NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA
St. Mary's Orphanage had been founded in 1835 by Fr. Adam Kindelon, the first pastor of St. Patrick's Church, New Orleans, and prior to that, priest in charge of the Catholic Congregation at Natchez, Mississippi. According to the Rev. Dr. Theodore Clapp, Unitarian Minister in New Orleans, who knew Father Kindelon intimately and admired him greatly, 'his charities like his soul, were unbounded.' 'He inherited a handsome property, which enabled him to gratify his benevolent desires.' Father Kindelon had established his orphanage on the Bayou St. John., where he gathered a large number of boys, and made provision for their maintenance in the way of live stock, gardens, etc. Just when the orphanage seemed to be well on the way to establish untold good, a storm struck from the Gulf, drove the waters of the lake into the back of the city and flooded the orphanage. Father Kindelon awakened by the rushing of the water into him room at midnight. He hurried to awaken the children and with the help of servants and teachers, moved all the boys to safety. He then went with the servants to rescue the cows that he had bought to furnish milk for his orphans and succeeded in this also, but he waded and swam back so much and was so exhausted that he took with chills. Typhoid set in and in a few days he died. "To the Community in general," wrote Dr. Clapp, "and to myself in particular, his death was an irreparable loss...I have not known a clergyman of my own persuasion whom I loved with a purer, more intense affection.
Such was the beginning of St. Mary's Orphanage and the tragic end of one of New Orleans benefactors, devoted Fr. Kindelon. After this the institution was operated by a staff of tutors, but later Bishop Blanc invited the Brothers of Holy Cross to take charge of it. However, the secular board continued administration of the property, proving very inefficient, so much so, that the Brothers desired to abandon the task. The Bishop needed the orphanage for boys, what with frequent epidemics that ravaged the city periodically and left in their wake many fatherless and motherless boys."
The Catholic Church in Louisiana, by Roger Baudier, Pg. 398 (1835)
"A frame building was erected on the present site of the spacious St. Patrick's Church on Camp Street. On April 21, 1833, the frame Church was dedicated by Bishop de Neckere, and he thus established the second parish in New Orleans. As its first pastor he appointed Fr. Adam Kindelon, who within two years became the founder of St. Mary's Orphan Boy's Home."
The Catholic Church in Louisiana, by Roger Baudier (1835)
"At this time Father Moreau agreed to accept the direction of an orphanage for boys founded at New Orleans some 14 years previous. Archbishop Blanc requested the services of the Institution of Holy Cross for this mission, after having addressed himself without success to two other communities. This orphanage which was begun by a humble Irish priest, Adam Kindelon, was kept operating by the charity of generous Catholics, who formed themselves into a legal association and obtained from the State of Louisiana an allowance of 36,000 francs. With the help of legacies which they also received, they acquired the ownership of the Establishment henceforth called St. Mary's Orphanage. Five Brothers and three Sisters were placed in charge under the direction of Fr. Cointet from Le Mans. They recognized at once the need of wise administration and that spirit of economy proper to a religious community. The first weeks were anxious ones. In order to obtain what was necessary, they were compelled, for some time, to beg each morning in the hotels the leavings from the meals of the day before. This poverty and this devotedness roused the sympathy of several well-to-do persons toward St. Mary's Orphanage, which seemed forgotten, if not unknown. A few offerings helped to procure beds for the orphans who had none, and a little more comfort for all...A bazaar was organized and success attended the ladies who patronized it. Their charity being thus rewarded, they proposed to the Sister Marianites the opening of an Industrial School, so necessary in the poorest part of the city. In this home they could receive the young orphans deprived of all resources and exposed to the dangers of an unprotected life. They could instruct them in their religion and teach them how to work. This charitable project recommended to Fr. Moreau, with the approbation of Archbishop Blanc, was tried in the month of July, 1851, and in the following month, nine little apprentices were sheltered and maintained in a small house rented by Mrs. Le Baron
and Mrs. Jordan. One of the administrators of St. Mary's Asylum supplied them with work and rewarded them generously. When the orphans became too numerous for the size of the dwelling, the Mother Superior of the Ursulines offered a house near their convent. Such a great favor was not the first one on the part of the Ursulines. They had generously given for a whole year, board and lodging to Fr. Cointet in the house of their chaplain, Fr. Perche, future Archbishop of New Orleans. In the space of four years the proceeds from the school enabled the Marianite Sisters with public help to acquire larger and more comfortable quarters.
"All went well at St. Mary's Orphanage. In 1851 two hundred children were received, and two years later there were four hundred in the house, which had been enlarged through the liberality of a distinguished practitioner of New Orleans, Dr. Mercer, who gave to St. Mary's Asylum a property yielding an income of 7000 francs ($1400).
"But the mission of the Institution of Holy Cross did not confine itself to distributing bread to orphan boys and girls. God demanded from it, for this foundation, the living stones which were to sustain it and cause it to last by the virtues of sacrifice and tears. In 1852 cholera invaded St. Mary's Asylum, carrying off two Brothers and fifty children. The following year yellow fever entered, taking away three Brothers, one Sister, and many orphans. The death of local vocations aggravated these disastrous losses, and it fell to the lot of the Mother House to repair them. 'You see, my dear Sons and Daughters in Jesus Christ,' the founder wrote to the Congregation on August 31, 1853, 'The need which our House and even the city of New Orleans has of our prayers and our apostolic devotedness. Pray, then, for the living and for the dead, and pray also for those whom obedience will call to this perilous mission, and more than ever, prove yourselves worthy of your vocation.' Ten days after, in announcing another death, he wrote: 'Assuredly the designs of Providence in this foundation are mysterious, and a host of circumstances, one more painful than the other, render these designs incomprehensible. But we are not less obliged to submit to His Holy Will and adore it. Though unable to understand the premature end of the workers so necessary in our field of labor as there is in this unfavorable climate, we must not forsake the mission so long as there are other members of the Institute generous enough to consecrate their lives to the work. What preoccupies me most at the moment is to know who survives.'
"In the month of September, 1854, Fr. Salmon, recently came from Le Mans to direct the mission, died of fever. A year after, Fr. Guesdon, accompanied by a Brother, was sent to replace him, and became a victim of the plague, while the Brother was carried off by cholera. The priest who went from France to succeed Fr. Guesdon endeavored to preserve the life of the religious who were to be sent to New Orleans, by having them spend the most fatal months at the sea-side in a place recommended as healthy, but the first two Brothers who went there, died.
"The plagues caused fewer deaths among the Sisters who, nevertheless did not abandon the patients afflicted with fever and with cholera. But other sufferings tried the Louisiana mission and the Marianites were not exempt from them.
