BROTHERS OF HOLY CROSS, 1841
On September 13, 1841, Father Sorin and six Brothers arrived in America. Inasmuch as they had been sent for by Bishop Hailandiere, of Vincennes, they went directly to that See and located in Vincennes, Indiana. In February, (November 26, 1842) however, they took permanent possession of their property at Notre Dame where they founded an academy and began their educational activity in America.
In reference to this beginning, the DIRECTORY of 1842 says: "The Brothers of St. Joseph, lately arrived from Europe, intend to open a school in Daviess [sic!] county, where the novitiate of the institute will be kept. The Rev. L. [sic!] is superior. In passing it might be well for us to clarify the term Brothers of St. Joseph."
"The Brothers of St. Joseph is a community with the associate of priests composing the Congregation of Holy Cross.
During the subsequent years their attention was largely concentrated on Notre Dame. In fact, up to the close of this period they had made but one attempt to establish a school outside of Notre Dame. At the request of the Very Rev. V.J. Joseph Cretin, the Brothers organized an academy in Dubuque, which unfortunately, proved but a venture of less than a decade.
Of the school, the DIRECTORY says: This Academy is conducted by the Brothers of St. Joseph from Indiana, under the direction of the Very Rev. J. Cretin."
In the meantime we are led to believe that the Congregation temporarily took charge of St. Mary's College near Lebanon, Kentucky . . . . . .
Anna Sadlier's Tribute . . . see under "Sadlier, Anna", "Sorin"
Shuster's under "George N. Shuster"
"The Brothers of the Congregation of Holy Cross have the honor of being the first of the existing teaching Brotherhoods to be established in the United States. Early in the Immigration Period and from Notre Dame as a center they exercised an influence upon the school movement that was widely felt. Foundation in 1820 . . . . . . . . .
"Most of these parish schools were eventually relinquished. The chief cause of this was the scarcity of vocations to the teaching brotherhood, together with the remarkable growth of the College of Notre Dame, which necessitated an ever greater concentration of the Community at home. The Brothers . . . .of late years, perceiving the trend of Catholic School growth, have been quietly preparing to take a larger part in the work of secondary education.
The concentration of the teaching Brothers at Notre Dame, while it was a disadvantage to the school movement, contributed much to the growth of the institutions at the Mother House, and especially the College, where the Brothers have from the beginning had principal charge of the secondary and commercial classes, and also of certain administrative positions. It is interesting to record that the work of Father Sorin and the six pioneer Brothers continued in the joint labors of the Priests and Brothers of Holy Cross, have splendidly fulfilled the prophetic plan of Fr. Badin for the establishment of a great Catholic educational center at Notre Dame of a new normal school for the higher training of the Brothers, the influence of this educational center bids fair to make itself more widely felt in the future in the Catholic School movement, as well as in the domain of higher education. Fr. Burns, "Growth and Development of the Catholic School System," pp. 101-04, 1912
Election of a Superior . . . after Father Moreau had been elected Superior General for life. 1849
"Then took place the election of the three Special Superiors: One for the priests, one for the Brothers, and one for the Sisters. Then and by unique exception (this time only) all the professed Brothers were consulted by secret ballot on the choice of a provincial or a Brother for Special Superior of their Society. After serious examination of the question, all, save three, asked for a priest." Moreau, "Life", Book 2, p. 112, 1849
"I have not changed regarding your Brothers or you. I desire greatly your Brothers and I am happy to have them. To keep them I will do all that I reasonably can." Bishop Hailandiere to Sorin
See under "Benoit, Rev. Julian"; "Bigotry"; "Brooklyn"; "Brothers Pressure for"; "Brothers Waiters"; "Brothers Accounts, etc."; "Baltimore"; "Diocesan Brothers or Not?"; "Edwards, Poverty of Brothers"; "Nashville"; "Natches"; "Novitiates"; "St. Peter's" 1841; "Schools"; "Ger. N. Shuster on Teaching Brothers"; "Sorin"; "Vincennes"
Brothers and Pastors . . . In his very first Circular Letter, addressed to the Brothers of St. Joseph, Father Moreau outlined a policy at once simple yet adequate for the regulation of the relations of the Brothers with both the ecclesiastical and civil authorities. "Never forget," he wrote, "that the pastor of the pastors of the parish represents Jesus Christ, and that from the moment a group of his children have been confided to you with the charge to instruct them in the paths of virtue you become his cooperator. Consequently, you owe him the same respect and obedience as that due to your local superior in all that is not contrary to your Rule. If, which God forbid, you experience any difficulty with the pastor . . . beware of quarreling. Write me or the Brother Director, that a reconciliation may be effected more surely and more successfully" Father Moreau, "Circular Letter", Number 1
Pressure for Brothers . . . . . . . "We exhort the bishops, and, in view of the very grave evils which usually result from the defective education of youth, we beseech them through the bowels of the mercy of God, to see that schools be established in connection with all the churches of their diocese; and, if it be necessary and circumstances permit, to provide, from the revenues of the church to which the school is attached, for the support of competent teachers. Decree of the First Plenary Council of Baltimore, 1852
See "W. Philadelphia, St. Augustine, 1860"
See "Newark, N.Y."
(The Brothers of St. Joseph at St. Peter's, near Washington, Indiana.)
The members of this community are twelve in number. The following institution has been opened under their direction:
School for young men under the patronage of the Rt. Rev. Bishop of Vincennes, and directed by the Rev. E. Sorin, a school will be opened for the reception of young men, on the first Monday in September. Young men of any religious profession will be received, without preference or distinction. The location is on an eminence, and one of the most healthy in the State, situated six miles from the town of Washington, Indiana.
The course of instruction will comprise all the branches of a sound, correct, and practical English Education -- as follows: Orthography, Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, etc. CATHOLIC ALMANAC, 1842
"In one letter sent to the Mother House, the Sr. Superior said that all were in complete destitution, with straw mattresses for their only beds, and that the clothes of the Brothers were such a state as no longer to have material on which to sew patches. Once more the purse of the Mother House was emptied for the poor little struggling colony; for though Fr. Moreau himself slept on a little pile of straw or in a chair, it broke his heart to have his children suffer through necessity what he suffered through choice." Sr. Eleanore: "On the King's Highway", p. 127, 1842
(Advertisement of School)
"A Free School has been opened at St. Mary's of the Lake, near South Bend, by the Brothers of St. Joseph for the reception of boys. The exercises of the school commence at 8:00 A.M. and close at 4:00 P.M. The course of instruction will consist of spelling, reading, writing and arithmetic.
No religious qualification will be required and parents may feel confident the peculiar tenets of the children shall not be interfered with. South Bend Paper, September 29, 1843
St. Mary's of the Lake, South Bend, St. Joseph County, Indiana. Under the direction of the Priests. SOUTH BEND FREE PRESS, December 2, 1843
(Incorporation, January 15, 1844)
Chapter 33 -- Act of incorporation of "Brothers of St. Joseph, approved January 15, 1844, enacted by General Assembly of Indiana. John Bray -- De la Hoyde, Jeremiah Eagan O'Leary, Samuel O'Connel, Michael Walsh -- associated for the purpose of instruction of youth in the school of letters and the art of mechanism, and that of agriculture.
Not allowed to hold real estate exceeding in value $25,000. Any more must be sold within two years.
