recommends letters from missions to the Association. Repeats letter of Duke of Damas to Fenwick - Recommends establishment of Jesuits in Cincinnati. Hears M. (Gabriel) Richard is reelected.

II-4-d A.L.S. 2pp. 8vo.

Letter written on paper containing a two page account of the Ohio mission - probably written by Badin.

1825 Oct. 7

Grim, Charles F.
New York, (New York)

to William (Seton)
(U.S. Navy)

Grim sends an account of Seton's finances. "They" required him to sign two blank receipts which they can fill in at the close of the business. The N(aval) Clerk will keep one and forward the other to the department. He also gave a receipt for each payment on the check for it on the U.S. Bank. He generally received on the first of the month what was due the 30th. In order to avoid the detention he called on the 30th. Thus William will find two payments in August. The statement runs from June 16 to Sept. 30. The balance is $79.

II-1-a A.L.S. 3pp. 12mo.

1825 Oct. 22
Bellamy, Father J(ean): La Rivier aux Raisins, Michigan
 to  Father (Simon Gabriel) Brute : Emmitsburg, Maryland

It is time that he show some signs of life, since he has received two letters together with the precious things Brute has sent. He did not receive it all at once because Father (Gabriel) Richard forgot to give them to him and he did not have Brute's first letter until a long time after Richard has returned from Congress. He wrote to his superior and the letter was lost. This second letter he hopes will do better than the first. He has not yet received any letters from Britany, but one from a friend in Bordeaux. He has sent word to France only twice. He sent 3 or 4 letters to France in March but has had no answer but this very day they have announced that they have some letters for him at Detroit. He is 12 miles from Detroit where the people do not speak French and he does not speak English. One can expect difficulties among people who have rarely seen a priest for twenty years. He has hopes of building two churches one of stone and the other of brick. Since he came he had given first Communion to 66 children. About 50 were ready by All Saints. He has baptized one lady 52 years old. He hopes to baptize the father of a family who has declared himself a Catholic. He has nothing further to announce. He is very grateful to Brute because nothing is more agreeable than to receive news. He had a high fever during the month of August but he has recovered. P.S. He sends his respects to his friends. (To this is added by Father Richard) Since nature adhors a vacuum he will fill out the page. He begs pardone for so doing and then acknowledges a letter from Brute of April 11 containing an excellent map. Governor (Lewis Cass) was away when he received it. When he returns soon there will be a grand feast for him and for Richard in which Brute will enter by his exhibition. What men were those Jesuits, what a loss for the Indians. How ignorant were those Americans who said to others "will you vote for a friar or a jesuit? The election is decided. The Canvassers announced their decision after two months and a half. They announced for Major Biddle 689, for Gabriel Richard 724 and for Austin E. Wing 728. Martin lost his donkey for 4 votes. The friends of Biddle claim they canvassers have exceeded their powers. Some Americans are trying to get for Richard the seat in Congress which was deprived by wicked tricks. An American has sworn an affidavit that he witnessed an incident in which Richard lost 60 votes and this does not count many other places were witnessed testify to similar events. But Richard says he will remain in Detroit and let the other two fight it out in Washington. Wing who obtained the certific served the warrant for Labadie for he is sheriff. He told Richard six weeks ago that he had no doubt that Richard had the most legal votes but that his sins out weighed Richard's prayers. The prayers can win a revision. The good St. Anne suffered the revision and the 6 Charity Sisters whom Brute sent to Arbre Croche in June what will they think? Father (Francis Vincent) Badin has made a pretty chapel for the Indians. He said Mass there July 19 and on a second visit he baptized 21 savages and admitted 5 Indians to first Communion. P.S. He has Brute's letter in which he announces Bishop (Louis William) Dubourg's $200. That is a good happening. With what he has he can perhaps arrive at a compromise with his friend L(abadie) who has warned him about going beyond the limits 3 times in going to Washington. He might be content with half a judement or $600, offering him at this time $150. This keeps him here when he has an idea of going to Washington. P.S. He sends his regards to Father (Jean) Dubois, to the other priests and the good sisters who ought always to prepare to go to Arbew Croche when Providence furnishes the means. Brute should prepare professors for college in ovo.