"The Indiana colony continued to draw from the charitable funds of the Founder. Towards the end of 1849, he received a letter showing the financial conditions at Notre Dame du Lac to be very embarrassing, owing to the high cost of living, coupled with the loss of two horses and the partial destruction of a building by fire. He hastened to publish this and wrote to the Brothers:
"'To relieve these Brothers so severely tried, I advise you to make known their distress to charitable souls whom you believe willing to aid them.' At the same time he solicited from Paris and from Lyons an extraordinary allowance of 6000 francs from the funds of the Propagation of the Faith, which the President of Paris announced on January 19, 1850.
"Meanwhile, a priest from Notre Dame du Lac had arrived at the Mother House commissioned to ask the approbation of the Founder for a collection to be taken up in France. The Founder then wrote to all the friends of Holy Cross to prepare a favorable reception for the envoy. 'No,' said he, 'It will not be in again that a poor missionary will come from such a distant country to appeal to your charity. Receive him, I entreat you, all you who have encouraged us so strongly in our laborious enterprises, receive him with the hope of the everlasting reward promised to those who give the least thing for the sake of Jesus Christ. Alas! We know it, our unfortunate country grieves under a burden of distress; we can not be insensible to these trial which now and again come to our notice. But let us not forget that there are elsewhere sufferings not less painful which are not relieved as they are in France.
"'Let our charity expand as misfortune widens.' Thanks to this letter of introduction the collection exceeded 18,000 francs and fully repaired the damage.
-- Very Rev. Basil Anthony Moreau, Priest of Le Mans, and His Works -- by Charles Moreau, Assistant General of the Congregation of Holy Cross, Paris (1900)
"Foundation in New Orleans, properly speaking, dates from the passage of the Visitor from Ste. Croix to the United States in 1848 (Father Drouelle) as he was proceeding from Notre Dame to Guadeloupe, where he was to arrive toward the end of Autumn, he was requested by Father Sorin to stop off in New Orleans, and there try to secure a foundation for the Society of Brothers, such as conducting an orphan asylum for the teaching of arts and trades. He succeeded in this and made a contract with Archbishop Blanc and the twelve lay members forming the council of an existing orphan asylum. The Society agreed to furnish four Brothers to begin and to increase the number as needed by the administration. Seventy-five orphans in the house, who were under the direction of a Catholic family."
-- Sorin Chronicles (1848)
"The Brothers went in May, 1849. Brother Vincent, Director, Assistants: Basil, Theodule , De Sales, Aloysius, Gonzaga. Journey took from twelve to fifteen days. Population, 180,000. Unhealthy climate, as city is ravaged almost yearly by yellow fever or cholera. Some orphans under five or six. Two Sisters sent a few months later...
"The year 1853 had been marked by an epidemic which carried off three Brothers and a Sister. Brother Martial, who had come from France in 1854, was another victim.
"In 1853-54, a number of victims among the orphans themselves, but a still greater number of children in the city lost their parents. Orphans increased to 250 and 275. Since 1852 there were at the Asylum eight or nine Brothers.
"From the beginning of 1852 the dream was entertained of opening a novitiate in the city for the Sisters and another at the asylum for the Brothers. To make the success more assured, petitions were sent over and over again to Ste. Croix, until the erection of the establishment into a Province had been secured. The letters reached the asylum on the very day of Fr. Isidore Guesdan's death, September 18, 1855.
"We were luckier in New Orleans where Archbishop Blanc made a proposal to the visitor, Fr. Drouelle, by which he was to hand over to our Brothers and Sisters the direction of the Boys' Orphanage. The Archbishop failed thus far with two ot her Communities, who turned him down. The abandonment of the Kentucky house, St. Mary's College, Lebanon, permitted the disposal of the Sisters for New Orleans, and Notre Dame du Lac was now able to furnish the Brothers required. On getting details from Fr. Drouelle, Father Superior determined to accept Archbishop Blanc's offer. On May 1, 1849, five Brothers and three Sisters entered the portals of this charity home, now given over to their direction." Fr. Condon, MS (1849)
"At the end of April 1849, the Sisters of the Five Wounds, Calvary, and Nativity were sent to New Orleans to assist Brothers in taking care of the Orphan Asylum. May 1st they took charge, Sisters and Brothers at a salary of $125 each with an additional $25 extra for Director and Directress.
"Failure of the Brooklyn School was preceded by a few weeks by the more advantageous offer of a foundation at New Orleans. Five Brothers and three Sisters went toward the end of April. On May 1st they took charge of the Boys' Orphan Asylum at $125 each and $25 extra for Director and Directress, to be paid semi-annually in advance." Brother Aidan's Notes
"Resolution: 'The Management of the Orphan Asylum of New Orleans is accepted with the conditions proposed by Father Visitor (Drouelle) to the present administration of the said asylum and accepted by the same, viz., five Brothers, one as Director, and the others as teachers, cook, dormitorian, and clothes keeper.'"
-- Local Council January 2, 1849
"Money shall be forwarded by the administration of the New Orleans Orphan Asylum for the journey of the Brothers there, and their wages shall always be paid six months beforehand."
-- Local Council January 8, 1849
"Charitable male orphan asylum at New Orleans, in which there are 120 orphans. Since last May (1849) this institution has been under the charge of five Brothers of St. Joseph from South Bend, Indiana."
-- Catholic Directory for 1850, under date Dec. 1, 1849
"Brothers Vincent, Theodolus, Francis de Sales, Louis, and Basil will go to New Orleans for the management of the Orphan Asylum."
-- Local Council March 19, 1849
"Brother Theodolus will start on the 5th of April so as to take up to Louisville (St. Mary's, Lebonon) the Sisters of St. Mary's Kentucky, timely to meet with the Brothers going to New Orleans, who will leave on the 12th."
-- Local Council March 26, 1849
"In June, 1846, Father Augustus Saulnier came from the Mother House in France to take charge of the college in Louisville diocese (St. Mary's, Lebanon), which Father Sorin had arranged to take over in January of this year....In July, 1847, Father Sorin visited this school and took away Brother Theodolus.... At the end of November, 1848, Father Visitor, Victor Drouelle, while making the Regular Visit of the American Houses, closed the college in Louisville, thus making it possible for Father Moreau to accept the direction of an orphanage for boys founded in New Orleans, 14 years previous."
On the King's Highway, Mother M. Eleanore, p. 279.
