(1836; Le Mans -- Moreau) "Here we must say also that we moderns, with our insistence on specialization will be interested to note his (Fr. Moreau's) foresight in educational requirements in the prospectus he drew up for the schools of Holy Cross in Le Mans on July 6, 1836:
'We hope to join, in a short time, a secondary school to this primary boarding school, so that those who finish in our elementary classes may find in our secondary boarding school the means of completing their education. But, to attain this end, we must first form professors qualified to satisfy the exactions of the law; and we would have these in such numbers that each one would have to teach a single branch.'"
Sr. M. Eleanore, The King's Highway.
(St. Peter's; Sept. 5, 1842) "The Chapter, after invoking the Holy Ghost, adopted rules for governing and teaching boarders." E. Sorin, Superior, Brother John, Secretary. Particular Council of Brothers, Archives of Notre Dame, 49, p.3.1842
(1849) "Council adopted rules for advancing study of Brothers.
From Mass to 8:30 -- Grammar, Brother Paul
From 8:30 to 10:00 -- Writing, Bro. Paul.
From 10:00 to 11:00 -- School on grammar, Bro. Paul.
From 11:00 to 11:45 -- Reading, Brother John.
From 5:00 to 6:30 -- Bookkeeping, Bro. John."
Particular Council of Brothers, (N.D. Archives, 1849, p. 3.) 1849
(Studies of Brothers; October 9, 1842) "The Particular Council of the Brothers adopted rules for advancing the study of Brothers, viz:
From Mass to 11:45 (same as above)
From 1:30 to 2:30, Arithmetic, Bro. Paul.
From 2:30 to 3:30, School on Arithmetic, Bro. Paul.
From 5:00 to 6:15, Reading and Bookkeeping twice each week."
-- Bro. John, Secretary.
(1843) Members: Father Sorin, Brothers Vincent, Lawrence, and John (Secretary) -- April 22; Balance, $775.50."1843
"There shall be five classes (including the preparatory course) for the primary instruction, and five for those who learn the Latin language."
-- Council of Professors, August, 1844.
(French...1844; Obligatory) "5 -- Brother Gatian shall teach French to all the boarders." Council of Professors, August, 1844.
"If some of the Brothers and Postulants desire to learn music, they must get a note from the Director of Studies."
-- Council of Professors, March 15, 1844.
"The Master of Studies (Prefect of Discipline ??) -- may be allowed to study this year. Minor Chapter (Later Local Council). Aug. 31, 1844.
(Classes...Holy Scripture...1845) "...there shall be a class of Holy Scripture from three to four o'clock. All the boys shall assist and Brother Francis de Sales shall preside in Father Badin's place."
-- Council of Professors Nov. 5, 1845.
(Class Schedule...Notre Dame...1844)
6:30 Study of Grammar.
7:30 Breakfast, followed by recreation.
8:00 Study of Grammar.
8:15 Class in Grammar, dictation, Reading and Arithmetic, under Brother Charles.
11:00 Writing under Brother Charles.
1:30 study of Geography or History.
2:30 Class in Geography or History, then French class under Brother Gatian.
4:45 study for performance of the tasks.
6:30 spiritual Reading."
-- Council of Professors, p. 10. August, 1844
(1844...Professors Council) "Brother Gatian may continue to teach his pupils how to read Latin once a week, and Mr. L'Etourneau shall give a lesson to all the pupils once on Sunday.
"It was also decided that Brother Paul should become a member of the Board of Examiners for the reception of newcomers.
"Mr. William Macquin shall read every morning at the workmen's breakfast."
-- Council of Professors, 1844.
(Classes...1844-45; Sept. 1) "This year we shall have the 5th, 4th, and 3rd classes: the pupils shall be divided thus:
5th Class 4th Class 3rd Class Messrs. Messrs. Messrs. Kelly, Junior Lafontaine L. Murphy Kelly, Senior Fierst W. Macquin Compeau Hitz L'acey Metzger McDonald Hays Horan
"The Professors shall be: for the 3rd Class -- Brother Charles; for the 4th Class -- Brother Gatian; for the 5th Class -- Brother Francis de Sales.
"Brother Paul shall teach writing, linear drawing, and Bookkeeping.
"Brother Gatian shall teach French, 6:15 to 7:00."
-- Council of Professors. 1844
Brother Augustine, Arithmetic; Brother Charles, Grammar, Writing, and Bookkeeping and Algebra; Brother Gatian, French."April, 1844.
"Brother Gatian said he could not keep Mr. Horan busy during class, without neglecting the other boys, wherefore the Council unanimously resolved that patience and Hope were the only remedies they could give."
-- Local Council
"The work 'duty' or 'duties' was adopted instead of 'task' to signify what the pupils have to write; the work 'lessons' to signify what they commit to memory."
-- Council of Professors.
(Classes...1844) "There shall be five classes (inclusive of the preparatory course for primary instruction) and 5 classes for those who learn the Latin language. 1844
Preparatory Course or the 5th Division: In Class Out of Class I Reading I Religion II Spelling, Grammar and Parsing II Writing III Numeration 4th Class In Class Out of Class I Reading I Religion II Grammar, Orthography, and Parsing II Writing III History of U.S. and Geography IV Arithmetic 3rd Class In Class Out of Class I Reading I Writing II Grammar, Orthography, and Parsing II Linear Drawing III Epistolary Composition III Bookkeeping IV History and Geography V Arithmetic
Preparatory Course or the 2nd Class In Class Out of Class I Literature and Grammar I Religion II Narrative Composition II Writing III History and Geography III Linear Drawing IV Arithmetic IV Bookkeeping V Geometry and mensuration VI Natural Philosophy 1st Class In Class Out of Class I Rhetoric I Religion II Oratorical Composition II Writing III Algebra and Trigonometry III Linear Drawing IV Mensuration and Drafting V Natural Philosophy VI Logic
(1844 -- on) See the following:
"Brothers Examination, 1846"
"Brothers Classes" (1844)"Bishop Fin. 1923"
"Brothers Education, (1844 (?)"
"Brothers Latin, 1845"
"Brothers Classes at Novitiate, 1849"
"Brothers' General Council, 1845"
"Brothers' Studies, 1878"
"Brothers' Particular Council, 1846"
"Brothers' Studies, 1895"
"Exams, Notre Dame, 1870"
"Brothers' Studies, Mar, 15, 1844"
"Brothers' Teaching, 1870"
"Brothers' Particular Council, 1845"
(1844) "It was decided that music shall be taken every day after dinner and plain Church singing after supper."
-- Council of Professors. 1844
"A lesson in politeness will be given every Monday at the Spiritual Conference." Council of Professors.
"The Master of Studies may be allowed to study this year." Council of Professors.
"Whereas we have no English New Testament our English pupils will not have to learn a verse of the new Testament as the regulations direct."
-- Council of Professors. I, 16.
"Competitions (tests) for the living languages and writing shall take place on the same day according to the regulations, but that in writing shall be before breakfast."
(Brothers' study Room; 1844) "3 -- Mr. James Whelan shall study in the Brothers' study room with Mr. L'Etourneau...."
-- Council of Professors. Feb. 23, 1844.
(Evening School) "The Evening School shall be attended by Mr. Steele in Father Cointet's room.
"The workmen shall go to English School.
"Half-boarders, instead of taking their recreation with the boarders after supper as the Council decreed, shall go to the English class (school)."
-- Council of Professors. I, 12
(1848) Brothers (??): "That the 1st class of mathematics should have two hours a week, and the second three hours a week, of geometry, and three hours of algebra. Mr. Shawe's class having besides two hours of arithmetic." Oct.. 6, 1848. A. Granger, Novitiate. Particular Council of the Brothers.1848
"According to a new decision all the apprentices and half-boarders will go immediately at six o'clock to their respective study rooms."