"To diminish the expense of the literary instruction of youth, the said corporation shall adopt a system of manual labor that such youth as desire it may be exercised therein." 1844
Section 1. Be in enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, that John Bray, De La Hoyde, Jeremiah Egan O'Leary, Sam Connell, Michael Walsh, and such other persons as shall hereafter associate, for the purpose of instructing youth in the sciences of letters, the art of mechanism, and that of agriculture, and their successors in office, be, and are hereby declared to be a body corporate and politic, by the name of "The Brothers of St. Joseph", and by that name they shall have perpetual succession with full power and authority to contract and to be contracted with; to acquire, hold, enjoy and transfer any property real or personal, in their corporate capacity; to make, have and use a common seal, and the same to alter at pleasure; to sue and be sued; to plead and be impleaded in any court of law or equity; to receive and accept any grant, gift, donation, bequest and conveyance by any person, company, or corporation, of any property, real or personal, and to hold and enjoy and dispose of the same as they deem best for the promotion of the instruction of youth aforesaid; to elect a superior or president, and all such other officers and agents as they may think necessary for the good order of their own body; to make, ordain, establish and execute such by-laws, rules and ordinances, not inconsistent with the constitutions and laws of the United States or of this State, as they shall deem necessary for their own government; and to do all other acts in pursuance thereof, necessary for the promotion of literature, and the arts and for prosperity." Incorporation of the Brothers of St. Joseph, 1844
"It having been found unwholesome not to bathe in summer in this country, the Brothers shall bathe on Mondays and Fridays. Therefore, they shall get up at 4:30 on those days." July 9, 1846
Priests resident: Rev. E. Sorin, Superior; Father Cointet, Fr. Gouesse, Mr. Shawe, Mr. Deliske.
Four Students of theology. Pupils 1846-47 -- nearly 50.
Brothers of St. Joseph have their novitiate at Indianapolis under the direction of Rev. A. Granger. They have a Manual Labor School near South Bend. Schools also at Indianapolis, Washington, Vincennes, Madison, Ft. Wayne with 60-70 pupils each." CATHOLIC ALMANAC, p. 210, 1848
It was decided to discharge all hands that could be dispensed with and to replace them with Brothers." Local Council, October 29, 1875
"Francis De Sales, Benedict, Dominic, Charles Borromeo, Jerome, Michael made profession October 22." 1848
"Thomas J. Walsh, a native of Dublin, Ireland, took the habit and received the name of Brother Victor." "Brothers James, Cyprian, and Augustus professed November 1" 1848 "The Brothers, similar to the Christian Brothers, are consecrated to the Most Holy Heart of St. Joseph, and chiefly instituted to teach the poor and the destitute; they take charge of orphan asylums, and teach useful trades; and they also discharge the manual offices connected with a college and a farm. The most suitable age for admission is from 15-35; and the qualifications chiefly are -- blameless character, a sound constitution, a true piety, pure morals, a firm and conciliating temper, and a great desire of personal sanctification in the line of obedience. When the Brothers are sent out, they must be two at least, and they receive each a salary of $100 per annum, unless they take the school on their own account. Their novitiate is one year, and they cannot make their perpetual vows before they are twenty-five years of age." CATHOLIC DIRECTORY, p. 110, 1850
"Resolved that Brothers should not be permitted any longer to take at breakfast more than one full bowl of coffee, and that accordingly bowls of the same size should be distributed to each one." Monthly Council of Brothers, 1849
"Brother C. Borromeo will be chamberlain for the rooms of the priests, regulator and excitator at the University, attending the tables of the boarders, and the lamps and he will fetch from the linen house the clothes of the Priests and boys as before." Local Council, August 26, 1847
"And in this happy hour let us send up a shout of praise for the consecrated Brothers who have come to assist in the later work of the diocese. Honor the good physician, says St. Paul about his companion and associate, St. Luke -- honor the good physician for the need thou hast of him. After the Priesthood, and in many ways akin to the Priesthood, is the beautiful vocation of a Brother. One of the noblest things ever said of Washington is this: 'Providence left him childless that the whole nation might call him Father.' The young men who throng with a seemingly divine impatience into the ranks of the Brotherhood in this most self-indulgent age and in this greedy material civilization, in the very morning of their young lives at the feet of superiors whom they hardly know, and of future superiors they cannot even imagine. And why? In order that other men's sons may be taught in safe ways and through holy channels not alone literature and science and the best practical education the world can supply, but impenetrating all this, and crowning it, the spiritual knowledge that is to be their star, and the religious discipline that is to be their anchor, through life, shunning publicity, shunning even the most sacred honors and distinctions. Their deeds are not carved on monuments of stone nor cast in bronze on the tablets of immortality but their beautiful lives and their holy work are painted on the unforgetting intelligence of the angels and the story of them is written in the Book of God. Happy the young men who feel the touch of their consecrated hand: happy the fathers and mothers to whom these blessed services are rendered." Rev. John Cavanaugh, C.S.C., Sermon preached at Golden Jubilee, Diocese of Ft. Wayne, 1932
"In detail the sacrifices that Priests and Brothers of Holy Cross are called upon to make today is different from that demanded of the pioneers of old; in substance it is the same . . . . Observe the clever or kindhearted or painstaking Brothers who act as counselors, as teachers, or in the noble office of prefects, or in more humble duties do an indispensable work for Catholic education; ask youself how these men who the world perpetually solicits without success, find strength and courage to live as they do in simplicity and humbleness, and obedience. They rise at 5 o'clock Winter and Summer; they go hither and thither at the word of command; they receive no salary from the day when they fling their fresh young lives at the feet of their superiors in the novitiate until the day when in early dawn their folded hands and weary feet are bestowed in a plain wooden coffin in mother earth; their sole worldly reward is the simple food that keeps body and soul together, the plain vesture that clothes them from wind and sun. Tell me . . . are not these men in very truth the brethren of those of 60 years ago who clove their way through the wilderness? Nay, are they not of the family of Peter and Paul and John and Andrew, and the Apostles of every race and of every clime?" SCHOLASTIC, 39:42, Fr. J.W. Cavanaugh, C.S.C., Sermon on: "The Function of the Religious College," 1906
"The studying Brothers shall not wear any gloves." Council of Administration, 1845
"Whereas some councillors always complain that the tailors charge too much, several tailors in South Bend and Niles ahll be asked their charge for similar work." Council of Administration, 1846
"Brothers on farm to have boots; student Brothers and carpenter Brothers to have shoes, All must have warm caps for winter and chip or straw hats for summer. Each Brother to have a uniform suitable to his profession or occupation." 1884
"Those who don't always wear habits shall have waistcoats." 1845
"Mrs. Tremelle shall make stocks and caps for the Brothers." Jan. 8, 1846
"Sisters to spin wool for pantaloons for the Brothers who should have uniform coats." December 29, 1846
"Mrs. Lymcome to make habits for five Brothers." December 29, 1846
" . . . for the lay dress it was decided after consultation with Bro. Casimir, the tailor:
"The Brothers will have cloaks and not overcoats." November 23, 1857, Local Council Minutes
Clothes keeper . . . "At Notre Dame,; Mother Mary of the Circumcision, directress, and clothes-keeper of priests and Brothers." ON THE KING'S HIGHWAY, p. 140, 1845
"The wool from our sheep to be manufactured into flannel and cash to be paid for it instead of dividing the material with the manufacturer." Local Council, June 5, 1865
"Full-bosom collars (boiled shirts?) are prohibited to all our members, even those on the mission." 1866
"It was resolved that we replace the hired men at St. Mary's by some Brothers." Local Council, Jan. 5, 1872
"Following Brothers to replace boys as waiters: Brother Bonaventure, Wildred, Bruno, Leo, Valerian, Sebastian, Sophronius, and Luke." Local Council, 1873
"The retreat of 1836 inaugurated an era of great religious progress and of serious religious reform. Abbe Moreau set aside those Brothers he deemed incapable of becoming teachers because of their inaptitude to acquire the necessary instruction and employed them at manual labor." LIFE OF FR. MOREAU, p. 71, Rev. Charles Moreau, 1836
"The postulants and Novice Brothers will work from 1-2 o'clock in the afternoon and will fill up the marsh between the two lakes." Minor Chapter, 1850
"Trees shall be planted next month on the avenue." Feb. 10, 1850
" . . . . . . that the rising for the working Brothers should take place at four thirty, Mass be said at five, and breakfast at five thirty, so that at six all could go to work. At ten thirty all would come for particular examen, go to work at fifteen minutes after their dinner, come back for seven, attend to spiritual reading for fifteen minutes, go to the Church for the visit, reciting along the beads, and spend in recreation the balance of the time." Minor Chapter, 1850
"After a long and desultory discussion about the Brothers working ten hours per day in the field, the President decided that there should be a Mass at five o'clock A.M. for those who were obliged to work on the farm from May 1st. to September 1st; during these months the Brothers engaged on the farm leave off work at 6:30 P.M." Minutes of Provincial Chapter, 1859 (First Colony)
"Departure 'after one of the most solemn and touching ceremonies.' The novelty of the ceremony had brought a very large number of 'protectors'."