"On the death of Father Guesdon (yellow fever), the Local Superior who had been sent from the Mother House on which New Orleans depended, to bridge several difficulties Father Moreau revokes the letters patent and begged Father Sorin to take over New Orleans. All there were ordered to submit henceforth to Father Sorin's Authority for 'Providence works and the death of Father Guesdon leaves no doubt that they should return to the original order.' Father Sorin with these documents at his back thought there would be no trouble as they kept writing from the Asylum for Brothers to teach English. Before accepting the establishment he resolved to send a Visitor in the person of Brother Stephen. With him went a Brother to teach. Nothing was to be changed in the obediences. Their arrival, however, was the signal for a revolt which showed neither respect for Moreau's orders nor those of the Visitors. Not only refused submission but obtained from Ste. Croix approval and support, condemnation of method of Notre Dame. Brother Stephen was recalled.
"In spite of orders to pay debts to Notre Dame, not a cent was paid. In short, in order not to feel resentment one must remember each day that it is by much tribulation that one reaches heaven and that those who wish to live piously in Jesus Christ must prepare themselves to suffer a great deal.
-- Sorin's Chronicles
New Orleans Property....
"Father Superior (Sorin) asked whether it would be expedient to go to New Orleans to visit our foundation, and also to try to have the deed on a land worth 300,000 francs, which Mr. Mignard offers to the house. The members of the Council being divided, the Superior said he would see what to do. The reason of that diversity of opinions was that some considered the bad consequences of the long absence of Father Superior, preferred to sacrifice advantages which were rather uncertain; others, that the advantages though but probable, were of such high importance, that no sacrifice should be spared."
-- Local Council September 28, 1849
"Because the debt was too heavy even for their (St. Patrick's, South Bend) good will, Father Thomas Carroll went to New Orleans, Louisiana, where he collected enough money to pay all the indebtedness."
-- Our Provinces, St. M. Renata, p. 131
"Father Gouesse sent as Visitor to Orphan Asylum where he was to remain as spiritual director of the house. Seven members there."
-- Local Council (1850)
"Male Catholic Orphanage Asylum began May 1, 1849, in New Orleans."
"After having given to the five Brothers and the five Sisters of the said establishment a regular retreat of five days and delivered the obediences according to usage, having performed all things as much as possible as presented in the Rule of Visitor and after serious deliberation, I have given the following Prescription:
1. All exercises of both of the Brothers and Sisters shall henceforth be performed in common and regularly."
-- Sorin's Chronicles July 17, 1850
"Farewell to business, farewell to the noise and gaiety of other days. On the streets we hear nothing but the grim rumble of hearses on their way to the cemeteries; everywhere the eye sees naught but mournful processions. New Orleans is a Necropolis where death reigns supreme.
"All who could do so have left the city. It is sad to witness the heartrending spectacle offered by every passing day. Many outsiders have left the city to escape the scourge, but the number of those who are obliged to remain here, as on a battlefield, is still too large. Death mows them down mercilessly, and the spade of the grave digger is constantly echoing from the ground. A hundred victims a day is a large, even an enormous figure, when we consider that the foreign population of the city is now reduced to almost nothing."
-- Fr. Gouesse (1853)
"The scourge of yellow fever which is decimating the population of New Orleans still rages frightfully. Now, no more that ever before, does it respect the Brothers and Sisters in charge of the sorely-tried asylum which is directed by Father Gouesse....God alone can save the remainder of our little colony by commanding the epidemic to bow before the power of our prayers and penances."
-- Father Moreau: Letter No. 57, (1853)
"I have decided to send Father Salmon and Brother Elias to this foundation; they have just left for Le Harve."
-- Father Moreau, Letter 61 (1853)
"At last I can give you news of Father Salmon and of Brother Elias who left for America last October. They arrived there safely, but only after the trials which our beloved confrere describes himself in the following lines:
" 'We set sail on October 22. There were 660 emigrants on board; Frenchmen, Germans, Italians, Jews, Roman Catholics, and Protestants of all kinds. On the second day out I had Brother Elias come up to my cabin. Like myself he took his meals at the Captain's table because down below in the second class cabins and for that matter, in all the rest of the ship, the American speculators had crowded together people of every age."
-- Father Moreau, Letter 64, (1853)
"...you all know the sufferings endured by our religious employed at the Asylum and trade school at New Orleans. Besides suffering entailed by the death of the Brothers and Sisters who fell victims to yellow fever or cholera, the survivors and, particularly the Father Director of these houses, have experienced untold hardships. Despite all our efforts to come to their assistance, they found themselves alone in the midst of the children who looked to them for help. I cannot tell you how I myself suffered when I saw the very ones whom I was sending to help and console them stopped on their way, one by death, and three others by unforeseen events. Some reached their destination only to flee, panic-stricken. I trust that the two Brothers who are leaving for this dangerous obedience will arrive safe and sound and that they will perform their obediences after the example of the saints... I shall never forget the unselfishness of those who refused to leave their post of duty in spite of the dangers which threatened them on all sides."
-- Father Moreau, Letter No. 65 (1854)
"Do not forget our Community at New Orleans which is so sorely tried in spite of all my efforts during the past year to aid them in their many trials (needs); now that Brothers Martial and Dominic and Sisters Carmel and Mercy have arrived at their destination, I trust there will be a respite to their labor....The religious who have just reached New Orleans had a frightful passage lasting 64 days from Le Harve to New York; four times they were on the verge of being lost." Father Moreau, Letter 66 (1854)
"I am happy to inform you that our two foundations in New Orleans which have cost us so much anxiety, trouble and deaths, are at last to be established on a normal basis and to be properly organized ... As soon as a novitiate can be opened in New Orleans we shall erect Louisiana into a Province."
-- Moreau Letter 71 (1855)
"At the request of Ste. Croix, Father Sorin had just resumed charge of the three houses in that city, which had recently lost their superior, Father Duesdon, and a Brother in September last."
-- Sorin Chronicles (1855)
"....letters from New Orleans announced the death of Father Guesdon (see note above: Duesdon or Guesdon) and Brother Martial, who fell victims to yellow fever, the first on the 18th and the second on the 25th of September."
-- Moreau, Letter 76 (1855)
"The Community of Holy Cross has for its principle end the glory of God through the salvation of souls. Consequently it aims: ...to train Brothers and Sisters to teach the poorer classes by the establishment and direction of orphanages and of industrial and agricultural schools. The latter work is already being carried on at Rome, New Orleans and Eastern Bengal. No work can lay better claim to the interest of charitable souls." -- Moreau October 15,1855
"It was decided that Brother Stephen should go to New Orleans as director of the Asylum and with him Brother Aloysius, ..."
-- Minutes, Local Council (1855)
"Father Sheil, Superior... (1857)
"A letter was read from Rev. Father Spillard, President of Holy Cross, New Orleans, asking for $1,000 to enable him to pay some pressing debts."