-- Council of Administration, July 15, 1844.
(1844) "The little bell shall be rung five minutes before the end of each class." P. D.. 2.
"Council of Professors assembled in Sorin's room, January 7, 1844, appointed: Brother Paul for Penmanship and Mathematics; Brother Vincent for Mensuration; Brother Augustine for Geography; Brother Gatian for Ancient and Modern History and French; Brother Augustine for Botany and Zoology and Brother Charles, Algebra."
"All boarders will attend the class of music."
(1845) "Brothers not to begin studies before November 1. These Brothers shall study: Dominic, John the Baptist, Stephen, Benedict, Thomas. 1845
"October 11 -- Brother Benedict shall teach Brothers at the Novitiate. Brothers are not to study Bookkeeping or linear drawing; they will not have any arithmetic or readers.
"Brother Basil may study and have his class in the dormitory to follow regulations of boarders as far as possible.
"Notes should be read during dinner on Sundays.
"Brother Vincent shall help the baker and attend to the writing class -- January 8"
-- Archives of Notre Dame, 49, p.7.
(Courses; August 29, 1846; Archives of Notre Dame, 1849, p. 117) "Mr. (Father) Shawe will have second class at the College. Brother Gatian the third or fourth according to the pupils we may have here. Brother Stephen the Preparatory Course. Brother Francis de Sales, Master of Studies. Brothers Gatian and Francis de Sales overseers for the recreations. Brother Francis to be his substitute." 1846
(1846) "The Brothers shall have no class until they have finished Brother John's house; they shall also make a chimney for Father Weinzepefen and if it succeeds one shall be made for the infirmary."
-- Council of Administration, 1846.
"The Brothers shall have class every day, beginning with next Friday. They shall review their arithmetic and their grammar."
-- Council of Administration, August 5, 1846.
"Brother Vincent shall explain the method of teaching on Sundays, and Brother Bernard shall assist at the classes."
Council of Administration.
"Father Granger requested that all the professors should assist at the examinations of the Brothers, which will take place before the examinations of the Boarders."
-- Council of Professors, April 15, 1846.
(See also Council of Professors, 1844)
(Classes taught in 1846) Premiums were awarded in: Religion, Composition, Greek, English, History, Reading, Grammar, Geography, Epistolary correspondence, Zoology, Arithmetic, Orthography, Astronomy, Latin, Penmanship, Linear drawing, French, Music, Bookkeeping, Vocal music, Purity of language, Pianoforte, Public reading, Instrumental music.
(Study Room -- 1846. Chairs for the classics students) "Stove in the middle, table around it. Mr. Gouesse said the study room would be white-washed and paved next Friday." Dec. 7, 1846.
"(June 19, 1845) Brother Francis de Sales shall light the candle of the two study rooms for the evening school There must be a floor of planks in the study room. Gouesse asked Father Superior whether nails might not be placed on the door and pillars of the study room for the caps of the boys.
"Brother Thomas shall make wooden candlesticks for the study rooms.
"That the students should have sand and/or blotting paper."
-- Council of Professors, 3, 30. June 19, 1845
"Chairs instead of benches for the students of classics."
-- Local Council, 64, 101.
"Brother Gatian complained of his not having time to prepare his class and his having had French Authors."
-- Council of Professors, I, 16. (1847-48)
"Classes of Holy Scripture on Sundays from three to four. All the boys shall assist." Council of Professors, I, 44 (1847-48)
"Lessons on politeness given by Sorin in 1845-46."
-- Council of Professors, I, 16. (1847-48)
"Courses in vocal music abolished in 1847-48. Good 'points' abolished."
-- Council of Professors, III, 24.
"Those festival days on which the minor hours are sung shall be observed as great feast days. There will be neither music nor catechism on those days, but a lesson in civility." Council of Professors, II, 31.
"The plan of studies has been altered and shall for the future follow that of St. Louis, Missouri." Council of Professors, 1848
(Exhibitions...1848) "First Tuesday of the months at 2:30 P.M. distributions -- crosses, ribbons, encouragements, criticisms, a play during the intermission; instructional and instrumental music, symphony.
"Up to this year the number of students steadily increasing. Manual labor School developed; farm cleared and drained, and lively movement evident in every department of the establishment.Sorin.
(August 12, 1861) "Plan of studies for the students of the Community of both novitiates considered and adopted unanimously, that students follow the regular classes at the College."Provincial Chapter. 1861.
(Drouelle Visit, 1848) "The custom of the country leaves each one free to learn what he wants and when he likes. According to this idea the Jesuits have evolved a plan of studies which was adopted at Notre Dame on September 1, 1849. Is advantageous as in granting more liberty to the students; they are happier and express their gratitude by their assiduity in study. A spirit of piety is also developed in proportion... Each branch has only one class. 1848
General Rules: 1) Silence outside of recreation; 2) No cutting of a class without permission; 3) reading forbidden except on Tuesdays and Saturdays from five to seven and on holidays; 4) permission to read newspapers in silence in reading room; 5) foot baths monthly, bathe twice a week in summer; 6) No smoking; 7) Monthly Confession for Catholics.
"Professors keep track of student competitions and once a month give the Prefect of Studies the names of the six best who become candidates for the list of 'diligents'. The names of the laziest are put on a tableau of 'negligents'. Names proclaimed at the monthly distribution.
"A summary of the characteristics of the college according to this plan: a) many classes, little study; b) subjects all independent and studied separately; c) little legal restraint, few punishments; d) rewards rare, but given so as to impress; e) many patriotic festivals; f) for discipline -- the law of liberty and rule of common sense. They killed themselves during five years in order to maintain the rules and the discipline of France. Was necessary to adopt principles of 'laissez faire' as Americans."
"To keep the Brothers busy on Sundays there shall be two classes: arithmetic from nine to ten, taught by Brother Joseph; Penmanship from three to four thirty, taught by Brother Basil."
(1847-48) "The Latinists can write but twice a week."
-- Council of Professors, III, 26. 1847-48
(1844-45) "Pupils who take Latin shall take lessons in writing only once a week, but they shall also learn Drawing and Bookkeeping." 1844- 45
"All Latinists shall learn grammar, history, geography as the regulations direct." 1845.
"Grammatical errors of pupils shall be read in public on the first Monday of every other month."
-- Council of Professors, II, 35. 1845.
(Feb. 2, 1847 -- 17 in linear drawing, taught by Mr. Dessaulx, who has to have an interpreter. French taught by Sorin to 12 pupils."
-- Council of Professors, II, 35.Feb. 2, 1847
"German taught by Brother Matthias." 1848.
"The Latin class shall be taught in the dormitory." 1848.
"Bookkeeping shall be taught by Brother Paul in the Brothers' Study room." 1848.
"Those who study French shall say the 'Angelus' with Brother Gatian." (P. D.., 6)
"There ought to be a class of writing because the pupils are idle in the study room as are also Masters Charles Desnoyers and Thos. Coquillard because they have not any duty, being unable to write."
-- Prefect of Discipline, 29. (1848-49) ??)
"The pupils of Linear Drawing shall not without leave from the Superior discontinue that branch of their studies."
-- Local Council, May 8, 1848.
Notre Dame, 1866-67.
"School started, September 1, 1849."
1874: Classes were held for students remaining on campus during the Christmas holidays, December 27, 1874.
-- Scholastic 8:14.December 27, 1874
1883: 25 men in shorthand class. November 3, 1883
(Typewriting 1884-85) "Typewriting Department -- 1st class Remingtons with the latest improvements. The instructor besides being a practicing operator, also thoroughly understands the mechanism of the typewriter, and is capable of adjusting it and keeping it in order. Catalog. 1884-85
"Brother Gatian will go to the novitiate and teach the Brothers and translate the Constitutions." June 3, 1849.