Moreau surpassed himself and infused those present with the emotions that filled him.
Brother Vincent, Laurent, and Marie Professed. Two Brothers, Gatian and Anselm, 15 years old . . . . "Destined for a special assignment."
"Intentions of Mother House do not seem, in principle, to have been more than the simple creation of a Novitiate for the Brothers at the expense and risks of the diocese which had desired them."
Oral agreement only. Priest and Brothers were given to the Bishop on condition that he pay for their outfit and traveling expenses from New York to Vincennes without any reserve of jurisdiction on Moreau's part than to recall them later and replace them immediately.
Lack of contract led to a flock of difficulties. The delay of two years in sending the colony was caused less by lack of men than of money. Hadn't a pious lady of Le Mans an idea which furnished unexpectedly to Moreau the means, it might have been delayed longer. A lottery on a great chain brought 1500 francs ($300) Private donations added as much more. Protection of Our Lady of the Snow. Placed all under Her Protection. Poor, ignorant of language, and customs of America led them to do so.
Thought America a land of savages where a missionary was called upon to make many sacrifices. 500 francs each equals 3500 francs cabin. Sailed August 8. Ultimate cost, 1500, Steerage 200 francs. "Iowa" sailboat.
Used a little room for cabin passengers, 6 x 8 for exercises . . . so did nuns. Chapter, Confessions, Calm ses. Mass, Communion. Respected by all. Captain edified by Sorin's refusing to take cabin offered him. Arrived Sept. 13.
Spent nearly a whole day with Bishop Dubois, New York. 340,000 population, 50,000 Catholics.
Surprised to find on land lately occupied by Indians, streets and stores to compare with those of Paris.
Third day left. Bought provisions. Three hundred dollars for transportation from Hailandiere more than enough. Took slower routes in order to economize . . . arrived at Vincennes twenty-five days later. Trip from Albany to Buffalo took seven and one half days. Exercises held as at sea. Confessions once held near the foot of a fallen oak tree while boat awaited passage through locks. Sorin and Bro. Vincent went by train to see Niagara. By steamer to Toledo. Thirty six hours. Very rough. Next to Ft. Wayne, 1,500 to 1,800 parish of 8-900 Catholics. Two days later at residence of Vicar General Martin. Hospitable. Accompanied them to Lafayette. Last leg took a week. Arrived October 8, 1841 at sunrise. "It was a veritable feast day for them. They could hardly believe their eyes and persuade themselves that they were in Vincennes." Bishop Hailandiere contrary to expectation had no house ready for Brothers as he wanted them to choose among several places. First Colony, 1841 (Second Colony)
Sailed May 29 to second efforts of our beloved brethren in America: Three Sisters, one Brother, two Priests.
Brother Vincent embarked at Havre September 10, on ZURICH, an American sail boat with Branger, two Brothers, three Sisters. 1844 (Brother of St. Joseph . . . Council of Administration)
"After the invocation of the Holy Ghost, the Council of Administration being assembled took into consideration the mode of attending better to the stock on the farm and its improvement. Brother Peter was appointed to attend to it and Brother Patrick to assist him if necessary." Bro. John, Secretary, Oct. 31, 1842, Brothers' Council, 1844-46, Minutes
October 11; "Brother Charles should draw up a list of Brothers and others to read for them at supper, viz., the following: Bro. Gatian, Bro. Thomas, Bro. Charles, and Messrs. L. Etourneau and Steber."
April 1: "The boarders shall have two buckets to wash in . . . "
January 14: "Bro. Bernard may mend the pens of those boys who have no pen knives."
February 11: "There must be a floor of planks in the study room."
November 4: "There must be another table made for the refectory and Bro. Mary (Francis Xavier) will be president." (Brothers and Indians) Fr. Sorin to Fr. Moreau . . . .
" . . . .Why reproach me for having sent a Brother among the Indians? (Pokagon, Michigan), when besides several particular reasons, I had no other means to conciliate in his (Bishop Hailandiere's) favor all the savages of Pokagon. He is the only one that went out of the diocese. What does this reproach mean -- namely, that of having sent three Brothers out of Indiana contrary to his protestations, while so many others are asked for in vain for his diocese? I have never said nor have I ever heard any Brother say that we are independent. Then what does the good Bishop mean when he accuses us on every side of having said so, of having used it as our watchword? This clearly shows that he regards with little ease our drawing away from his government and his administration . . . "
"In my last letter of a week ago I spoke to you of the advantages of making, especially in the beginning and by principle, according to the first Bishop (of Vincennes) foundations outside the diocese. Bishop de la Hailandiere will not consent to this and I am a little annoyed thereat, but my advice is that it should be done if possible." July 2, 1844 (Brother Workers) - 1845 and 1859
"It was also decided to send away the hired men and to have the work done by Brothers, except that it was necessary to keep a hired carpenter until such time as a Brother would be able to direct the work himself. This was a means of reducing expenses and of preserving the community spirit from contact with strangers." Father Sorin (Brothers and Priests Council)
The Council of Priests and Brothers will not hold any more, as it was done last year, but the matters special to each society will be treated before the capitulants at the end of the Minor Chapter, which commonly takes place on Friday. Local Council, October 11, 1847 (Brothers and Vincennes Diocese, 1848)
"Fr. Sorin's first care in his conference with Bishop Bazin was to have the agreement with Bishop Hailandiere cancelled which bound the Brothers in such a manner to the diocese that they were not permitted to make foundations outside it no matter how advantageous these offers might be. Article 1. Article IV "provided that at least two should be sent out together on a mission." See also "Hailandiere" Bishop on Brother, 1841, SORIN CHRONICLE, 1841 (Brother's General Council)
The Council having considered the good disposition of Bishop Purcell and the advantages which would accrue to the Institute from its having a novitiate in his diocese for all the United States have come to the decision of opening a correspondence with Bishop Purcell of Cincinnati who, co-jointly with the other Bishops who are to meet in Baltimore next year, will probably prevail with the Bishop of Vincennes to consent that Brothers be sent to Cincinnati to begin a Novitiate, instead of beginning it in Indianapolis. But whereas the Institution has so few members to spare and the hope of succeeding in Indianapolis is not great, the Council took the resolution of remaining inactive until they would see how matters will turn out. 4th. Stocks covered with cloth or velvet shall be made for the Brothers. 5th. The Brothers shall not be allowed to wear gloves in church. 6th. To keep the Brothers busy on Sunday, there shall be two classes for them: the first from 9-10 a.m. shall be a class of arithmetic taught by Brother Joseph; and the second from 3-4:30 shall be a writing class taught by Brother Basil. General Council, 1850 Constitution 3, Art, 34 -- Use of glasses and tobacco to be authorized only after order of conscientious doctor, and "Those who have had the misfortune of contracting with reason these bad habits, will try to correct them." For this alone novices and postulants can be refused the habit. 1850 (Brothers for Indians)
"Family of the Chief of the Miami's 90 miles from here, is a French origin, Chief La Fontaine the only Catholic among them, but we have hopes of their conversion as the authority of a chief is great. La Fontaine asks for a Brother to teach his children. The Brother could instruct the other children too, and perhaps the adults. "Since we owe a debt of gratitude to La Fontaine, who had just rendered a notable service to Notre Dame, we will not fail to profit by the occasion as soon as Providence sends us the means and our engagements with the diocese permit. (La Fontaine lived at Ft. Wayne. Son came to Notre Dame) Marivault to Moreau, 1844
"All but six of the (25) new communities were sisterhoods. Efforts were made by several bishops to procure more Brothers for boys' schools, but it was very difficult to induce the existing Brotherhoods in Europe to found branch establishments at a distance, so great was the demand for Brothers at home. Moreover, it was found hard to get vocations for Brothers here, much harder, in fact, than it was abroad. There was a financial advantage also in favor of the Sisters, in that they could live more cheaply, and consequently were content with a lower salary. These last two factors have continued to operate in favor of the employment of Sisters rather than Brothers as teachers in parish schools." Burns, GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CATHOLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM, p. 23, 1840's
"We have been almost a month on the IOWA. We have had Mass six times and I have received Holy Communion five times. If you knew how happy we are when our Divine Savior comes into our little cabin to encourage and strengthen us! We have very poor ornaments; our chalice is copper, but the priest is gold. He has the heart of an apostle, the simplicity of the dove mingled with the wisdom of the serpent. He is admirable among his Brothers, who are in the steerage for the sake of holy poverty; they do their own cooking, whilst we are in gilded salons and at a table where art and nature vie with each other to flatter the senses. Oh! how happy they are! When shall I, too, be poor?" LIFE AND LETTERS OF SR. ST. FRANCIS XAVIER, S.P., p 192 (She was a fellow- traveller of Fr. Sorin and his Brothers.)