-- Local Council April 14, 1897
"Much discussion was indulged in regarding the giving up of the New Orleans establishment but finally the matter was referred to the Committee of Establishments."
-- Provincial Chapter (1891)
"While I was in the throes of the special trial to which I have already alluded, I learned of the death of two local superiors, whom I regarded as God's instruments for the development of two important foundations. (Fr. Voison, Bengal; and Fr. Cointet, New Orleans). As a consequence the only possible way to save one of these foundations was to annex it to the Province of Indiana. I hastened to put Father Sorin in charge of this matter by asking him to send to New Orleans, at first, only a Priest to act as Superior. In this way it was my intention to accustom the religious of New Orleans gradually to the dependence on Notre Dame du Lac. Without and previous orders from the Mother House, a group of Brothers and Sisters from Notre Dame was dispatched to New Orleans instead of merely a superior. This misunderstanding gave rise to complaints on both sides; before long, the new comers and the local residents were divided into factions ... while awaiting the outcome of this affair. I asked good Mr. Abbe Raymond, whose excellent qualities I have learned to appreciate while he was in France to take over the Government of the New Orleans houses, confident that his prudent judgment would re-establish order and restore calm.
-- Moreau May 25, 1856
"Moreover, to come to the aid of Father Shiel, who has rendered you so many services (Sisters of the Holy Cross), I rule that , while awaiting the two priests I intend to send him shortly, he will form with Abbe Raymond, under the Presidency of the Archbishop of New Orleans, if this be agreeable to the latter, a Provincial Chapter, which will meet at the time of the retreat of the Brothers and of the Sisters to form provisionally the Vicariate of New Orleans."
On the King's Highway , Pg. 58, Mother M. Eleanore (1857)
"I wish to recommend to your prayers two Josephites, novices of New Orleans, Brothers John and Aloysius, who fell asleep in the Lord since my last letter. At that time I spoke to you of the trials of Father Sheil, who has lost seven subjects during the latest ravages of yellow fever."
-- Moreau January 2, 1859
"Three Brothers requested by Abbe Raymond of New Orleans."
-- Moreau, Letter 117 January 12, 1860
"Father Sheil , in agreement with the local and Provincial Council, will handle all matters pertaining to our religious."
-- Moreau, Letter II , Pg. 404 (1858)
"... the providential consultation and noticeable expansion of the Congregation in Louisiana, especially after the trials, changes and sufferings. We are still not far removed from those sad days which seemed to sound the death-knell of this beloved colony, which has been decimated by pestilence or exhausted by sickness in the deadly climate."
-- Moreau, Letter II , Pg. 391
"God alone is the Founder of this Congregation.
-- Moreau, Letter II, Pg. 400
"Since the Superior of the houses in New Orleans in his capacity as Vicar, cannot have the assistance of a regular council until the arrival of a new group of Religious, he will have an understanding with the Archbishop on all such administrative problems as cannot be delayed to await my decision. He will take care, however, not to decide alone those matters which according to our Rules and Constitutions, must be put to a vote...in agreement with the venerable Archbishop, Father Shiel will safeguard the interests of the Congregation in the foundations which Mr. (Abbe) Raymond has confided or will confide to our Religious." Moreau, Letter 94, April 1, 1858
"Congregation of the Holy Cross comprises a Brotherhood and Sisterhood....
"The Brothers of the Holy Cross have likewise a Novitiate at New Orleans, under the direction of the Rev. P. F. Shiel, Superior Provincial, who is also charged with the government of the Sisters. The Brothers of Holy Cross have had for the last ten years the management of St. Mary's Male Orphan Boys' Home, third district, New Orleans, which contains at present 300 orphans. The Brothers have recently incurred a debt of $25,000 in the purchase of a model farm, situated in the suburbs of the city where they will instruct the grown up boys in the knowledge of Agriculture, etc."
-- Catholic Directory, Pg. 123 (1859)
Vicariate of New Orleans, 1860
"Vicar: Rev. R. Shiel,
Assistant: Fr. Desprez,
Secretary: Rev. Fr. Gastineau,
Steward and Treasure: Brother Stanislaus,
Prefect of Discipline: Fr. Desprez,
Commisioner: Brother Urban,
-- Moreau, Letter II, Pg. 16 (1857)
"Very Reverend Father General Sorin made known to the Chapter that he would have to supply the establishment of New Orleans with several Brothers, as the personnel of the religious engaged in the orphanage was gradually dwindling away . He expressed surprise that such a number of orphans could be cared for and the establishment prosper with elements that now constitute the Community at New Orleans."
-- Provincial Chapter Minutes, (1870)
(Archbishop Perche to Sorin) "You have a large and beautiful farm, which has been, it is true, entirely neglected under the administration of Father Villandre, but which in a short time will be very remunerative under the conduct of Fr. Marine. If you abandon this work or that of New Iberia, you will reproach yourself for it hereafter. I beg of you to reflect upon this before God."
(Father Fransiscus to Sorin, regarding St. Isidore's) "The number of our students is small, 16 boarders and 8 day scholars, and it is doubtful if the number will increase." -- (1883)
St. Vincent's ... "St. Vincent's Home for Boys, (Bienville St.) under the care of the Congregation of St. Vincent de Paul. In charge of the Fathers and Brothers of Holy Cross. 1874 - 100 boys.
-- Catholic Directory (1873)
(Rev. M. Robinson to Sorin) "Very Rev. Father Marine has been at the 'Home' (Orphans) since the middle of December last and pays us only an occasional visit ... He has Brothers Ignatius and Felix assisting him at the 'Home' and all pull well. I have with me on the Farm (St. Isidore's) Brothers Bartholomew, Epiphone, Arsene and Isidore, with two ecclesiastic novices, Malloy and Caggy. Brother Authelen went, as I suppose you know, to Galveston last fall. ...it requires an extra effort to make both ends meet." (1875)
"St. Joseph's Parochial School for boys. Superior: Rev. T. Smith, C.M., Pastor. Conducted by four Brothers of Holy Cross, three hundred pupils."
-- Catholic Directory (1878)
(Brother Ignatius to Sorin) "Industrial School and model farm of Our Lady of Holy Cross, July 6, 1871: I cannot find words to express my gratitude to you for allowing me to be changed from New Orleans after the Community taking charge of the Asylum for twenty-two years to be taken out of our hands by mean directors and intriguing Sisters, is what I cannot bear. -- (1878)
"On the 11th of March of the year of Our Lord 1880, The Provincial Council was convened by the Very Rev. Father Marine, C.S.C., Provincial, who informed it that he had received a letter from the Very Rev. Fr. General recalling him to France to return no more."