II-3-o - A.L.S. - (French; - parts {in} English) 4pp. 4to. 6

1825 Oct. 22

Seton, A.
New York, New York

to James C. Seton

The writer says his complaint is yielding to medical treatment. If he gets well he will visit Angostura again. He hopes James will attend to his handwriting and learn accounts. Mr. Baretto will have charge of that business during the winter in Mr. Bunker's absence. The former is to attend to Jame's improvement in handwriting and accounting. The writer entreats "Nic" (James) to support his efforts by trying to make himself a man of business. He promises to send James a new blue coat and other things by the "William Henry" and asks him to write if he needs anything else. Father's family is well. He has told them they should write James, so the latter can expect many letters. The writer says that for himself he is tired out from writing since eight o'clock in the morning.

II-1-a A.L.S. 1p. 8vo.

1825 Oct. 28

Southard, Sam(ue)l L.
Navy Department

to Mid(shipma)n William Seton, U.S. Navy
New York, (New York)

Seton is detached from the U.S. ship Cyane and is to hold himself in readiness for an examination.

II-1-a D.S. 1p. 8vo.

(1825)? Nov. 11
(Flaget), Benedict Joseph Bishop of: Bardstown, (Kentucky)
 to  Father (Simon Gabriel) Brute: Emmitsburg, (Maryland)

Flaget writes in good humor and as Brute desires he is sending the $50 to Father Gabriel Richard to sweeten his misfortune in not being elected a second time. Richard says that it is good for priests to run for Congress. To him Richard was greater in his prison with his bed of straw than in the center of Congress. Father (Stephen Theodore) Badin is always having Richard made a bishop, but the letters from Rome say nothing about it but the promotion of Father (Benedict) Fenwick to Boston, and Richard has heard nothing on the subject. Father Felicite LeMannais has sent him three books he has had printed this year, one on the project of Bishop Dhermopolis, one on a law against scrileges and a third he has not yet read. Flaget marvels at the power with which he writes against the minister of Ecclesiastical Affairs. France should be very happy to have such a writer. But after reading LeMannais he thinks that the last days approach. Like Noe they should be preparing for them. They should be ready to be canonized as the first bishops of their sees, instead of spending their time building and buying lands. Brute should pray for him that he escape from the mud in which he is now embedded. He asks Brute to come to see him during the next vacation and bring with him Wheeler. Bishop (Jean) David plans a new edition of his catechism with some new questions and answers. He has added a little catechism for children and for slaves and has added an explanation of all the feasts of the year. He will certainly send one to Brute as soon as it is off the press. Flaget asks about Father (John) Dubois who is engaged in the same work as he and David and Flaget. P.S. David sends his regard to Brute and Dubois.

II-3-o - A.L.S. - (French) - 3pp.5

(1825) Nov. 12
(Flaget) B(enedict) J(oseph): Bardstown (Kentucky)
 to  Father (Simon) Brute: Mt. St. Mary's Emmitsburg, Maryland