"Then when my health permitted I followed the exercise of my good companions. All six of us were in a little cabin that served as a chapel, recreation room, and confessional. Abbe Sorin read to us sometimes from Bossuet. Ibid., p. 156, Sept. 12, 1841, in sight of New York
"August 22, 1845. General Chapter authorized Moreau to dispense Brothers in United States from rule forbidding study of Latin, but on condition that they never admit Brothers to become ecclesiastics without written consent of Fr. Rector Moreau."
The Sisters shall pay to Notre Dame du Lac for services as follows: for each Brother employed by them, besides board, per year, $150.
Each community shall clothe its own members. Contract, Local Council minutes. 1857
That the Brothers and students as many as can who are required by law to labor on the highway do go and perform the same on Wednesday next and on the Saturday following, according to the notice given by the supervisor. Council of Administration, May 26, 1845
"A plan of Sorin's was brought before the College to have women replace Brothers in the College. It was urged that they should come only at stated hours and that they be accompanied by a Sister." June 17, 1858
"It was decided that the coadjutor Brothers of the Novitiate will move to the College during vacation to give room to the missionary Brothers." Local Council, June 23, 1856
"Considering that there are in France and in Foreign Missions several Brothers bearing the same time and same name in religion, I, Basile Antoine Marie Moreau, Rector of the Association of Holy Cross, have resolved and do resolve that for the future the religious names of the Brothers shall be taken only in the initial letters A, E, I, N, R, in the United States . . . ." May 11, 1849
"On December 8, 1844, religious professions were made by our Sisters for the first time in the United States . . . . The ceremonies occurred in the chapel of the Brothers' Novitiate which then stood on the present site of the monastery (Community House) of Notre Dame." ON THE KING'S HIGHWAY, Sr. M. Eleanore, p. 136, 1844
"In 1844 Father Sorin built the chapel of the Brothers' Novitiate and dedicated it to the Sacred Heart in fulfillment of a vow made by Fr. Sorin on the occasion of the illness of one of the Sisters." 1844
"The Novitiate of the Brothers was erected at the same time." Lyons: SILVER JUBILEE
"The church and novitiate stood until the year 1858 when it was torn down . . . "
"The Brothers' Novitiate was first established on the Island, the dearest, pleasantest, most secluded spot of Notre Dame. In 1845, Father Granger opened the Novitiate on the Island and remained until 1847 when he went to Indianapolis. After a brief sojourn in that city, Fr. Granger with his novices took possession of the house on the Island. Fr. Granger remained Master of Novices until he was made Prefect of Religion at the College, and soon after Provincial.
"The Novitiate Brothers for many years had Fr. Letourneau to direct them in the way they should go; he was assisted at times by Bro. Augustus, and at others by Bro. Vincent, who, in the beginning was the Master of Novices himself, and who now (1869) in his venerable old age, continues to be Director of the Novitiate in the new edifice now occupied by the Novice Brothers. 1869
"On the island was being completed the Brothers' Novitiate, a plain tastefully designed, but wretchedly constructed brick building. Father Weinzopflen, a worthy German priest, lived on the island, acting as Master of Novices and as confessor to the Brothers and the students . . . " Howard, p. 71, 1845
"The institution consists of . . . .
4. A Novitiate for the Josephites filled with over forty novices and postulants nearly one third of whom are studying, while the others are engaged in various manual labors; this bids fair for the future; the Portiuncula is built for their use.
5. The farm with its lime and brick yards deserves a special notice in our report, as at a future epoch it may prove a valuable resource to the Institution provided it be properly and religiously conducted." Fr. Sorin's Regular Visit, 1861
1858 - 1859 . . . . Brothers' novitiate destroyed by fire; rebuilt, enlarged.
1861 - 1864 . . . . Brothers' novitiate overcrowded already.
"The Christian Brothers are doing God's work. Their apostolate, especially in the high school where youth begins to go wild, is a Catholic essential.