-- Provincial Council (1880)
"Rev. Fr. Fourmond, C.S.C., of New Orleans is here on business connected with St. Isidore's Manual Institute."
Scholastic, Pg. 80 (1880)
(Rev. Joseph Scherer to Rev. A. Granger) "I know that Father Marine is coming here with the title of Vice-Provincial."
(Rev. J. Scherer to Sorin) "We have at present 52 boarders and 22 day scholars. We are obliged to have two secular teachers. Prefect of Discipline we have none permanent. I am obliged to keep surveillance myself to a great extent ... We paid back in loans, made for building last year, already the sum of $1000. Besides all the other improvements and furnitures are paid for." (1882)
(Rev. J Scherer to Sorin) "Boarders, 53: Day Scholars, 25. There are still more applications. I fear we shall not be able to accommodate all."
-- October 11, 1881
"St. Isidore's Institute, a new Catholic School in the third district, New Orleans, of which Rev. Fr. Scherer, C.S.C., is the efficient director has met with gratifying success. Applications for new students are received every day, and we learn that the infirmary is now the only portion of the building unfilled."
-- Ave Maria (1882)
Quarterly Statistics, St. Isidore's Institute, New Orleans, April 1, 1882
Tuition and Board$2,456.25
Land Rent 175.00
Garden Produce 85.10
Live Stock 38.00
Debts paid 628.40
Traveling expense to
Notre Dame 80.15
Cash on hand 46.15
Double the number of last year at this time (Oct. 1)
-- Rev. Joseph Scherer to Sorin (1855)
(Rev. J. Scherer to Sorin) "What is most surprising to me is that the Very Rev. Fr. Cooney (Vice-Provincial) should be of so great help to this house. If by billing up this hou se he meant candidates for the Congregation, I should like to see the Constitutions observed in their regard and the means furnished to support them. If, on the other hand, he meant pupils, I should like to have somebody to take care of them. As for the latter, I cannot see much 'filling' done by him yet....
This institute has a cheering prospect so far as the good will of the population of New Orleans is concerned, but it has gained that good will, not by sounding the trumpet, but by steady and earnest labor."
(Rev. J. Scherer to Granger) "Our number of Boarders is 38 at present, not so large as last year is not very glittering. Thus far we have 14 boarders and ten day scholars less than last year. What may be the cause of it I do not know. There is some prejudice, I hear, against the place, since it was formerly and Industrial school, and our members had charge of the Orphan Asylum. Hence it has the name in the city that it is an Orphan Asylum etc. Brother Ignatius tells me that the students used to write such names on the blackboards and fences last year."
"There was very little canvassing here on account of such not being the custom, and also because of the excessive heat. Besides, there were no means in the house. We had to borrow money in order to pay grocery bills, etc."
"How ends will meet is hard to tell."(1883)
(Rev. J. Scherer to Sorin) "Would it not be time to think about the contemplated charter fro St. Isidore's Institute? It is now a year since anything was said on this subject." (1883)
"Discussion arose concerning the establishments of New Orleans and Watertown. Father Shortis with Brothers Edward and Boniface were constituted a committee to consider the condition of St. Isidore's College and were instructed to report on the advisability of closing or continuing the same."
-- Provincial Chapter Minutes August 10, 1884
"In 1860, Father Richard Shortis was sent to New Orleans where for a number of years he labored with his usual zeal in behalf of the inmates of St. Mary's Orphan Boys' Asylum, then under the care of the Congregation of Holy Cross." -- Scholastic 21:25 (1860)
(Rev. P. J. Fransiscus to Sorin) "If Notre Dame could borrow $3,500 for St. Isidore's, even at 6%, to pay a mortgage note due February 22, $100 interest would be saved; besides, the means here will not reach to pay the interest and the $80 insurance." -- (1884)
(Rev. J. Scherer to Sorin)"The City Council passed a resolution sometime ago to the effect that a new street be opened, at the same time leaving the whole thing to the Mayor. Lawyer A. Grima is in the meantime trying by peaceable means, petitions, etc., to obtain compensation for us as soon as the resolution of the City Council is carried into effect." (Was this plan to connect Chartres Street?) (1885)
"This Institute is becoming more popular every year, and is rapidly increasing the number of its pupils. A few years ago it was scarcely known to the public; but by the able management of its President, Rev. Joseph Scherer, it is now acquiring a far and wide-spread fame. No doubt this College promises, in the near future, to become one of those seats of learning so long sought after in the South. It began small, but small beginnings have had big endings."
-- New Orleans Morning Star, Scholastic, 19:534 (1886)
(Rev. Fr. Scherer to Sorin) "... I trust, too, that He will spare you yet many years to hold the helm of our little bark; for in this land of freedom the spirits are becoming more and more restless, and try to shake off all restraint and subordination. No one feels this so keenly as those who are placed as guides for those who have made profession of striving after greater perfection than ordinary Christians. When one beholds then how the spirit of the age threatens to invade even their ranks, then one rejoices that there are still stout and strong old champions of the faith in our midst to stem the current."
"I am still endeavoring to fulfill your injunction when I first left Notre Dame for New Orleans: 'Go, and see what you can make out of that place.' These words seem to have carried a blessing with them, for they encouraged me to undertake a seemingly very difficult task... Today St. Isidore's is almost entirely remodeled and paid up." -- December 27, 1886
(Fr. Scherer to Sorin) "Boarders, 52. We just received (May 24) two young Mexicans who, I think will be a very good advantage in that country; for I find that pupils after all are the most profitable and successful means of advertisement. When pupils are satisfied at a school they are sure to let their parents, relatives and friends know it, but they do the reverse too, when they find a reason or pretext." (1886)
(Fr. Scherer to Sorin) "... We have paid off on the debt about $1000. This is better than any year previous."
"I trust that our good God will still extend His protecting hand over St. Isidore's so that it may finally come out of its pecuniary difficulties and thus be able to extend its influence for the furtherance of Christian education and the promotion of the glory of God." (1886)
St. Isidore's College -- 1888
-- Rev. W. Corby, Visitor (1888)
(Corby to Sorin) "Council met February 24. Petitions Father General and Provincial to accept offer of agent representing manufacturing company to sell property for $30,000, 'a very favorable and lucrative offer.' "
Fully three-fourths of the property cannot be utilized without going to great expense, this three-fourths consisting of swamps. Ask Father Provincial of his delegate to visit St. Isidore's."
"Saw Archbishop this A.M. He does not favor the sale, or, in other words, does not like the idea of selling the property and taking the money out of the diocese. He intimated in the strongest terms that we had no right to do so... He, of course, does not object if we keep the money in the diocese."