"The plan of studies followed by the Jesuits was adopted at the return of the pupils in September. The results proved to be entirely favorable.
"As to the intrinsic merits of the plan it consists chiefly in this: that in all the branches of English the same studies may be followed by the students of the different grades without prejudice to their respective classes."
-- Sorin Chronicles. 1849.
"Bookkeeping, as its importance requires, has received a double amount of labor, and those who study it advance in equal ratio."
October, 1852... "Now School for children from 4:00 to 6:30."
-- Minim Department.
"Provincial Chapter of 1858 formed a committee on schools for the regulation of classes, class books, etc., in the University of Notre Dame and the schools of the province. Members: Gillespie (Director of Studies), Pres. Fr. Pat. Dillon, Brothers Edward, Boniface, Joseph and Bernard."1858
"Report of the Committee on Schools to the Provincial Chapter, August 12, 1858: -- 1) Teaching Brothers should be of a higher order. 2) No Brother to take charge of school before strict examination. 3) That a model school for the formation of teachers be established contained in the book entitled 'Pedagogie", which is followed in our schools in the teaching of classes: that in this school, spelling, reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, grammar, and bookkeeping (single entry) be taught."August 12, 1858
"Commencement: July 2, 1853.
Bookkeeping 1st class H
Bookkeeping 2nd class O
Arithmetic 4 classes N
Penmanship 3 classes O
(1853...Moreau) "I take advantage of this occasion to remind you of the importance I attach to the formulation of a general plan of studies for our entire Association. With this in mind I enjoin on all the heads of houses or local directors of Studies, whether in France or abroad, to send Rev. Father Champeau, Superior of Salvatorists and General Director of Studies, within the next two months, the necessary information for a detailed report on the actual state of studies in all our houses. What I require is not something which can be thrown together in a few hours. It is a work which will take time and care, since it must reflect the particular circumstances of each house and conform to following plan.... You will kindly explain the methods you follow, showing their good points, and mentioning in detail any methods of your own which have succeeded in your different classes and the various branches of teaching."
-- December 6, 1853.
1871: see -- Novitiate.
(Classes...Early Notre Dame; 1854...see Early Notre Dame, 1854.)
(Courses projected) "Those, however, who desire to fit themselves for the learned professions can have the best facilities under most able professors, and though the departments of Law and Medicine are not yet opened, they are included in the Charter of the University, and it is hoped that at no very distant period the young graduates of Notre Dame will be enabled to make their professional as well as their Classical Course at their Alma Mater. Indeed, a commencement may be said to be already made, as the President has lately secured the services of Thos. Mackinnis, MD.., who made his studies at and received his degrees in the celebrated Universities of Glasgow and Paris." Catalog, 1854-55.
(Tests...1856...Moreau; p. 357) "2.. that the Josephites should devote themselves to the composition of textbooks for the elementary classes.... 1856
"Consequently, I renew even more insistently all my former prescriptions, and in order to provide for the formation of more efficient teachers, I hereby suspend all new foundations. At the same time this step will permit us to bring back periodically to the Mother House those subjects who are in need of further studies, and will enable us to train them in those common principles which make for uniform teaching methods."
-- May 25, 1856.
"Commercial Department -- 'Mercantile') "This Department forms one of the three grand divisions of study at the University."
(Prescriptions...1857...Moreau) "Before closing this letter, I believe it my duty: 1) to postpone all new foundations at least for 2 years in order to better train our subjects and to bring back to the novitiate those who need further formation." Jan. 1, 1857.
(1868) "A memorial was given in by some of the teaching Brothers, calling attention to the importance of giving a good normal training to all the Brothers, and pointing out some means of improving on the past. The memorial was read and preserved among the papers of the Chapter of 1868."
-- Minute Book. 1868
(1858) "Our present class books shall be exchanged with new ones duly approved, and the Brothers shall be compelled to use the 3rd reader of the Christian Brothers."
Local Council, July 19, 1858.
(1858; Minutes of Provincial Chapter) (concerning special school for teaching Brothers) "Brother Philip was designated to take charge of this school. Brother Bernard was suggested as a teacher of methods for Bookkeeping, discipline. Besides these branches it was decided to have classes in algebra, geometry, history, English composition, and Bookkeeping by double entry for those Brothers who can pass exams in arithmetic and grammar in such a manner as to show that they could profit by studying those advantageously; that besides the primary schools already founded, there should be organized in large cities a school of higher grades where the number of students would justify it; and consequently it will not be left to the option of each Director of a school to teach Algebra in his school; but only Reading, Spelling, Writing, Catechism, Geography, Arithmetic; Bookkeeping, by single entry should be taught in the primary schools; that the higher branches be taught in the schools established for that purpose."
-- Rev. N.H. Gillespie, Secretary. 1858
(Bishop Luers to Sorin; 1858; Provincial Archives) "Try if possible if not now at least in August, to let us have a good, efficient Brother for our own school here (Ft. Wayne). Something must be done for it, the sooner the better."
See also...Alton, 1870 and W. Philadelphia, 1860-65.
(Education; 1859) "Decided that the method of the Christian Brothers be followed until the book written by our Very Rev. Superior General be revised and approved by the General Chapter of 1860. 1859
"Asks that pedagogy of Christian Brothers be used until the Congregation has one adopted to the customs of the United States, Translated into English."
Requests of Provincial Chapter to the General Chapter, 1865.
(1869) "There has been a great improvement in the new method of exam; it must be encouraged and developed." 1869
"Religious instruction is not yet what it should be, though some improvement is apparent. The words of the catechism are not well learned...."
Fr. Granger's Visit, 1869.
"(Teaching Brothers, 1859) "The chapter seemed to concur in the suggestion made, viz., that the Directory should be enforced in regard to the testimonial letters being required from all the teaching Brothers to be presented with their Obediences, and the ground plan and elevation of their schoolrooms. 1859
"The Very Rev. Provincial instructed the Secretary of the Council to write to the different pastors in whose schools the Brothers taught last year to have their opinions in the manner in which the Brothers fulfilled their duties."
Minute of Provincial Chapter, 1859.
(1860) "As regards the annual examinations to be undergone by all the members of the Congregation, the Committee expresses the wish that every year and, as far as possible, before the distribution of obediences, more regular investigation be made, into the progress expected of the individual members according to each one's talents, conformably to the program of studies decide upon and announced at the time of retreat....
"To enhance this exam with greater solemnity, five different committees should be appointed to work simultaneously, each one composed of three members...."
General Chapter, Committee on Studies, 1860.
(Annual Exams: 1860) "...we have adopted for our younger religious a system of annual exams patterned after those prescribed by the Church for priests whose powers she limits and revokes according to provisions of law.
"I take this occasion to acquaint you with the following passage from a report of the General Chapter Committee on Studies:
As regards the annual exams to be undergone by all the members of the Congregation the Committee expresses the wish that every year and, as far as possible, before the distribution of obediences, more regular investigation be made, into the progress expected of the individual members according to each one's talents, conformably to the program of studies decide upon and announced at the time of retreat....
Moreau "Letters" II, pp. 150-151. 1860
(1865) "Decree: That there shall be but one house of study for members of the Province."
Minutes of Provincial Chapter. (Provinces -- U.S., Canada, Louisiana)1865
(1860) "Council decides that Mr. Burns will be transferred from the office to teach the Novice Brothers." Oct. 15, 1860.