In accordance with Brute's wishes, Flaget who through some good fortune has acquired 50 dollars has passed them on to Mr. (Gabriel) Richard to soothe the bitterness in his heart from his frustrated desire for reelection to congress. Flaget does not agree with Richard who holds that it is quite proper for the Catholic Church to have some of its priests as members of Congress from time to time and in his way of thinking Richard was more "interesting" in the obscurity of his prison cell sleeping on a bed of straw than in the center of light in Congress sitting on a velvet chair. The European Mr. (Stephen Theodore) Badin still makes him (Richard) Bishop, but the letters from announcing the promotion of Mgr. (Benedict Joseph) Fenwick to Boston does not mention his and Richard himself declares having no information on the subject. Flaget has just received three pamphlets form Mr. (Hughes Felecite Robert) de la Mennais; one on a bill drafted by Mgr. D'Hermopolis (presented before the House of Lords Jan. 4 1825) relating to religious orders among women. (The title of this is: Du Project de Loi sur les Congregations Religieuses de Femmes) the other on a bill against the sacriliges (Du Project de Loi sur le Sacrilege presente a la Chambre des Pairs le 4 Janvier 1832) he has not had time to read the third. With what power of reasoning does he attack the Ecclisiastical ministry the people will certainly render justice to the Breton who do not curry favors from the influential to get ahead he appeared less energetic in his discussion of the bill against sacrileges. France is fortunate to claim such a writer; but she is to be pitied for having so many either indifferent of impious. At times Flaget is convinced that religion is gaining in all sides but after reading such he can see only the approach of great misfortunes. Never the less like so many Noes Flaget is interested in the construction of buildings, of purchasing land, that is to say he considers himself worldly instead of a saint to be canonized as were the early bishops of the new sees. Flaget asks for Brute's prayers to help him get out of the mire in which he is sunk to the neck. He also invites Brute to visit him during his next vacation and to bring along Wheeler. Mgr. (Jean Baptiste Marie) David has induced Flaget to write a new edition of the Catechism. He (David) took the liberty to make light changes in a few of the questions and answers but he has preserved the substance and form of the older form. He adds a small Catechism for the children and the slave and besides he enriches his work with a short but substantial explanation for all the holidays of the year. He will certainly send you a copy as soon as it is released. Without Brute's letters Flaget would not know if (John) Dubois is still alive. Flaget sends his regards to him and asks that he be told to remember his two former friends who are now following in his footsteps and are building superb colleges and multiplying their schools as much as possible. - Benoit Joseph Bishop of Bardstown - Mgr. David greets you and blesses you both. BJ

A.L.S. - (French) - 3pp - 8vo

1825 Nov. 18

Smith, Mary S.
St. Michael, (Frederick Town, Missouri)

to Father J(ohn) Timon, (C.M.), St. Mary's College
(Perryville, Missouri)

Father (Francis) Cel(l)ini, (C.M.) had written to Timon before he started but his letter was detained by Mr. Bossier whom he expected would start with his son for College. Smith begs Timon to lose no time in coming to see them. Cel(l)ini had written to Father (John Baptist) Tornatore, (C.M.) to give them Father (Benedict) Roux during his absence. Yet they beg timon to come if possible for Friday evening as Saturday is one of their feasts.

IV-3-i A.L.S. 1p. 4to.

1825 Nov. 19

(David), Bishop John B.M. of Mauricastro
Bardstown, (Kentucky)

to (Bishop Edward Fenwick)
(Cincinnati, Ohio)

During the absence of Bishop (Benedict Joseph) Flaget, he professed Father (Augustine) Hill. Hill gives them a most gratifying account of the state of religion in Cincinnati and of the success of the establishment of the Dominicans. He finds the house of St. Rose in a lamentable condition, but hopes it to have improved by the time he returns. They put up a new building to take care of the 54 new boarders brought by Father ( ) Martial, and it is so large as to make them uneasy about the future. Their school of Nazareth is also increasing, now having 50 boarders, and it is necessary to put up a new building, but they have not the means. (Sisters of Nazareth) have a new chapel dedicated to St. Paul on the day of St. John the Baptist and they desire a picture of St. John, having received one of St. Vincent from Father (John) McGill. They ask Fenwick for such a picture and any other religious articles needed to ornament the chapel. His new catechism is now being printed and he will send one to Fenwick by Hill and asks that Fenwick give his remarks on it, so that any corrections that may be needed can be taken care of in the second edition. He is also thinking of having the church music printed and thinks it can be done in Cincinnati. Hill will give him a detailed account of their situation.

II-4-d A.L.S. 2pp. 8vo.

1825 Nov. 22

Watkins, F., Treasury Department
Fourth Auditor's Office

to Mid(shipman) William Seton, U.S. Navy
New York, New York

Seton's letter of the 19th has been received. Being detached from the Cyane and paid by its purser until October 31st, Seton is to apply monthly to the Fourth Auditor's Office for his pay, until he is assigned to another ship or station. He cannot be paid for the present month (November) until its expiration.

II-1-a L.S. 1p. royal 8vo.