Engaged in the same fruitful apostolate, our own Brothers of Holy Cross give up their own lives to form Christian life in American Boys. They operate High Schools in Chicago, New Orleans, Albany, Indianapolis, Taunton (Mass.), South Bend. It is a stupid and harmful misconception, not rare even among Catholics to think that Brothers are 'men who might have been priests.' The fact is they are men who, knowing they might have been priests, have deliberately chosen an entirely different vocation -- a vocation noble in its own right, the evangelical life of poverty, chastity, and obedience which they vow perpetually. Pray tomorrow that St. John Baptist de la Salle may procure abundant blessings not only for the Christian Brother but for Brotherhoods generally. RELIGIOUS BULLETIN, May 14, 1930, Rev. J.F. O'Hara, C.S.C. (Brother Builders . . . )
"Others who aided Fr. Corby in the building up of the university during his first presidency and who greatly widened the influence of Notre Dame throughout the country were: . . . .Brother Philip, Francis de Sales, Basil, Benjamin, Edward, Leapold, Benoit, Florentius, Charles, Alban, Celestine, Marcellinus, Emmanuel, Albert, Paul of the Cross." Howard's History, p. 642, 1866
"So, too, of the Brothers of Holy Cross, a constituent element of the Congregation of Holy Cross -- numberically, indeed, its larger element -- Notre Dame owes to their devotedness and their spirit of self-sacrifice for more than trusts itself upon the notice of the superficial observer. Inconspicuous as the majority, especialy of the lay Brothers, uniformly appeared, as hidden from the public gaze as are the stokers of a mammoth liner, they have throughout every decade since the winter of 1842, done valiant work not less essential to the rise and progress of Notre Dame than is the stokers' activity to the speeding of the steamship. Not only in the classroom and study-hall, in students' office and on the campus, in residence halls and dormitories, in press rooms and publishing houses, but on the farm and in the garden, in sacristy and store, and in each of the score of different trades and handicrafts, the Brothers of Holy Cross have superabundantly justified both the original union with the Fathers of the Congregation and the foresight of Fr. Sorin in counting largely upon them for assistance imperatively needed in the presecution of his work." Rev. A.B. O'Neil's Tribute (Brother's Vocation)
No other force in American life has meant so much for the educational and religious development of our people as the quiet, unostentatious, thorough and sacred work of the members of our Brotherhoods. Rev. Dr. Felix J. Kelly: The Educational Work of Our Brotherhoods: Catholic Builders of the Nation V:428, F. Gareresche's pamphlet (Brother's Influence)
Yes, our country and our church owe a great debt to those humble Christian educators, and if the Church has leaders in the different walks of life in the U.S. today, the Catholic Brotherhoods must receive a large share of the credit. The influence exerted in their contemporaries and posterity by the Brothers and their pupils is powerful and far-reaching; one might almost say incalculable for good. Their lives and work preach silently, but eloquently, not only to the Catholics but also to the un-Christian element of the Community. Rev. Dr. F. J. Kelly, Catholic Builders of America, p. 429 (Teaching Brothers, 1925)
On their part the teaching Brotherhoods have clearly recognized the strong academic drift upwards, and they have risen to meet it. One by one they are allowing the primary schools to pass into the hands of the teaching Sisterhoods, and have realized that their main field of service in the future, in the schools, is to be in the upper grades, together with commercial, classical, and industrial training. Rev. Felix J. Kelly: Catholic Builders of America, p. 425 (Brother Writers)
They are too much absorbed in the work of teaching to devote themselves to the writing of books not of immediate utility in their schools. Rev. Felix J. Kelly: Catholic Builders of America, p. 424 (Brothers of St. Joseph, 1844)
This community consists of 32 brothers and 3 priests. This institution under the patronage of the Rt. Rev. Bishop of Vincennes, and directed by the Rev. E. Sorin is open for the reception of young men of any religious profession without preference or distinction. The location is on an eminence and is one of the most healthy in the state, situated six miles from the town of Washington, Ind. The course of instruction comprises all the branches of a sound, correct, and practical English education as follows: Orthography, Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, Grammer, Algebra, Mathematics, Geography, History, both ancient and modern, Book-keeping, etc.
Terms: Tuition and board including washing and mending per quarter, pay in advance . . . $18,000. French and German language . . . .$2.00. Or both included . . . $3.00. No extra charge will be made, except for books and stationery (which will be furnished at store prices) and for services of a physician who attends the institution. (Teaching Brothers)
Popular education in the U.S. has ever found its strongest advocates among the Brotherhoods. In this they have been carrying out the wishes of their different founders, who without any exception had in view the education of the poor. This was the very reason for the rise of most of our Brotherhoods. Increasing political disturbances, the desire for education with religion as its foundation caused religious communities of laymen to spring to the aid of the clergy in the general apostolate of Christian education. Rev. R.J. Kelly, Ph. D., Catholic Builders of the Nation, V. 426 (Brothers at Notre Dame)
Prefect of Discipline, Brother Alexander
Brothers Alban, Norbert, Laike, and Theodore -- Senior prefects.
Brothers Leander, Paul of the Cross, Lawrence -- Junior prefects.
Brother Albert -- Minims 1876 (Brothers, Particular Council Members 1842-45)
Fr. Sorin, President: Brothers Vincent, Lawrence, John (sec'y), succeeded
by Bro. Paul (de la Hayde), Brother Paul (Keegan), Fr. Marivault assisted
once or twice, and Fr. Cointet since his arrival.
Adopted rules for governing and teaching the boarders.
Fr. E. Sorin, Superintendent; Bro. John, Secretary, Oct. 9, 1842
Fr. Sorin, president until March 1846; Fr. Granger from March 1, 1846;
Cointet; bros. Vincent, Lawrence, Gatian (Sec'y) 1845-1846
Fr. Sorin, President; Granger, Master of Novices; Bros. Vincent, Lawrence,
Gatian, Sec'y. (Brothers almost same as those in the Council of Administration.) 1846-1847 Brothers, Fr. Sorin to Fr. Moreau, June 26, 1844
Philadelphia's and New Orleans Bishops asks for Brothers. Would be a source of vocations and a way of getting Brothers in contact with the richest and most religious part of the United States. Have asked Bishops to wait a year for Brothers. Besides, initial success has inspired other Bishops to found establishments like ours in their dioceses. Bishop of Dubuque one of them. Hence Sorin should establish Brothers in their dioceses and give rapid development to Brothers. "I know Hailandiere would prefer that we make our first foundation in Indianapolis; but after having received from some American Bishops replies opposing the limiting of the Brothers to this diocese, I told Hailandiere I would consent to nothing like that. Hence, we are perfectly free on this point. If he writes you about it, stick to it strongly." 1844 (Brothers Particular Council of 1843, 1845
"Took into consideration Bro. Joseph's profession and resolved to admit him. Present Sorin, Vincetn, Gatian, Lawrence." August 26
1845: "The Particular Council agreed to the formation of a board to be called the Council of the Direction of Trades. Said council to be composed of the following members: Fr. Granger, Vice President, 1st member Bro. Lawrence: 2nd, Bro. Mary (Francis Xavier), 3rd, Bro. Justin; 4th, Bro. Augustus, 5th, Brother Eligius; 6th, Bro. Basil; 7th, Bro. Charles; 8th, Bro. Sylvester; 9th, Bro. Paul." January 15, 1845
" . . . considered the propriety of making the schools conducted by the Brothers free and of recommending the Parish Priest's to make a yearly subscription in his Congregation in order to meet the advance of $40 and sufficient means to defray the travelling expenses of the Brothers together with the expense necessary for books, etc. of the schools.
" . . . agreed that the Coadjutor Brothers who may be attached to the farm do wear boots; also the student Brothers and carpentry Brothers to have shoes. Also all the Brothers to be furnished with warm caps for the winter season and with chip or straw hats during summer. Also agree that the Brothers do have each a uniform suitable to their profession or occupation. December 5, 1844
3rd. It was decided that the Brothers should be taught by Brother Gatian how to come out of the chapel and the refectory in ranks.
5th. It was further decided that six sheets of paper should be given to each Brother under the form copy book, which should be served by Bro. Augustus.
6th. It was also decided that the Brothers should be told by Brother Gatian to uncover their heads when they pass before a cross or the chapel and when in chapel to stand up when a fellow Brother passes before them." E. Sorin, 1845
This Council (1845) convened in order to consider the propriety of founding an establishment in Canada, having considered the great temporal and spiritual advancement that would accrue to the Institution from its having schools and a novitiate there. Resolved to begin a foundation next spring, provided the Rev. Fr. Rector (Moreau) and the Bishop of Vincennes should give their consent. Bro. Vincent shall be sent with two other Brothers. Three hundred dollars must be asked for the price of the foundation, and three hundred dollars for the first year of schooling after which another arrangement shall be made. Fr. Sorin, Sept. 16, 1845
This extraordinary Particular Council was assembled to decide upon the classes the Brothers should take, and the following resolutions were taken:
Sept. 30, 1845
The council had just assembled and Fr. Superior declared that he had written to Bro. Vincent that the Brothers should come home if they were not better provided for, when it was adjourned by the unexpected arrival of the Bishop (Henni) of Milwaukee. 1845
December 12 . . .
March 10, 1846
The Brothers shall not have any class tomorrow and they shall finish lathing. March 11, 1846
August 29, 1846
Father Superior will speak to the cooks and the infirmarians about the food they give. October 8, 1846
November 20 . . . . Brother Bennet, Benoit, Mary and Augustus shall be offered for presidents at the next table in the refectory.
January 19 . . . . The cloth factory shall not be established this year. Brother Vincent against.