(1860) "The students of the Brothers' novitiate should be employed at work two weeks in the harvest time: 1 week in September to collect fruit and one week in October to dig potatoes."Local Council. 1860
(1861) "In order to employ fewer professors, the novices of the two novitiates follow the courses of the University, which are more thorough than ever, and in which they make more progress, without causing trouble. This plan is to be followed in the future." Sorin 1861
1) "Many young persons from the age of 15 or 20 enter the Congregation, no doubt deeply imbued with a sense of their holy vocation. If they are at once sent to study and have talent they soon acquire a good education. if this education be continued longer, they soon perceive that the very same requirements which would fit them for excellent teaching positions also fit them for excellent positions in the world. Being still young and insensibly, perhaps, imbibing the spirit of the world, they yield to the temptation, alas! too often, as sad experience proves.
2) "Many young novices, having acquired in the Community and at its expense, a fair education, aspire to the priesthood, and being borne out, more or less, in their aspirations by others, leave the Community and become sometimes priests -- and sometimes not. In either of the above cases subjects are lost to the Congregation -- the Society of the Brothers loses members who if properly and prudently educated would be very efficient members, and the great and holy work of educating children of the poor is thereby deprived of valuable laborers in the harvest field."
3) "Considering to the Congregation and to the children of having competent teachers your committee strongly recommends that all those subjects destined to teach in the Parochial Schools be solidly instructed in all the branches taught in such schools, viz., Reading, Writing, Spelling, Grammar, Arithmetic, and Geography.
4) "Considering that too frequently a liberal education puffs up certain novices, particularly the young, your committee recommends that the study of the higher branches be confined to those among the professed who show an aptitude for such studies."
-- Minutes of the Provincial Chapter (continued).
"The Chapter, having nothing more at heart than the solid and extensive education of the teaching Brothers, thinks it has adopted the best means of attaining this end by limiting the study of the higher branches to the professed, thus securing to the Congregation all those who receive such education at its hands. The minds of those engaged in teaching being in a constant course of discipline, the Chapter feels convinced that after they have made their profession, or at the age of 25 the subject is capable of receiving as solid and extensive education as at any former period of his life and that the same can be attained in a much shorter period of time." Minutes of Provincial Chapter. 1865
(1861) "All the students in the novitiates must be classified and follow the regular courses of the College.
"The Spencerian system of penmanship is recommended."
Minutes of Provincial Chapter. 1861
(Commercial Course...1867) "The Commercial Course has been well
conducted and the exam for the diplomas has been rigorous in the few branches required." Report of Father Sorin's Visit. 1867
(1866): Brother Victor and Brother Philip are to teach at the Novitiate.1866
(1874: Brother Camillus and Brother Philip are to teach during vacation."
-- Local Council, June 26, 1874
(1861) "The plan of studies for the students of the Community residing in the two novitiates, was considered, and after a deliberate discussion of various plans proposed, it was unanimously determined to have the students follow the regular classes at the College."Minutes of Provincial Chapter. 1861
(Classes...May 5, 1865) "Rev. P. Dillon said classes would commence in the afternoon at two, and that recreation would be abbreviated accordingly; that it would be desirable that the first class should be called at 7:30, A.M., and that the boys should be in the refectory at 7:00." May 5, 1865
(Commercial Department...1867) "Its organization is coeval with the founding of the University, and after struggling along with it through difficulties and embarrassments consequent upon the permanent establishment of such an institution, became in a short time, not only one of its principal departments, but a commercial college per se." Scholastic. Nov. 16, 1867.
(Competition in Arithmetic, 1868) "It is well for our readers to know that if they were ever invited to witness one of those intellectual strives and see the swift handling of pencils and chalks; the long mute blackboards becoming alive with figures; and hear the quick reply of the impatient youths just through with their problems -- for we must inform them of the fact that promptness, as well as accuracy, is requisite for honorable mention. An hour passed with our young Newtonians and Euclids or with our Atlantics and Unions, would be an hour of pleasure and real interest.
"The First Class of Arithmetic had a competition between its two divisions." 1868
(1868) "The progress of the country, consequent on the increase of population, and the development of large sources of trade and commerce, demand not now professional, but commercial men.
"It must be admitted that we are emphatically a commercial nation; we have the most ample resources from which to draw the wealth which gives stability to the government....
"The qualifications for business or the pursuits for which we are so noted, require a course of study similar to that of the professional man....
"One who intends to devote himself to mercantile pursuits, must have the necessary education; he must learn those things which appertain to business and hence the necessity of a separate school department for this purpose....
"Commercial studies are indiscriminately condemned by literary characters as common enemies of education, simply because such persons associate these studies with some preconceived idea of business and notion of unpoetic bales, boxes, and barrels....
"...we wish to say a word upon the choice of education, or rather which kind should be pursued....
"The choice depends upon the career the student proposes to follow in after life....
"It is very difficult, if not impossible, to do two things at once, especially if they are diametrically opposed as in the case of the classics and bookkeeping...."
-- Scholastic, 2:57
(Competitions in Arithmetic, 1868) "In both classes reigns a true spirit of serious application with a thorough discipline which reflects great credit on the teachers: Bro. Benjamin of the Second Class and Bro. Joseph of the First."
-- Scholastic Year, Oct. 24, 1868.
(Master of Accounts...1869) "Fourteen received the degree of Master of Accounts. For this degree there were seventy-one candidates, but only fourteen were able to pass the examination." Scholastic, (25th commencement.) June 19. 1869
(Courses at Notre Dame...1869) "The college course, either in literature or science, requires four years, as is usual in America. To these, two years in the Preparatory Department begin added, a total of six years for the completion of a good education is assigned, and would occupy the time of a youth from his twelfth year to his eighteenth year."Lyons. 1869
(Brothers' Studies...1870) "The chief object of the next General Chapter will be to raise the standard of our schools at any cost, even (the suppression) of any establishment that could not be supplied with superior teachers."
-- Circular Letter, E. Sorin. 1870
"In furtherance of this resolution, the schools must be filled up with our most promising young Religious -- even at some expense and sacrifice -- in order to obtain for them, and among them a higher standard of education.... some establishments must be suspended for a time to fill our Scholasticate.
"It is our desire that the method of teaching be thoroughly learned in the Scholasticate, and that an opportunity be given to all to teach daily for a few hours in the college. The Christian Brothers' method being evidently not written for a country like this, should be revised, abridged, and printed for the use of our Congregation."
Circular Letter. 1870.
"No novice shall be removed before the end of the Novitiate, except for grave reasons, judged by the Provincial Council or Chapter."
Decree of General Chapter. 1880.
"The Master of Novices shall have, as Assistant, a Brother capable of teaching the Novice Brothers." Decree of General Chapter. 1880
"In order to give subjects the means of perfecting themselves in their studies, new foundations shall be made only after strict examination -- preference shall be given to the young professed who show the greatest ability."
Decree of General Chapter. 1880
"Each class at the appointed hour is called out of the study room by the professor who goes in person to the study room door, and, in a clear audible voice, names the class he requires for recitation.... The students go in double file and in perfect order and silence to and from the class rooms, the professor accompanying them. Notes are given for recitation, and these are announced to all the students once a week by the Director of Studies in the Study Hall, who is also Vice President of the College."
-- Scholastic, 4:1, p. 1, 1870
(Commercial Department, 1870) "In connection with the sale of from 600 to 700 blank books to be used in the Commercial Department of Notre Dame and 'St. Joseph Valley Register' writes with high praise of this department and sets forth the very comprehensive courses embracing every phase of business practice and administration. Reads like a modern catalog of a Commercial College. The complete faculty of the Commercial Department gives good courses in English, Mathematics, Commercial Law, in addition to the technical studies of business practice and forms. All forms of Finance studied in detail. Every subject necessary for expert training in business Commerce and Finance included in the Curriculum."
Register, Sept.. 8, 1870.
(Commercial Department...1871) "The Commercial Department has been more largely attended during the present session than in previous years... The bookkeeping class is divided into four sections, numbering in all from eighty to ninety students."