-- January 29, 1889
(Rev. W. Corby to Sorin) "There are here - 12 Religious, 9 Domestics, 65 Boarders and 8 day pupils. No money in this!"January 29, 1891
(Rev. John M. Toohey to Sorin) "I always supposed that the purchase of St. Isidore's was like any other business transaction: some party or parties who owned that property were in need of money and Father Shiel agreed upon the price ... Whether Fr. Shiel paid the full amount in cash or more likely by installments, I do not know. You must remember this purchase took place 20- years ago or more... Some of the friends of Father Shiel wanted him to purchase the property in the name of the asylum, but this he would not do. He wished to secure a home for the Community." (1889)
(Rev. J. B. Scherer to Corby) "There are seven day scholars paying $22 a month in all. Eight Boarders paying $18 each which equals $144 a month. Total $422 a month. Four hired men, and five hired women at $12 a month which leaves $422 less $108 or $314 a month to live on for 45 persons or 23.5 cents a day for each. Meat, nine cents a pound; bread, four cents; potatoes $3.40 per bushel."
"The wise men who reduced the tuition about the $400 of unpaid June bills. They can live, I presume, on air and dirty Mississippi water." (1893)
Holy Cross College, New Orleans
"The grounds upon which the college stands were purchased for the Congregation of Holy Cross, thirty years ago, by Father Shiel, Vice- Provincial of the Order in the South. They formed in ancient times the plantation of a wealthy Creole family. Governor Claiborne resided here and owned the property. They are but 400 feet in width, but they extend from the Mississippi River to Lake Pontchartrain, a distance of five miles at this point. After the French had established a colony here, they cut up the river from, outside of the area intended for the settlement, into small strips of a few hundred feet, but the land ran back like a river for several miles, usually as far as the shores of the lake. Narrow roads or lanes separated these tracts, and a deep ditch was generally dug along these lanes for the purpose of irrigating the rice fields."
"On the premises are still two good specimens of planters' houses, lying adjacent to one another. Wide porticos or galleries as they are termed, supported by heavy columns of brick, run all around with the exception of the rear, in which the portico is narrowed by rooms projecting at the ends of the buildings. Two heavy brick chimneys with open hearths project from the roof. The windows and doors are double, hung on the sides and secured by strong wooden shutters hung in the same manner. The upper parts of the doors are glass. The roofs are of slate, with dormer windows, and extend over the porticos. Low garrets served as storage rooms for household trumpery. One of these buildings has been raised over a solid brick foundation of a storey and serves as headquarters for the professors, the other being fitted up as a chapel and infirmary. The house of the overseer, with only one large porch in front, is in a good state of preservation as yet and is occupied. Three large, new two-storied oblong buildings, enclosing two courtyards contain the study halls dormitories, lavatories refectories and several classrooms. Through within the city limits, and easy access by the street-cars, St. Isidore's enjoys all the seclusion of a rural retreat; and it is thus especially adapted for an asylum of learning, profound study and moral culture."
Beautiful promenades, flanked on the one side by large plantation cottages and shade trees on the other by the river, lead eastward to the U.S. (Jackson) Barracks, the National Cemetery, Jackson's unfinished monument and to the old Chalmett battlefield, the scene of Old Hickory's victory over the Red Coats in 1815"
Though it is only 10 years since the College was formally opened, the applications for matriculation have been so numerous of late that new and more commodious buildings are demanded ... and the interest which many of the most prominent men in the city are beginning to take in the prosperity of St. Isidore's is a guarantee that this seat of learning and piety will receive a large share of public patronage as soon as its halls are capacious enough to receive the pupils who are seeking admission ..."
"The faculty consists of some of the ablest Priests and Brothers of Holy Cross, assisted by several eminent lay professors. Full classical and commercial courses are successfully pursued; the fine arts are not neglected. Studies of either kind can be supplemented by such practical branches as telegraphy, phonography, surveying, practical architecture, linear drawing and modern languages... The old students of Notre Dame will remember Brothers Lambert, Camillus and Clement and ...
"It is commonly believed in the North that the malaria of Louisiana is incompatible with longevity. Well, here is Brother Ignatius, who has spent 39 years in New Orleans in good health, with the exception of an attack of yellow Jack in 1853. He is yet hale and vigorous, though his age may range anywhere between the span of life assigned to man by the Psalmist, and a well-rounded century."
Scholastic, 23:397 - Brother Stanislaus Clark, CSC (1890)
"Archbishop Blanc also introduced into the Archdiocese of New Orleans the Congregation of Holy Cross. In May, 1850, five Brothers of Holy Cross of St. Joseph came from South Bend, Indiana, to teach at the Catholic Male Orphan Asylum, as St. Mary's Orphanage was also called. The Sisters, Marianites of the Holy Cross, had charge of the Infirmary, and the clothes room and the domestic arrangements. The following year Father F. Cointet became local superior, and by 1854, there were seven Brothers at the school. Father F. Gouesse, CSC, became superior in 1854. A Novitiate for the Brothers was established at New Orleans, which was under the direction of Father Patrick Sheil, CSC. In 1861 there were 300 orphans at the institute. Just before this the Brothers spent $25,000 for the establishment of a model farm to instruct the older boys in trades so that they could earn a living, when leaving the institution. There were three Priests of the Congregation and five Brothers in 1867 St. St. Mary's Orphanage, but by 1870 there were only five Brothers. In 1873, the Holy Cross Congregation bought a 160 acre plantation on the Mississippi River banks, below St. Mary's Orphanage, remodeled old buildings on the property and opened an industrial school for orphan boys under the care of the St. Vincent de Paul Society. The Brothers then left St. Mary's Orphanage to the care of the Marianite Sisters. The Salvatorian Brothers, and the Holy Cross Brothers were also known, gave all their attention to their industrial school but in 1879, the institution became a boarding school under the name of St. Isidore's Institute. Eleven years later it was chartered and authorized to confer degrees."
"When a new administration building was erected in 1896 the name was changed to Holy Cross College."
The Catholic Church in Louisiana, Pg. 400 - Roger Baudier (1850-1895)
"St. Joseph Parochial School for Boys, Common Street, under the super-intendance of Father Smith, CM. Conducted by the Brothers of Holy Cross. Six hundred boys."
-- Catholic Directory (1875)
Sacred Heart Church
(Brother Ignatius to Sorin, undated) "We have about 60 pupils including boys and girls and expect many more in a few weeks. If Father Adelsperger should be changed it would cause much dissatisfaction here.... We have the pupils at eight o'clock Mass every Sunday and the Congregation is much edified at their conduct."