May 25th . . . Brother Bernard will go to South Bend in order to keep school there; but he will come home every evening in order to attend his night classes. 1846-1847 (Brothers at Notre Dame)
"The good bishop, while appriving the building of the College, the results of which for religion could not be very great since the majority of the students would be Protestants, added he had offered Sorin, who refused, to open asecond college at Indianapolis. He regretted they did not open schools of Brothers and would have desired to have a Brother wherever a priest was stationed. Nevertheless, plans of college were drawn up by his architect under Bishop's eyes." General Archives (Pressure for Brothers)
"I have long wished to have some of the Brothers of St. Joseph in my diocese and am glad to indulge the hope that my wishes may be realized. Should it be possible to send some please inform me that I may make preparations for them. I will cheerfully bear their travelling expenses and give the annual pension you demand." Bishop Richard P. Miles, Nashville to Fr. Sorin, April 9, 1844
"Requests for Brothers to teach come to South Bend, Fort Wayne, Lafayette, Washington, Evansville, St. Louis, New Orleans, Philadelphia, etc." General Archives, 1846
"Three countries, and eleven dioceses in the United States to my own knowledge have asked the Congregation to establish schools in their respective locations." Rev. Geo. Finnigan, ALUMNUS, 2:68, 1846
"When in Chicago a few days ago I called at St. Mary's University to make arrangements in favor of the Catholic School of Springfield, Illinois. I am anxious that two of the Brothers of Holy Cross would take charge of the school here. 1858, Father Fitzgibbon to Father Sorin
"I am exceedingly anxious to provide for the necessities of our children by having good Catholic schools in this diocese. My peopleare able and willing to furnish the necessary means. Could I obtain from you two good Brothers who would take charge of a boys' school in this city to make a commencement? I was pleased with the good effected by your Brothers in Zanesville, Ohio." (The Brothers taught there in a Dominican parish to which order the Bishop belonged.) Bishop Whelen, O.P. to Fr. Sorin, 1860
On October 17, 1839, Bishop Dupuch, first Bishop of Algiers, Africa, had written to Fr. Moreau, asking him for eight or ten Brothers for Algiers within a certain period of time; three or four for Oran, eight or ten for the Constantine Province. "Meanwhile," he said, "I would like to have three or four of your best subjects, to whom I could immediately confide work of the highest importance. Write to me as soon as possible, but give me a favorable answer, I beg you on my knees. 'If you but knew the gift of God in Africa'." LIFE OF FR. MOREAU, Chapter II, by his nephew, 1839
On November 17, Bishop Dupuch wrote: "By return of mail I answer your kind letter of October 29 . . . My intention is, after some time, to confide to your well-beloved Brothers the primary schools of Algiers and of the principal cities of Algeria. In the meantime, I desire to have them, and on bended knees I beg you to give them to me to take charge of twenty-five orphans, children of poor colonists who died on the plains or fell by the Arabs' sword. All here will look upon your favorable answer as one of the greatest gifts of Divine Province. May God bless you for it." LIFE OF FR. MOREAU, Chapter II, 1839
"Basil made known to the Community the request of the Bishop of Algiers, 'Judge for yourselves,' he wrote, 'if it be possible to resist such earnest entreaties. Behold! Both Africa and America are open to the zeal of the Brothers of St. Joseph! What a large harvest! But how few the laborers! . . . spread the Association of St. Joseph . . . and spare for your novitiate all the resources possible. Let me know your opinion with regard to the foundations asked for in Africa and America." LIFE OF FR. MOREAU, Chapter II, by his nephew
"Everywhere in the diocese, and even beyond its limits, pastors made requests to Abbe Dujarie for teachers, laying before him the great necessities of youth deprived of instruction or confided to the care of traveling instructors who had neither science nor character. In his zeal to forestall evil the Founder yielded though with regret to the requests of the pastors and of the Communes. It was understood that the young men thus sent should continue under the pastor's direction the religious and secular studies they would have followed if they had completed their novitiate." Life of Fr. Moreau, p. 44, by his nephew, 1822
"How happy I should be," said the pastor of the Cathedral of Algiers, "to see two Brothers coming here! They would snatch the greater number of our children from mercenary teachers, whose morals are far from good, not to mention their ignorance of the first rudiments of religion." Basil gave a third priest and three Brothers who left France on September 1st. LIFE OF FR. MOREAU, Chap. II, See Also "Detroit" 1848, "Foundations", 1861 & 1857
"All we have been able to do so far is to prepare for your children a house on a farm, on the produce of which they can live until they will be able to teach English . . . and your Brothers we must have immediately if our work is not to be a complete failure . . . I finish then by beseeching you to do a little more charity toward Vincennes . . . . Three Brothers would not suffice; you promised four Brothers and a priest to direct them. Unless we get all of these we shall be able to do nothing. Let us hope Providence will assist you and us." LIFE OF FR. MOREAU, Chapter IV, Bishop Hailandiere to Fr. Moreau, Aug. 26, 1840
"Bishop de Hailandiere encouraged the colonists (missionaries) to ask for and accept whatever they could get, saying, "All the linen, all the clothing, too, you can procure, will be useful . . . If you could bring one or two Brothers to till the land you would profit by them. We are surrounded by Protestants in the proportion of 80:3. Do not imagine they all hate us; most of them are indifferent. Many like us and do us favors, but are we going to convert them?" Letter in reply to one from Fr. Sorin asking advice, See Free Schools, 1842 - Bishop Hailandiere, Fr. Sorin, 1840
For additional information of Pressure for Brothers see:
"A letter from the Bishop of Santa Fe asking the assistance of this house for the formation of a colony of a priest and four Brothers in his diocese was read. The council agreed that the Mother House should itself found the new establishment." Local Council, August 17, 1858
"The Mother House shall be asked to found an establishment of orphans among the Indians of Ft. Summer in New Mexico." Local Council, March 7, 1864
"Bishop Wm. H. Elder (later Archbishop of Cincinnati) applied for Brothers to conduct an orphanage at Natchez, Mississippi." Provincial Archives, 1859
"I have a tract of land about 650 acres, six miles north west of Columbia, capitol of our state. It is on the public road, and 200 acres are cleared. There is a frame house on it . . . Are you open to a proposal to occupy the tract for the purpose of a manual labor school?" Bishop Lynch to Fr. Sorin, 1859
"I beg to assure you that it would be a great pleasure to me and a great service to religion to have a branch of your order to this diocese. And therefore I hope the report of your Brothers who visit Tennessee will be favorable . . . I shall be always happy to see your Brothers here during vacation." Bishop Feehan to Fr. Sorin, Provincial Archives, 1869 Novitiates on installment plan, 1870
In case Brother Cyrill makes his novitiate next year, he must be replaced by another. Minutes of Provincial Chapter. (Brother Cyril was a teacher in Ft. Wayne)
The habit will be given to Mr. Connolly that he might be sent to Columbus, Ohio, under Bro. Gregory, and to Mr. Murphy to be sent to St. Patrick's, Chicago. Brother Edmund will go to the College at Chicago. Local Council, August 3, 1860 1897: Requests for teachers for 1. Catholic High School, Minneapolis 2. Polish High School, Milwaukee 3. Parochial School, Chicago Provincial Chapter Minutes, July 17 1859: Bishop of Monteray, California 1912: High School in Springfield, Ill. 1859: San Francisco, Bishop Alemany 1858: Santa Fe 1844: Archbishop Kenrick, Baltimore
Rev. J.M. Cartan, Church of Nativity, Chicago, was desirous of obtaining two Brothers for His school. Provincial Chapter Minutes, 1886
The letters from different priests were read by Very Rev. Provincial Corby, asking for teachers. The schools in question are: three in Philadelphia, two in Norfolk, Va., one at Waltham, Mass. Provincial Chapter Minutes, 1890
We admonish pastors of souls again and again to strive by all means in their power to prevent boys and girls entrusted to them from frequenting those schools which they cannot attend without grave danger to their faith and morals; and at the same time we exhort parents to aid and sustain parochial and other schools which are under Catholic direction. Decree of 1st Provincial Council of Cincinnati, 1855
It is the judgement of the Fathers that all pastors of souls are bound, under pain of mortal sin, to provide a Catholic school in every parish or Congregation subject them, where this can be done. 1857
"Mr. Evans will receive the holy habit and be sent to Baltimore." Council of Administration, September 23, 1860
See the following:
Numerous and pressing demands have been made upon us of late for new foundations of schools; indeed it grieves us exceedingly to be obliged so often to decline or postpone such demands of the most advantageous character for want of efficient members . . . . . . Circular Letter, Fr. Sorin, Feb. 1858
Regarding the Decree of Third Council of Baltimore:
"And even in the case of diocesan Communities the demand of teachers was frequently so great that the high standard of educational efficiency which the Council strove for could not always be reached." A HISTORY OF CATHOLIC EDUCATION, Burns and Kohlbrenner, p. 186
"A letter was read from Rev. Sidley of Sandusky, Ohio asking for three Brothers for his school. Postpone decision till Annual Retreat." 1874
"Instruction to the Bishops of the United States concerning the Public Schools."