Scholastic. Jan.. 28, 1871.
(Novitiate Studies...1871) "Provincial Chapter decides novices should not teach in college, play in the orchestra, conduct any society, religious or otherwise, or be engaged in any occupation that would interfere with their novitiate." 1871.
(Studies, 1872) "There shall be at least one Scholasticate in each Province, as much as possible near a large college directed by the Congregation...and the respective Provincials shall see that the condition of the Scholasticate be excellent."
Decree of General Chapter, 1872
"A permanent Committee on studies is formed in each Province to receive and concentrate the observations of the most experienced teachers and afterwards to make plans of studies according to the needs of the country."
Decree of General Chapter, 1872.
"Indiana Council of Studies: Rev. Fathers Lemonnier, Carrier, and Brown; Brothers Edward and Camillus."
Decree of General Chapter
(Brothers' Studies) "I am perfectly aware that, though regulated by the same circumstances, decreed by the same authority, of the Chapter, and sanctioned by the same power of the Holy see, the scholasticates for our Brothers have not realized all that we would and ought to hope for them....
"We have only to look around to see that, in every country, the Governments are tending to exact official grades of those destined for the mission of teaching.
"It is then prudent to take immediate measures to that effect, so that we may be ready for any eventuality. Besides, if solid piety already possesses, with regard to the education of youth, an efficacy so deeply rooted that nothing can supply its place, how much more would not the same piety effect, when armed with profound knowledge and requirements, slowly and perfectly acquired, and amply sufficient for all branches of learning, rather than those superficial attainments, vague and disconnected and hastily and incompletely stored in mind."
Circular Letter, Oct. 15, 1905.
"July 6, 1872... Organize classes for teaching Brothers. Professor Ivers shall teach higher classes to Brothers during vacation."July 6, 1872
"The Brothers appointed to study are to reside at the Professed house."
Local Council, Aug. 23, 1878.
(Brother Ephrem to the Provincial, 1880) "We have no one to guide us; everyone acts as it suits him. How we get along thus surprises me. You know it has always been the wish of Father General to have a Prefect of Studies whose duty it would be to look after our interests and correct any abuses that might occur, to see study schedules, etc., and to report annually to the Provincial concerning his charge. You can easily perceive that this would be a step in the right direction."1880
(Notre Dame, 1872; Brother Gabriel to Sorin) "...I am afraid our Community will not succeed as a teaching body. A Brother cannot teach what he does not know. Yet it frequently happens that he undertakes it." 1872
See the following decrees of General Chapters:
1872 --#7, 1886 --#3 1898 --#5
(Provincial Chapter, 1925) "All the young Brothers on the mission shall regularly attend summer school and, when time permits, shall do academic work during the year.
"That certain Brothers after they have received their bachelor's degree shall be selected to pursue graduate work at various universities." Article 3
"The Brothers destined for teaching shall earn a minimum of 100 credit hours before they shall be considered as qualified to teach."
-- Provincial Chapter, Art. 1. 1925,
(Commercial Course...1874) "To enter the regular Commercial Course, with a view to receiving a diploma, the student must, first, be sufficiently advanced in arithmetic to be able to work correctly and with ordinary rapidity problems in Percentage and Interest in particular. This is a requirement absolutely insisted upon, as our system of teaching which is generally acknowledged by those who know it to be the only true system of imparting a thorough practical knowledge of Bookkeeping, strictly requires this knowledge of Arithmetic before beginning the study of Bookkeeping. Secondly, the candidate must either pass a satisfactory examination Grammar, Reading, Orthography, Geography, U.S. History, and Penmanship, or enter the classes in which these branches are taught until he can pass such an exam."
-- Director of Studies. 1874
(--"As I am called upon to answer a great number of letters inquiring why this or that student is not studying Bookkeeping, I take advantage of our Collage paper to give to all whom it may concern the only information I can on the subject."--)
(Religion...1876) "Rev. Father Shortis, Brothers Ephrem, and Boniface were named to compose the Committee...(On Religion Teaching).
"Report stressed importance of Catechism instructions in all our houses as the main point of all our teachings. At least half an hour sho0uld be devoted to such instructions."
(See also "Trenton, 1876")
(Committee on Studies) "Committee on Studies: Father Colovin, Bros. Ephrem and Daniel, report contained sound principles and saged suggestions on different practical matters connected with the educational institutions of all kinds in which our members are employed and additional ones affecting the training and improvement of professors and teachers. Through some oversight or other the proposal to adopt all or some of the suggestions of the document was forgotten, and consequently it remained on the 'table'" -- Provincial Chapter Minutes; 1876.
Report of Committee -- Fathers Corby and Colvin and Brother Urban) July 14, 1877, on Studies: 1) Measures should be taken to secure training of expert teachers. We owe it to the Society and to ourselves. 2) A uniform system should be used in the Universities, Colleges, and schools of the Congregation. 3) All schools should use the same authors and texts as Notre Dame. 4) Committee lacked data to give opinion on status of education in Province." Granger Papers, Prov. Archives. 1878
(Commercial Department...1878) "...the Course of studies in the Commercial Department here is complete in itself, being arranged somewhat on the plan of the best business colleges of our large cities, and with such changes and additions as throughout the last thirty years have been suggested by a corps of experienced teachers.... Furthermore, neither expense nor pains have been spared in the grading of the classes in this as in other departments of the College, as to give students of various degrees of advancement and natural talent an opportunity to make the greatest progress in the shortest possible time. Everyone knows that where students of poor or mediocre talent are kept in the same class with those who are better gifted or advanced in study, they retard the progress of the class. This is a matter that has received special attention in the various courses of Study at Notre Dame, calling, it is true, for a larger faculty, and thereby increasing the expenses of the house, but which nevertheless has made such a satisfactory return that the Board of Directors would not have it otherwise."
-- Scholastic, Nov. 2, 1878
(Brothers Studies) "...no novice should leave the novitiate before having acquired an education fitting him, among the Brothers, to teach a class...."
Regular Visit., E. Sorin, Provincial Dec. 1, 1878,
(Studies, 1879) "Report of the Committee on Education -- Fathers Louage and Franciscus, and Brother Ephrem: 1) A board should be appointed with a Prefect of Studies at its head, and every year an examination should be had of all the teaching Brothers. 2) A visitor should once a year visit all the Houses of the Congregation, examine all the classes, and give a report to the Board. 3) A certificate of aptitude should be given to every teaching Brother, pointing out his degree of knowledge. 4) There should be four degrees -- the fourth, comprising Reading, Spelling, Elementary Arithmetic, Penmanship, Catechism, Bible History; the third...the same as for the fourth, and besides grammar, Higher Practical Arithmetic as far as percentage, complete geography, U.S. history; ...the First: Complete Higher Arithmetic, Grammar, Analysis, Bookkeeping, Algebra, Ancient and Modern History, Physical Geography. 5) Appointment of the Board should be made by the Chapter. Report adopted.
Fathers Franciscus and Louage, Brothers Ephrem, Gabriel and Marcellinus."
-- Board of Studies:1879
(Fort Wayne Examinations, 1879) "On February 9, 1879, the Right Rev. Joseph Dwenger, Bishop of Fort Wayne, Indiana, issued a pastoral letter, establishing a system of diocesan supervision by which all the schools of the diocese were brought under the general control of a school board, consisting of eleven members and a secretary, all priests. The Board had power to prescribe studies, text books, the qualifications of teachers, etc., and in general, to take any action that was calculated to make for the betterment of the schools. Teachers were to be examined by the Board, and to each member were assigned a certain number of schools in his vicinity, which he was to visit annually and examine...
"The cry for better organization of existing educational agencies was being heard on every side, and when the Fourth Provincial Council of Cincinnati, which had jurisdiction over the Middle Western States, met in 1882, it adopted the Fort Wayne plan of a central board of education control...."