St. Vincent's Home, 371 Bienville Street
(Brother Ignatius to Sorin) "I am now at St. Vincent's Home among the orphans. The number of boys at present in the house is 81. We have ten at the Industrial School, belonging to the Home. Total: 91. I hope before long the Home will be ours. Mr. Hart, an influential member of the St. Vincent de Paul is in favor of placing it entirely in our hands." December 22, 1873
(St. Vincent's Home, Continued)
"Father Robinson is doing well at the Farm (Holy Cross); he is trying to get an appropriation from the Legislature. Brother Felix joins me...."
"In the lamented death of the Rev. W. J. Ruthmann, CSC., Superior, the St. Vincent's Home has lost a sincere, zealous and devoted friend."
"The writer has known him since he took charge of the Home in March last." Morning Star November 2, 1873
See also under "Co-education, 1844, Sorin to Bishops"
"In the spring of 1849 Father Francis Cointet was sent to New Orleans to take charge of St. Mary Orphan Asylum. With him went five Brothers and Sisters Mary of the Five Wounds, Mary of Calvary and Mary of the Nativity. Within two years these were taking care of 200 children in the Asylum and within four years twice that number. The progress of the Orphanage was severally hampered, however, by the ravages of cholera and yellow fever in the years 1852-54. During these sad times, Father Moreau did all he could to help his afflicted children, bidding them to submit themselves to God's Holy Will despite the natural difficulties of understanding his mysterious designs in regard to this foundation. Faith was justified, and it was not long until the foundation in New Orleans became prosperous and flourishing enough to warrant the opening of a Novitiate."
-- King's Highway, pp. 37-38 (1849)
See "'Brother Vincent', 1849."
Holy Cross, New Orleans
"Rev. F. Sheil came to New Orleans in January, 1857, first superior of St. Joseph's Institute. The Brothers were: Gabriel, Raphael, Ignatius and Patrick. In 1878 yellow fever broke out in New Orleans. Those who died were Brothers Charles, Aloysius, John and Paul."
"The farm connected with the institution was bought in 1859."
"Rev. P. W. Condon, Superior, 1866. Rev. J. M. Toohey succeeded him and was replaced by Fr. Vilhendre in May, 1872. Rev. Fr. Fourmond arrived in 1878 and was made superior of the Industrial School. It was during his term of office that the name was changed to St. Isidore's Institute. Rev. Fr. Joseph Schever came in the following December, accompanied by Fr. Demers. At this time the number of pupils was 45, each paying from $6 to $10 a month."
"A new and commodious building erected in 1895-96. Personnel: (1895) Rev. N. Warkin, President; Rev. F. Reuter, Vice-President; Rev. John De Groote, Prefect of Discipline; Brother Remigius, Director of Studies."
"Brothers Simeon, Barnabas, Ambrose, Dominic Silas, Hormisdas and Isidore."
-- Chronicles of 1895 (1895)
(Archbishop Parche to Sorin) "Father Vilhandre left the house in bad shape; claimed Sisters owed him enormous debts, but Archbishop claims he owed Sisters even more. Suggests Sorin leave Fr. Marine in charge as he would make a "go" of it.
-- February 29, 1872
(Archbishop Blanc, Vincennes, Hew Orleans and Montgomery) "St. Peter's Church at Montgomery was organized about the year 1818, and was attended at that time by Rev. Anthony Blanc, later Archbishop of New Orleans, who then resided at Vincennes. The Church, at that time, was called Black Oak Ridge Church, and was a small log affair about a mile west of the place where Montgomery is now located."
-- History of Daviess County, Pg. 729
Chicago Goodspeed Publishing Co. (1886)
(Moreau -- New Orleans; 1835 ??) "Archbishop Blanc told the Visitor Father Drouelle, that he was ready to hand over to our Brothers and Sisters the direction of the Boys' Orphanage. The Archbishop had failed thus far with two communities who had turned him down. The abandonment of the Kentucky foundation (St. Mary's) permitted the disposal of the Sisters to New Orleans, and Notre Dame was now able to furnish the Brothers required. On receiving details from the Visitor (Drouelle) Father Moreau, ever ready to step in where souls redeemed by the blood of the Lamb were in jeopardy, determined to accept the Archbishop's proposal. On May 1, 1849 , five Brothers and three Sisters took charge of this charitable home."
"The Orphanage was founded in 1835 by a humble Irish priest, Father Adam Kindelon, with the assistance of generous benefactors under the title of 'The Catholic Association of New Orleans' - 'For the Protection of Orphans'. Next year the Association numbered 200 members. Then it was chartered as a legal corporation by the legislature. A committee of Directors was named with the Archbishop at its head. At first the financial resources were very scanty and the Executive Committee had difficulty in keeping the Asylum going. But in 1838, the State came to its rescue by a grant or subsidy of $7000, and later some legacies were made in favor of the orphanage, which put the Directors in a position to buy the property. Thereafter it went under the name of St. Mary's Orphanage.
"Pray for our religious in New Orleans, who are being tried by the calamities of war, famine and pestilence. Father Moreau Letters August 29, 1862
(St. Mary's Orphanage) 75 orphans. Five Brothers arrived in May, 1849: Basil, Theodolus, Francis de Sales, Louis and Gonzaga. Three sisters arrived also. Trip took twelve to fifteen days. (1849)
Father Gouesse sent. Difficulties with him until 1852. Father Salmon, Director, 1853; Father Guesdon, 1854. Several Brothers and Sisters died in epidemic. Children also. Parents of others died, increasing the number of orphans. 1853: 275 orphans. Sisters started a home for the girls in 1851. Novitiate for the Sisters and Brothers in 1852.
In the spring of 1849 Father Cointet was sent to New Orleans as local superior of an establishment of the order, which had been lately founded there. Soon he had consolation of seeing a flourishing orphan asylum and Manual Labor School for boys and girls.
... The Catholics of the city came forward most generously to aid the new establishment, and as far as finances were concerned, he met with little difficulty in his new office.
Male Catholic Orphan Asylum began May 1, 1849. (July, 1850)
(New Orleans Vicariate, Administration) "... Vicar, Rev. Father Sheil; Assistant: Brother Ignatius; Steward, Brother Ignatius; Secretary, Brother Patrick; Prefect of Discipline .....; Commissioner, Brother Gabriel."
Moreau's Letters, 2:16 (1857)
See also Moreau "Letters", Vol. 2, Pp. 69, 82, 84
"An epidemic of yellow fever broke out a month ago and is now raging with frightening fury. For many years no one had experienced such prolonged and death-laden heat as during this last summer. The air we breathed, said on letter, was like hot lead. Hence, let us pray for the complete cure of our dear Father Shiel."