"All are agreed that there is nothing so needful to this end as the establishment of Catholic schools in every place -- and schools no whit inferior to the public ones." Congregation of Propaganda, approved by Pius IX, 1875
"The application for Brothers to conduct a protectory at Newark was declined." Local Council, April 8, 1881
Brothers' Principals, 1878 La Salle, Brother Marcellinus (Gregory & Barnabas) Covington, Brother Remigius (Benjamin & Germanus) Springfield, Brother Cyril (Athanasius & Julian) Fort Wayne, Brother Ephrem (Bernardine & Simeon)
Brothers House -- 1866
"Proposed to council: Great need felt for house. Plan and cost to be prepared by Brother Peter and then submitted to council." 1866
Brothers, 1848 Professions
But the very fact of this presentation of Bros. Michael, Jerome, Francis de Sales, Dominic, Benedict, and Charles Borr. for profession gave place to a grave question, namely, if the Chapter was a competent and qualified judge for such matters, for it seemed rather strange that questions referring to the priests, such as their admission to profession and to sacred orders, should be submitted to the Brothers being members of the same Chapter. It was then asked if it was not more according to the sense and spirit of the Constitutions to ask by way of consultation the vote of all the professed of a society for the admission of its respective members: of the professed priests for the novice priests, of the professed Brothers for the novice Brothers, and afterwards the deliberative vote of the same professed being members of the minor chapter, so that the professed priests members of the minor chapter would be the only competent judges for the admission to profession and sacred orders and their own novices and the same professed Brothers would be for their proper novices.
But unanimity could not be obtained, it was resolved that Rev. R. Rector's advice on the matter should be asked. Local Council, October 30, 1848 (this custom continued for nigh sixty years until there were no more Brothers in the Novitiate.)
Brothers in the Immigration Period
"The policy of the Catholic Church in the United States has, from the very beginning, favored the separation of the sexes in the school at an early age. In the schools of the early missionaries, the tendency was to hire male teachers for the boys, wherever this could be done. When the first sisterhoods came, a boys' school, with a hired teacher, was often found side by side with the Sister's school for the girls. There was a persistent effort, on the part of the great pioneer school men, whether bishops and priests, to bring teaching Brotherhoods from Europe, or failing in this, to institute new ones at home. Thus Father Nerinex, early in the last century, organized a Brotherhood in Kentucky, and, upon its extinction, the project was renewed by Bishop Flaget. Bishop Dubourg brought some teaching Brothers with him to St. Louis from France and an attempt was made to start a teaching order of men in New York city under Bishop Dubois . . . . A number of the teaching Brotherhoods that came to the country during the Immigration Period have grown and prospered, but they have not, generally speaking, kept pace with the growth of the communities of women which were established here at the same time. Vocations to the religious life appear to be more plentiful among women than among men. The disproportion has been less marked in Europe than in the United States, and it is evident that conditions have been operative here which have not obtained, at least to the same extent, in the Old World.
"One of these conditions springing from the rapid growth of the Church, involving as a consequence, a great need of priests, a somewhat similar condition has been a constant disturbing factor in the public schools." page 97 of GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF CATHOLIC EDUCATION IN THE U.S., Burns, 1840-1860
Brothers as Teachers of Religion
"But what of the religious instruction is boys' schools? For the teaching Brotherhoods, we may take as typical the work of the Christian Brothers in one of the schools they founded during this period. Writing of his school days in the early '50's, one of the best known priests of our time has left us the following impressions of the religious instruction imparted by the Brothers:
Their system was intelligent, their discipline strict -- almost military, their affection for us deep and religious. But of course, I love them best for the Christian doctrine courses they gave me. No word describes it so well as the word 'thorough'. It was given by men who knew what they thought, and had the gift of teaching intelligently. It embraced a full summary of the whole dogmatic system of Christian truth; a practical working knowledge of Christian morality; much ecclesiastical history, especially concerning the early and heroic age of the Church and the acts of the martyrs, together with a wonderfully full equipment of controversial matter. When, in after years, I swung off into the world and was beset with its false maxims, the Brothers' maxims held me fast in the true religion. This had more than anything else to do with keeping alive in me the elements of divine faith. I have no hesitation whatever in saying that the fact that I spent those years of my boyhood in the Brothers' school has been the main reason why I have remained a Catholic . . . If I wished to emphasize any quality in these men, and their influence was all bent on making us manly Catholics. Rev. Walter Elliott, C.S.P. in CATHOLIC WORLD, Vol. 73, page 728 supplemented by a letter to the author, October 3, 1909 -- Burns: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CATHOLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM IN THE UNITED STATES, pages 128-9
The course of training of the Brothers, too, has grown apace. In this regard also the dreams of other times have been realized. The postulate for Brothers is at Watertown, Wisconsin. This is the high school juniorate of the Brothers, and here boys are taken into the beginning of their formative period and training to habits of holiness and study . . .
After one or even up to four years spent at the postulate the candidates enter the novitiate . . . .
At the close of the novitiate the Brothers go to the Brothers' Scholasticate, Dujarie Institute which is at Notre Dame, and they too take their college courses at the University and receive University degrees. This makes them efficient teachers in the work that Notre Dame has assigned to them, namely, Catholic high schools. The summer school, too, at Notre Dame, gives them opportunity to go on for higher degrees, thus adding to their standard and efficiency. Bishop Finnigan, NOTRE DAME ALUMNUS, 2:67-8, 1923
Brother John of the Cross, Neil, Ferdinand, Luke, and Romuald were appointed to serve at tables -- the students. Local Council, May 25, 1868
The steam house's second floor shall serve as a playroom for the Community. September 12, 1868
The following Brothers were appointed to replace the boys in the refectory as waiters: Brother Bonaventure, Wilfrid, Bruno, Leo, Valerian, Sebastian, Sophronius, and Luke." Local Council, October 4, 1868
Brothers Fidelis and Modestus to preside at tables in Junior refectory. Local Council, 1881
Brothers, Way of Cross
The ordinary consultors, viz., Rev. Fathers Cointet, and Granger, Brothers Lawrence and Francis Xavier (Brother Joseph absent) being assembled under the Presidency of Fr. Superior Sorin took the following resolve: 'Every Friday at six o'clock the whole community will meet in the church to perform all together the Way of the Cross. Accordingly, the visit to the Blessed Sacrament and the other prayers recited at that hour by the Brothers will be omitted that day.
All the Brothers shall have a crucifix on their beads, but will not be permitted to use any other. Minutes Monthly Council of Brothers, 1849-50, Council of Administration of the Brothers of St. Joseph, St. Mary's of the Lake, South Bend, Indiana.