-- Growth and Development of Catholic school System", Burns: pp. 200-201. 1882
"The need of a system of teaching was discussed and it was decided that the system used by the Brothers in France should be translated, and other systems examined in order to adopt the one most suitable."
-- Particular Council, 79:24.Jan. 27, 1879.
"It was proposed to appoint some experienced Brother to train our younger Brothers in the school room in the art of educating children. This proposition met with considerable opposition, but was finally postponed for further investigation."
-- Particular Council, 1886 -- Sept. 20; 6
(Brother Ephrem to the Provincial: Provincial ) "Every year demands more from our teachers, but instead of these demands being satisfied, I find that like the crab we are going backwards.
"We will be required here to give a public examination and exhibition. I dread the exposure. Exam! and not one of us competent to read a sentence correctly. Not one able to teach a hymn to the children. No accomplishment. And still we are expected to compete with cultured ladies and gentlemen who direct the public school! ... I wish I could draw a more pleasing picture.Archives; Ft. Wayne, Oct. 2, 1882
"March 19, 1880: By request I give my views. In regard to our educational interests, they are wholly neglected and at present we are incapable of doing any good...."
-- March 19, 1880
(Brothers' Studies, 1886) "The College of the Sacred Heart at Watertown, Wisconsin, shall be used as a House of Studies for the postulant Brothers."
-- Decree of the Provincial Chapter. 1886
(Brothers' Studies; ) "2) Two Scholasticates -- one for the ecclesiastics and the other for the Brothers...shall be established in each Province. 3) There shall be in each of these Scholasticates two of our ablest professors or teachers, who shall if possible, never be removed. 4) If it be found impossible to carry these two decrees into effect at once, they shall be carried out within a year. 5) Three certificates, corresponding to the requirements of the State programs of Instruction will be delivered to the teaching Brothers after the proper examinations. 6) The religious instruction of children entrusted to our care shall be considered the most important duty of all our teachers."
-- Decrees of General Chapter 1886
(Diocesan Exams) "I have appointed Rev. T. E. Walsh, C.S.C., President of the University of Notre Dame, and member of our Diocesan School Board, to be present at the examination of the Brothers and also the Sister of Holy Cross, and to sign the certificates of the new teachers as ordered by the Provincial Council, Cincinnati, IV and the Plenary Council, Baltimore, III" Joseph Dwenger, Bishop of Port Wayne - -
-- Report of Diocesan School Board, 1887-88.
(1890) "Proposal was made and unanimously adopted by the Chapter that all teaching Brothers in the novitiate should be permitted, and even encouraged, if compatible with their studies, to pursue a course of music, shorthand, and typewriting. It was likewise deemed necessary to pursue also a course in Plain Chant."
-- Provincial Chapter, July 15, 1890
"Then was read the report of the Committee on Studies. It was adopted with stress being laid on the part relating to the awarding of certificates of proficiency to the teaching Brothers.... The enforcement of this matter is left to a committee of superiors of parochial schools...who will draw up a schedule of studies necessary for acquiring the certificates."
-- Chapter, July 18, 1890.
(1893) "Fathers Fitte, Connor, and Brother Theogene were appointed a Committee to arrange classes and teachers for the summer studies of the teaching Brothers."
-- Provincial Chapter, 1893.
(Program of Brothers' Studies, 1890) "Classes for Third Grade: Christian Doctrine, Practical Arithmetic, elementary Grammar, Reading, Spelling, elementary Geography, elementary U.S. History, Letter- writing, Pedagogy. For Second Grade: Christian Doctrine, higher Arithmetic, complete Grammar, Composition, complete Geography, Spelling, complete U.S. History, Bookkeeping, Commercial Law, Penmanship, Physiology, U.S. Constitution, Pedagogy. A Committee of Rev. T. E. Walsh and Superiors of Missions was to form the Board of Examiners. The Monday before August 15 was examination day."
-- Provincial Council. 1890
(1891) "During a recent visit in the East, the Provincial procured services of two experienced men to conduct an Institute of work for teaching Brothers, during the summer and to put it on such footing that it may be conducted afterwards by the Community." Provincial Council, 1891.
See also "Archbishop Purcell to Sorin, Cincinnati, 1857."
(House of Studies; 1893) "Father Franciscus was made Superior of the Community House and of the House of Studies for the Teaching Brothers."
-- Provincial Chapter. 1893
(1894) "It was proposed, or, at least suggested, that Brothers on the Mission after giving satisfaction for several years, should be permitted to return to the House of Studies to advance themselves in branches most profitable to them."
-- Provincial Chapter, 1894.
(1895) "As the placing of Brother Englebert as the Superior of the Advanced Course for the teaching Brothers would necessitate the closing of some school in order to procure a Superior for Cathedral School, Fort Wayne, a committee waited on Father General Francais to have him stay Brother Marcellus (Assistant General) from going to France and to place him as Supervisor for a year over the new school. The General kindly consented to the scheme, and we would be satisfied to have the house of Studies started with such novices as would remain after the houses were manned."
-- Provincial Chapter, 1895.
(1896) "The Secretary was requested to note for future reference that the sending out on mission of several students from the Brothers' House of Studies was done at the suggestion of their last years' superior Brother Marcellus, who said it would do them good, prove beneficial to them to be out for a year."
-- Provincial Chapter, 1898.
(1898) "The Committee on Foundations urged the keeping up of our present schools to the highest standards (grades), and that no more houses be taken until we are better equipped." Provincial Chapter, 1898.
(1902) "The Chapter agreed that a Committee on Studies was unnecessary, as the last Chapter had settled the question of studies definitely and permanently." Provincial Chapter, 1902.
(1907) "There was also considerable discussion regarding the recommendation...."
(House of Studies, 1895) "The request of Brother Marcellus, Superior of the House of Studies, to have the meals brought there was refused. They are to take their meals at the Community House. Permission to have Holy Mass in the House of Studies and the Blessed Sacrament was also refused. An old piano was allowed for the use of those who study music, and also a large dictionary."
-- Local Council, Sept. 27, 1895.
"The permission for the novices (Scholasticate) to make a refectory at the Community House was revoked by the unanimous vote of the Council. Brother Marcellus requires a stove for the refectory, and as there is no chimney to the house (building now east of the Community House), and oil stoves being dangerous and contrary to the insurance laws, it was deemed better that the scholastics should continue to take their meals at the Community House."
-- Local Council, Nov. 22, 1901.
"Typewriter and blackboards were allowed for the House of studies, provided they could be supplied from the stock on hand."
-- Local Council, Mar. 22, 1901.
"Mr. Francis E. Hering is to be engaged to give gymnastics to the novice Brothers and seminarians."
-- Local Council, June 24, 1898.
"In the case of subjects who exhibit special aptitude for study, the provincials with their Councils shall determine the means to be taken in order to permit them to continue their studies."
-- Decree of General Chapter, 1898.
"3. In the Province of the United States, the House of Studies for Brothers who have finished their novitiate and who are destined to teach, shall be as heretofore, at Mount Saint Vincent...Notre Dame.
"5. In the case of subjects who exhibit, (etc. as above.)
"6. The program of studies for the young Brothers of the Province of Indiana shall be the same as the Preparatory Course in the University of Notre Dame, except that Commercial branches shall be substituted for Greek and Latin....
"8. In the case of young religious who have completed the regular Course in the House of Studies and have shown special talent for some particular branch or branches, it is recommended that the Provincial consult with the Superior of the House of Studies in order to place them so that they may be useful to the Community and at the same time advance themselves along the lines of their special aptitudes.