1825 Dec. 5

Seton, Bunker, and Baretto
Angostura, (Venezuela)

to H.L. Rutgers
( )

"Mr. H.L. Rutgers in account with Seton, Bunker and Baretto Co." Lists purchases for November and December of hides, indigo, cotton, deer skins, and sugar to the amount of $860.50 which added to a balance of $5627.81 totals $8988.31.

II-1-a (statement of account) 2pp. 8vo.

1825 Dec. 16

Kenrick, Father Fran(ci)s Pat(rick)
Bardstown, (Kentucky)

to (Father Frederick Rese)
(Cincinnati, Ohio)

Kenrick sends the following observations to Rese to be submitted to Bishop (Edward Dominic Fenwick) and Father (Augustine) Hill, O.P. concerning the Ohio church property. The first question is whether it is proper for the bishop to allow the church of Canton, Ohio and the house and land attached to be given to the Dominicans. If this were an institution free of the care of souls, the problem would be whether the bishop could make the grant without the consent of the Holy See. The Council of Trent in insisting on the assent of bishops does not take away the necessity of the consent of the Holy See as required in the Constitution of Boniface VIII. Kenrick expatiates on this point, though not asked, to protect the conscience of the bishop and the interests of the diocese and to screen Fenwick from the reproaches of his successor who might not be Dominican. But even though this consent be understood in the powers given to the ecclesiastical authorities, the intention of the donors is rather to provide for a parochial church not a convent of secluded religious, not to promote the Dominicans but to enjoy the benefit of the present Dominicans. The question then resolves into one of the right of the bishop to grant a parochial church and property to be incorporated in a monastery, giving the order to property as well as the obligation to care for the parish. In this matter Kenrick cites the decision of Urban II in which grants without episcopal approval were held null and in which priests were forbidden to exercise the parochial functions without the consent of the bishop. The Council of Trent apparently continues this rule. Benedict XIV also distinguishes between the church attached to a monastery and one dependent on the monastery. In the present case, Kenrick is of the opinion that the bishop can sanction the creation of such curacies, but should include a condition whereby in case of neglect he can appoint a priest not of the Order to care for the parish. This he regards as essential to the notions of the donor as well as the maintenance of church discipline. A clause should be inserted to prevent alienation, lest the land or church be sold and the bishop be left with the obligation without the mean thereto. This matter leads Kenrick to refer to the giving of 300 acres of land to the Dominicans near Somerset, which he regards as invalid or at least questionable. Even though Fenwick received the land as a Dominican before he was a bishop and what is given to a religious belongs to the order, yet Kenrick maintains that the donation was given not to the order but to the church for the establishing of religion in the state. Since no convent was erected before Fenwick became bishop, Kenrick thinks the donation should be regarded as in favor of the bishop who might sometime have to send a priest to care for the parish, who would be deprived of the support from the 300 acres. With regard to the church at Zanesville, built on land belonging to the Dominicans without the permission of the bishop or his vicar general, not even the right of presentation is acquired since the consent of the bishop is required for that. He makes these observations because he has been asked and because he is backed by the canons of the church. His affection for Father Hill does not appear in his observations because he feels that the public good must come before private feeling. He hopes that Hill's love of the general good will prevail over his love for his Order. Great are the benefits of religious orders to the church and he is not opposed to the diffusion of the Dominican order, but he thinks that the first good to be sought is the establishment of a bishop in Ohio and he is afraid the proposals made would ruin both the bishop and the church in Ohio should Hill's successor not be of the proper spirit. To guard against every danger, however, Kenrick advises a statement to Rome and a cordial submission to her decision, even though the grants are good in the civil courts. He ends his letter with an appeal to Rese to support the rights of the bishop within the bounds of charity.
P.S. He asks that his salutations be presented to (Fenwick). (In Detroit collection).

III-2-f A.L.S. 7pp. 8vo.


Leo XII, Pope
Rome, (Italy)

Encyclical letter: The Extension of the Jubilee. Given at Rome, January 8, 1825.

V-4-d Printed booklet (Latin) 15pp. 12mo.