Members of the Council of Administration, 1842 . . . Brothers Lawrence, Mary, Peter, John (sec'y) 1843: Fr. Cointet, Fr. Marinault, Brothers Vincent, Lawrence, Peter, Paul, (sec'y). To meet every Monday at eight thirty o'clock, p.m. Brothers' Rule
"Bishop Bouvier approved the following statutes of Brothers of St. Joseph:"
Constitution II. Each foundation 400 francs foundation fee, and annually 160 francs for traveling in diocese; 100 francs outside of diocese. Will have complete housing and salary of 500 francs a year (10 1/2) months, classes three hours in morning, three hours evening.
Brothers and Salvatorists
Council votes unanimously for the admission of novice Brothers into the Society of the Salvatorists if deemed worthy of it after a probation of three years in public teaching. Local Council, July 16, 1862
Brothers - 1907
A Modern Monastery . . .
Then came the buildings of the Brothers who form an integral and important part of the Congregation of Holy Cross, providing teachers and workers in the various departments. They also have their training schools and novitiates, their aims, their methods, and traditions nobly based on the spiritual life which surrenders all to God for the Good of the race. Rev. John T. Smith, SCHOLASTIC, 41:118
Brothers Superiors, 1880
Lafayette, Indiana -- John Chrysostom Springfield, Ill. -- Marcellinus Ft. Wayne, Indiana -- Ephrem Covington, Ky. -- Remigius Trenton, N.J. -- Gabriel Milwaukee -- Philemon -1867- Cincinnati -- Boniface St. Mary's -- Matthew Ft. Wayne -- Bernard Baltimore -- Gregory
(Brothers, tribute to)
"I met lately a gentleman of high refinement, one who had paid a particular attention to education and the educational establishment in this country. Speaking of the Brothers of Holy Cross, he expressed himself as follows:
"I just came from Ohio and there I had an opportunity of witnessing the good which those humble Brothers are quietly but surely effecting. I cannot express the happiness I felt while seeing them in their dark and crowded classrooms laboring so zealously and perseveringly to mould the rising generation of Catholics in the Catholic faith and life. What a relief and gratification to the Pious clergymen who have secured their modest services! Is not the cooperation of those toiling educators of Catholic youth the hope of religion and society?" GUIDE TO NOTRE DAME DU LAC, page 42
"Catholics were eager to have Brothers and Sisters in their schools, even though fresh from Germany and France. These in turn, realizing the opportunity and need, labored heroically to acquire the language of their adopted country." GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF CATHOLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM, Burns, page 130
"Added: Brother Augustine, professor of arithmetic; Brother Charles, Penmanship and Bookkeeping; Algebra." May 11, 1844, Council of Professors
Master of Studies, 1844: Brother Augustine. Brothers available as teachers, August 1861:
7 professed Brothers (4 for German, 3 for English schools) 31 novice " (6 for German, 25 for English schools)
3 postulant " (8 for German, 1 for English schools) Brothers chapter, Notre Dame, 1857-61
(Teachers, scarcity of)
"The various religious teaching Orders seldom if ever had as many candidates as they needed, but there was a spendid growth in the older Communities that came to this country from Europe or that were founded here multiplied very rapidly. Superiors of the various Communities were being constantly asked for teachers to take care of schools, often in several dioceses. As late as 1850 . . . ." A HISTORY OF CATHOLIC SCHOOLS IN THE UNITED STATES, p. 120, Burns
Novices shall be included in the exemptin, provided they take vows until their profession. Local Council, Dec. 21, 1874
Eight Brothers are to be sent from the novitiate to wait next Wednesday. Local Council, June 19, 1874
It was decided to have Brothers Bonaventure, Cleophas, Bruno, Norbert, John Climacus, Richard, Hormisdas and Timothy to wait in the Junior Refectory. Local Council, 1875
Arrangements were made for supplying help for the harvest, and a priest is to say Mass in the Basement Chapel at 5:00 A.M. Local Council, July 9, 1875
Brothers Albert and Leander are to canvass for students during the vacation. Local Council, 1875
The servers in the Refectory will not be allowed to take their classes during the time they are assigned to work and must reside at the Manual Labor School. Local Council, August 22, 1879
Brothers Adolphus, Charles, and Anthony were appointed waiters. Brother Julian was appointed to bring the waiter boys to and from the Refectory and to teach them during the intervals of work. It was also decided to charge the usual rate of $100 a year. Local Council, September 5, 1879
It was also decided to get boys to wait on the tables. Local Council, Sept. 3, 1880
Brother David was appointed to wait in the Junior refectory and Brother Fidelis and Modestus to preside at Tables. Local Council, April 8, 1881
Brothers Christopher and Agatho were appointed to wait in the Minims Refectory. Local Council, Nov. 25, 1881
The heads of shops were exempted from waiting to enable them to be at their respective places in time. Local Council, 1882
(Brothers at Notre Dame)
"The concentration of the teaching Brothers at Notre Dame, while it was a disadvantage to the school movement, contributed much to the growth of the instructions at the mother house, and especially the college where the Brothers have from the beginning and principal charge of the secondary and commercial classes, and also for certain administrative positions. It is interesting to record that the work of Fr. Sorin and six pioneer Brothers continued in the joint labors of the Priests and Brothers of Holy Cross, have splendidly fulfilled the prophetic plan of Fr. Badin for the establishment of a great Catholic educational center at the old mission of the Pottawatomi, and that, with the recent establishment at Notre Dame of anew normal school (Dujarie) for the higher training of the Brothers the influence of this educational center bids fair to make itself more widely felt in the future in the Catholic school movement as well as in the domain of the higher education." GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF CATHOLIC EDUCATION, p. 103 -- Burns
"I fell truly thankful in having had the opportunity of removing to this beautiful and healthy place, where both my family and that of Captain Woodworth have the prospect of honest independence, at the same time enjoying the excellent Catholic instruction afforded by the priests of the Congregation of Holy Cross and the Brothers of St. Joseph, now beginning to flourish at St. Mary's of the Lake, about a mile and a half from this place . . . "
"The main building of the College of St. Mary's of the Lake, four stories in brick, 72' by 36', is now being roofed. Fr. Sorin is assisted by two other priests and a minorite, who will soon be ordained priest of Holy Cross. The Brother novices and postulants, number about sixty. The four Sisters of the Seven Dolours have several postulants, and are hourly expecting additional Sisters from France on their way to New York. The approaching session of the legislature of this state will probably give the institution a charter for a University and a Manual Labor College with which are to be connected a hospital and an orphan asylum. The means, slender as they seem, have always come timely and providentially. The saintlike character of Fr. Sorin and his associates affords every hope of success. Among the Brothers, there are already men of education and ability . . . ." Samuel Byerly, Byerly letter to Rev. John McCaffrey, President of Mt. St. Mary's College, Emmitsbury, Md., 1843
"In September, 1871, the Brothers of Holy Cross, according to the terms of the new contract, extended their educational activities to Brownsville. The O.M.I.'s who had inaugurated St. Joseph's College in that city were needed for missions on the Rio Grande. Negotiations for the erection of a Vicariate Apostolic with headquarters at Brownsville were completed in 1874. The Brothers did not return to the Border City for the fall opening of the college." Rev. R.J. Clancy
See under "Boniface, Brother,"
"In the spring of 1871, Father Sorin journeyed to Galveston to complete the negotiations for further enterprises to be undertaken by the Congregation of Holy Cross in Texas. On March 25, 1871, a new contract was drawn up and signed by Bishop Dubuis and his Vicer General, Very Rev. L.S.M. Chamboduit, for the Diocese of Galveston, and by the Very Rev. E. Sorin for the Congregation of Holy Cross. 1871