-- Decrees of the General Chapter. 1898
Version of the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda:
'If any subject manifest a special aptitude for study, or for certain liberal arts, the Provincial after having obtained advice of the Prefect of Studies of the House and of his Council, shall refer the matter to the Superior General, who will consult with the Prefect General of Studies and take such means as may seem best to enable the young subject to pursue with all diligence the branches for which they have a pronounced taste."
-- Decrees of General Chapter, Montreal, Canada. 1898,
(Study -- Father Francais; 1909) "More and more the need of teaching Brothers is felt, and will be felt, in the incomparable work of giving Christian instruction and education to the young. Their role is thus clearly indicated, a role honorable among all, immense, eminently special, social and religious. 'Tis a role which no others can adequately fill; and the work of parish priests will always be incomplete, and in one way or another, if the Brothers are not there to prepare and support their work....
"It is the importance of such a role that renders it incumbent upon our Brothers, as a duty of a sacred nature, to make themselves thorough masters of the subjects they are to teach, and to enlarge their intellectual vision as much as they can, in order to have an assured grasp of the matters in their programs, in order to be able to explain with interest and clearness, so that in no wise they may be inferior to lay teachers, or, rather that they be superior to lay teachers, as is fitting for persons, consecrated to God and possessing both the immense resources of Faith and real grace of state. A serious study of religion; a clear, exact, and comprehensive knowledge of this most important of all sciences is an indispensable means for assuring to their teaching both this effectiveness and this superiority.
"Let the following rules, therefore, be also beyond the region of dispute, as regards young Brothers, and let them be obeyed with the most conscientious punctuality:
a) Four years of study after the novitiate is the minimum. The program of these four years of study should be prepared with the greatest care, conformably with the system in use in the country, and should be carried out with all due order and consecutiveness. b) Young Brothers who have marked dispositions for study should be encouraged to proceed beyond the ordinary program, and those to whom God had given exceptional aptitude should, in accordance with this providential indication be afforded exceptional opportunities."
Circular Letter, pp. 334-6.1909
(1912) "The houses of formation, even as they now exist, have produced real, tangible results; therefore, their organization should be changed only to strengthen them, and to perfect the studies of the students, so as to render them more and more worthy of their noble profession and of the confidences of the public. The superiors should have at heart the material, the intellectual, and the spiritual interests of their houses."
-- General Chapter Decrees. 1912
(See in File, under Corby "Circular Letter")
(1913; Brother Scholastics) "And you, dear Brother Scholastics, ...instruct yourselves solidly in the things of religion, for it will be your part to second, in this regard, the efforts of the parish priest. Your role is grand and effective in this matter, because you have the pupils with you daily from morning till night during entire years. It is absolutely indispensable that your knowledge of our holy religion be certain, well-ordered, and well-developed. This study will be for your soul a new element of formation, a food, and a preservative. learning Mathematics, mechanics, physics, chemistry, literature, etc., is only part of your program, and although it is an essential part, never forget that it is not the most essential.
"The science of God being thus placed in its proper rank which can be no other than the first, that science being appreciated and studied with sovereign respect, if, in one matter or another, heaven has dowered you with a special talent, then, my dear young Brothers, I will be the first to tell you: develop that talent for the glory of God who alone has given it to you, and develop it very slowly and patiently in order that it may reach its full growth and produce its complete fruition."
-- Circular letter, Father Francais, p. 376.1913
(Studies, 1932) "It is of primary importance that the teaching Brothers be solidly instructed in the subjects which comprise the program of studies of the schools in which they are to teach. To this end the Chapter demands the scrupulous observance of Article 128 of the Rules, recognizing that a generous application of this Article favors the specialization which meets present needs and which the Very Rev. Superior General recommended in a Circular Letter of 1926.
"Once a year the superiors of the houses of formation shall meet with the provincial...to clarify their ideas in problems of administration and the formation of subjects, to develop a unified course of action, and to build up a code that shall guide future superiors in such houses."
-- General Chapter Decree 1932
(1937) "Learning, when it is acquired and made use of with supernatural views, is an aid to sanctity and leads us to our eternal bliss."
-- Preface to "Manual of Decrees". Rev. Albert f. Cousineau, C.S.C., 1937:
(Studies; 1938) "To promote intellectual development, to meet the needs of the day, and to sustain the excellent reputation which the Congregation enjoys, the Brothers are encouraged more and more to prepare for the bachelor's degree in such fashion that these studies will open the way to the higher degrees of Licentiate, master, and Doctor, in Arts and Letters, or Science.
"4. The summer classes organized in our provinces should be maintained, encouraged, and intensified. The Chapter recognizes that a goodly number of religious develop during their summer studies excellent habits of intellectual work, habits which continue during the course of the year." General Chapter Decrees, 1938.
(Studies, 1914) "The Committee on Studies recommended that our young Brothers, where merit and ability warranted it, should be given an opportunity to pursue their studies as far as possible beyond the minimum set by the General Chapter."
-- Provincial Chapter, 1914.
(Studies; 1923; Bishop Finnigan) "The course of training of the Brothers too has grown space. In this regard also the dreams of other times have been realized.... 1923
"This makes them efficient teachers in the work of the Holy Ghost, assigned to them, namely, Catholic High Schools."
Most Rev. G. Finnigan, Alumnus, 2:67:
-- The Training and Growth of Holy Cross.
(Studies...Decrees: 1925) "The Committee (on Studies) finds that, since the last Provincial Chapter (1922), great progress has been made in the training of teachers for our high schools. Students in the Postulate and Normal School have had a definite educational goal set before them and they are religiously striving to reach the desired objective. Similarly, the young Brothers on the missions are to be commended for the admirable spirit they have shown in wholeheartedly preparing themselves to meet modern educational requirements."Provincial Chapter, Article 1.1925,
(Novitiate, Teacher Training in)... "According to Canon 565 and a subsequent decree of the Sacred Congregation of Religious (1910), any plan of teacher training which aims to impose upon novices a definite course of professional studies should be discountenanced." Rev. Sylvester Schmittz, O.S.B.
(Studies -- Novitiates) See:
Normal Training Defects
Vocations -- Recruiting, 1886
Training of the Teacher: Burns
Watertown -- Normal School, 1888
Brothers' Particular Council
Brothers of Professed Houses, 1881
Brothers' Exams, 1846
Bros. Teaching at Notre Dame, 1844
Brothers' Studies, 1905
Brothers' Novitiates, Sorin, 1861
Brother Students, 1872
Bro. Anselm Master of Studies, 1849
Conferences of Moreau
Moreau to Sorin
Chartier to Sorin, 1841
Ft. Wayne, Aug. 1875
Studies, 1865; 1845; 1888; 1872-1925
Studies, Drouelle Visit
Studies, Sorin to Dubuque
Co-education School -- Studies 1888
Studies - Decrees, 1925
Summer School, 1918
Studies, 1887; 1856; 1853
Teacher Qualifications -- Burns
(Studies a generation or two ago) "These conditions prevailed back in the days when a man became an MD by studying in a doctor's office, and then going to a medical college for a year or two, or when lawyers read law only in law offices....
"Lack of specialized training was a fault by no means confined to Catholic faculties. There is the classic example of a public (school) teacher who was transferred to a certain school. The Principal told him he was to teach German. (But I have had no German) said the teacher, 'That is fine,' said the Principal, 'Now you can start with no prejudices.'
"It is a notorious fact that the teacher was often just two or three pages in the textbook ahead of the students.
In our parochial schools, as in many public schools of thirty to forty years ago, the teachers were not infrequently women untrained in pedagogy and with little more than a grade school education. It is astonishing how good the parish schools of a generation or two back despite this handicap were. That the Sisters taught so well can be traced only to their sincerity and to the private study they did. Some orders, of course, have always insisted on the proper training of their members.