-- Moreau Letter 100 (1858)
"Just opened an asylum in New Orleans. We have 17 members in New Orleans."
-- General Archives, Sorin (1852)
See under "Louisiana", 1857.
Yellow Fever, 1853
"A virulent form of yellow fever broke out in New Orleans in May, 1853, brought in by boats from Jamaica and Brazil. During June, the number of cases increased alarmingly, but during the week of July 16, in seven days, 204 persons died. Panic seized the populace and despite all assurances of merchants, who feared ruin of their business, and silence or reassurance on the part of newspapers, thousands of people began a hasty exodus from the city. The frightful epidemic spread and deaths mounted. People fled in every direction, but many took the disease along with them and the epidemic spread into the interior and a wide sector of the valley was ravaged, including a large part of Louisiana. Later in the month of July, even the Board of Alderman adjourned and fled, leaving Mayor Grossman alone, to face a most appalling and tragic situation... Rain fell in torrents, rendering the streets of the city veritable quagmires in which gorses and wagons carting away the dead stuck fast.... During the week of August 7, 1853, 909 were swept into eternity by the yellow fever. The climax came the following week with 1,288 deaths - more than 183 a day! The toll of deaths from yellow fever during the 'Black Year', from May 28 to September 1, was placed at 7,189, but for the whole of the season it was estimated at 7,434, though it is generally agreed that the total number of deaths was far greater, because many were not registered or reported. The total number of deaths in the city that year from all causes from June 1 to October 1 was over 11,000! Approximately one person in every 13 died that season. The catastrophe has been rated as ranking next to the Black Plague of London."
As in the great plague of 1832-33, disorders broke out at the churches and at the grave yards, funeral corteges battling for precedence and insistence on the rites of the church for their dead, victims of the epidemic. Funerals waited for miles along the streets and roads to the cemeteries. Grave diggers, though paid highest wages, went on strike. Trenches were dug and many buried in a common grave covered with quicklime. The city appropriated wagons to call daily at homes to pick up corpses; these were known as 'Corporation Wagons'. The city also furnished rough box coffins, painted with lampblack, known as 'Corporation Coffins'. New Orleans streets were deserted; stores were closed; people remaining in the city huddled in their homes, making pitiful attempts to fight off the disease. It was the city of the dead.
"... Archbishop Blanc instructed Father Rousselon, Vicar-General, to issue a circular ordering public prayers and the giving of alms to beseech the mercy of God. People flocked to the churches to beg God to stave off the hand of death in their midst. And came the first cold days of November and the "Knight of the Yellow Plume" or "Yellow Jack", as the dread visitor was popularly referred to, began his retreat and Death took a holiday....
"As a result of the dread epidemic of 1853, the orphan asylums of the city were taxed beyond capacity."
The Catholic Church in Louisiana,
-- Boudier, pp. 374-376 (1939)
Novitiate at New Orleans
"A Novitiate for the Brothers was established at New Orleans, which was under the direction of Father P. F. Sheil, CSC."
"(1849-53) Brother Basil or Aloysius shall go to New Orleans ...
-- Minor Chapter April 2, 1849
"Brother Victor shall go to New Orleans to direct the orphanage ..."
-- March 19, 1849
"Brother Theodule shall be promoted to Director of New Orleans Asylum."
-- May 24, 1850
"Brother Anselm will start tomorrow for New Orleans...."
-- July 1, 1850
"Brother Ambrose shall go next Wednesday to New Orleans..."
-- May 10, 1852
"Brother Alban shall go to New Orleans as shoemaker..."
-- May 17, 1852
"Brother Aloysius shall go to New Orleans..." January 17, 1853
"In November, 1848, Archbishop Blanc and the Committee in charge of St. Mary's Orphanage asked for Brothers. Father Dr ouelle, the Visitor, presented the case at Notre Dame. The Director was to get $150 and four other Brothers $125 each. Later Sisters (3) were asked for. All started work on May 1, 1849. Travel expenses and six month's salary were paid in advance. The Brothers were Vincent, Francis de Sales, Theodule, Basil, Louis; cholera was raging then. Population was 150,000 - mostly Catholic French." -- Sorin (1849)
"About the beginning of August a malignant epidemic, the yellow fever, broke out fiercely in New Orleans. Three Brothers and one Sister of St. Mary's Orphan Asylum were carried off in a few weeks."
-- Sorin Chronicles (1853)
"Rev. P. P. Klein, CSC., left during Christmas week to be President of St. Isidore's College, New Orleans."
-- Scholastic January 12, 1889
"Father Drouelle, Visitor, presides at meeting of the Minor Chapter. Proposal to take charge of an Orphanage in New York at Bishop Hughes' request ..."
-- September 16, 1848
"Project of a new school in New York shall be referred to the Mother House ..."
-- Local Council October 8, 1860
"Parochial School for Boys, under the direction of the Brothers of Holy Cross,..." Catholic Directory (1865-1866)
"Minor Chapter met under the presidency of the Rev. Father Drouelle, Visitor, and adopted the following resolutions:
"The proposal of the Rt. Rev. Bishop Hughes of New York for an establishment of Brothers as managers of an orphan Asylum in that city is unanimously accepted, as the very means to develop and recruit the Society of the Brothers."
"Several Brothers were in consequence presented by the Chapter for the direction of this establishment, but no decision on this point was deemed prudent or even possible, until an interview was had with the Rt. Reverend Bishop."
"It was only unanimously agreed that the establishment should be managed under the presidency of a priest of the Society."
-- Local Council September 16, 1848
"The first foundation (Sisters of Holy Cross) at a distance was made in 1855 at the invitation of Archbishop John Hughes, of New York City ... The foundation was to comprise a novitiate, and the parish (St. Vincent de Paul - French) was to be handed over to the Fathers of Holy Cross by the Fathers of Mercy, and the Brothers of Holy Cross were also to open industrial schools financed by the parish. By an Act of Foundation ... the new foundation was to depend on the Mother House in ... Father Moreau, being in Rome at the time, could not approve this Act until the following April, on which occasion he changed the clause to read: 'by the mediation of Father Sorin' who had asked that New York be under his authority."
"Difficulties immediately ensued, because the Archbishop and Fr., Sorin could not determine the definite line of authority between themselves as regarded the Sisters. Matters finally came to such a crisis that the House was closed and the Sisters were withdrawn in October, 1856." On the King's Highway, pg. 284 (1855)
"Council decides that a new foundation of a school of Brothers New York shall be presented for approbation to the Mother House."
-- Local Council October 8, 1860
(Brother Amadeus to Brother Raymond) "Please let me know as soon as possible, if you would like to come and work with us in New York ... We want just now another teacher in English."Provincial Archives (1864)