"The school situation is being well taken care of today through accrediting agencies. It was necessary that the schools link up with outside agencies that would compel them to bring their equipment, limitation of classes, and teacher training to certain standards before the credits from the schools, would be recognized."
-- Catholics and Scholarship, Right Rev. Matt. J. Smith, Ph.D. p. 217, 1938.
(Studies -- Novitiates) See:
Teachers' Licenses, 1853
Committee on Exams, 1869
Exam Committee for Students, 1880
Bishop Hailandiere to Sorin 51-69
Sorin Chronicles, 1844-48
Provincial Chapter, 1861 1860; 61; 67; 1862; 1865-67; 1870 1873
"Gateway to the Religious Life"
"Associate of St. Joseph"
"The Training of a Brother"
Early Notre Dame Faculty, 1845 and South Bend papers.
-- Provincial Decree, 1898.
(Teaching, 1858) "Meanwhile the business of teaching was never lost sight of. Whenever a candidate presented himself in the institution, who had the talents necessary for a teacher, he was put to study." (His apologia to charge of Cincinnati Provincial Council)
-- Sorin Chronicles 1858
(1870) "The Rev. N.H. Gillespie is hereby named Prefect of Studies (General) for the Congregation, in the full sense of Constitution 25, and is enjoined to enter immediately
upon his office.... We want a plan of studies in keeping with the progress and wants of our age, and as an earnest indication of the importance we attach to this charge, the Provincial Council shall designate for our approbation two able members to assist Rev. Father Gillespie, and form with him a permanent committee, to meet at least twice a week until the final sanction of its labors by the General Chapter."
-- Sorin: Letters, p. 23.1870
"We attach great importance to the Scholasticate, and we trust that the Administration at Notre Dame will not fail to carry out our design."
-- Circular Letters, p. 289: Sorin.
(1872) "A permanent committee on studies is formed in each Province to receive and concentrate the observations of the most experienced teachers, and afterwards to make plans of studies according to the needs of the country...; in Indiana, the Rev. Fathers Lemmonier, Carrier, and Brown with Brothers Edward and Camillus...."
-- Decree of General Chapter (7). 1872
"Three certificates, corresponding to the requirements of the State programs of instruction, will be delivered to the teaching Brothers after the proper examinations."
-- Decree of General Chapter.
(1895) "An ideal religious is a vibrant ignominy.
"I have divided my time into three parts," said Suarez: "eight hours for piety, eight for work, and eight for everything else."
"I rest myself," said another religious, "by passing from one kind of work to another."
"'My idea of rest,' said Mother Thiers, 'is eighteen hours of work a day.'"
-- Francais Circular Letter.
(Student Rooms, 1848) "The superior promised to tell those students who have rooms that they should follow the rules."
-- Local Council, May 8, 1848
(1842) The Particular Council of the Brothers on Sept. 5, adopted rules for governing and teaching the Boarders. 1842
"The Particular Council on October 9 adopted for advancing the studies of Brothers:
Before 8:30, Grammar, by Brother Paul
8:30-10:00, Writing, Brother Paul
10:00-11:00 Study of Grammar
11:00-11:45 Study of Grammar
5:00-6:30 Reading by Brother John
Twice weekly; Bookkeeping.
1844: "Brother Augustine and Medicine."
(See Augustine to Sorin, Sept. 4, 1844)
Fort Wayne, Benoit
Brothers' Studies, 1844.
(Linear Drawing: Geometry: 1845-????) "Mr. Maraden moved that the Council should give those who study linear drawing more time to prepare their lessons. The Council, however, could not find time, except on Wednesday morning, before breakfast, when, as the lesson in Catechism is generally short, the pupils might study their geometry after having learned their Catechism."
-- Council of Professors, May 15, 1845.
(Summer studies for Brothers) "3rd: On the day after the closing of the annual retreat, all the teaching Brothers shall commence their regular studies of four hours a day to prepare themselves for the official examination and personal qualifications."
-- Fr. Sorin, Jan. 8, 1892.
"Professor Swift to teach Elocution at Novitiate to all the Salvatorists and those Brothers that could profit by it."
-- Local Council, 1865.
"Brother Basil shall teach in the refectory."
-- Council of Administration, 1845.
"Mr. Folley shall be Master of Writing for the novices."
-- Council of Administration, 1845.
"Brothers shall begin studying the first of November: Dominic, John Baptist, Stephen, Benedict, and Thomas."
-- Provincial Archives, N.D., 1845.
(Brother Gatian to Sorin; Brother Gatian, Brooklyn, Feb. 23, 1849) "But you were the cause of Brother Basil's and Brother Aloysius' dejection; you should not have sent them to New York. They were and they are not able to teach. They have not the least experience or knowledge of the plan of instruction."Feb. 23, 1849)
"Council of Prefects, 1844, p. 3."
"St. John's School, Trenton, New Jersey, 1883: I taught an evening class here this year, and as we are reviewing arithmetic as far as interest, one of the young men called my attention to an example which he said, the Brother who taught him here a few years ago, could not work. I venture to say that almost any of your minims at Notre Dame could work the example. Several other young men were in the room at the time the remark was made."
-- Provincial Archives. Brother Ireneus to Sorin; 1883
1849: From report of Brother Gatian, Visitor to Assumption School (St. Mary's) in Brooklyn: "Article VI: the necessity of giving more instruction to the Brothers and of teaching them how to keep their schools, shall be urged upon the Reverend Father Superior and the administration of Notre Dame du Lac."1849
(Classes at the Novitiate -- 1849(?) "Mr. Healy to take Brother Benedict's place at the novitiate to teach 'various classes of the studying Brothers'." 1849
(1858: Little Office: Decree of Provincial Chapter) "It was decided that the teaching Brothers should be dispensed from the recitation of the Offices, Vespers excepted, every day for the coming year, in order that the time so gained should be devoted to study."
-- Minute Book, 1858.
"Brother Bernard shall remain at the Brothers' novitiate and teach there regularly. Mr. Lyons will replace him at the College, aided by Rev. James Dillon."
-- Local Council, Dec. 13, 1858.
"Brother Amandus shall teach the German class at the novitiate if found fit by Brother Basil."Local Council, Feb. 21, 1859.
(Normal school; 1861-9) 1861: "Brother Raymond shall be replaced at the College and his entire time for study."
-- Local Council, Dec. 16, 1861
1863: "Means shall be taken to encourage a normal school for teachers."
-- Local Council, June 15, 1863.
1866: "Brother Benoit shall be allowed a room in the college with the understanding that the other Brothers (prefects) shall study in the same room."
-- Local Council, Aug. 20, 1866.
"Brother Charles will teach Arithmetic and German at the Brothers' novitiate, and Mr. Carrier English Grammar."
-- Local Council, Feb. 18.
"Our Brother novices shall be given means to improve the aptitude they may have for arithmetic, penmanship, and painting."
-- Local Council, Oct. 30, 1861.
"Mr. Corby will have a writing class at the Novitiate for the Brothers from four to four thirty."Local Council, Jan. 18, 1864.
"1869: Resolved that class should be resumed at the Novitiate, and that the novices working in the college should be replaced."October 16, 1869
(Methods) "Resolved: that Father Shortis would teach the Brothers at the Novitiate an hour every day from nine to ten."
-- Local Council, Oct. 13, 1853.
(Methods) 1854: "Then it was resolved that Brother Bernard would take the small study room for the afternoon and teach the novices his method for teaching."
-- Local Council, Jan. 30, 1854
"Brother Edward should spend some hours for a week with Brother Bernard in the small study room to learn the method of teaching."
(Methods) "Resolved: that Father Shortis would teach the Brothers at the Novitiate an hour every day from nine to ten."
-- Local Council, Feb. 6, 1854.
See also; "Provincial Chapter....1861" (3)
1868: "Conferences of Teaching Brothers shall be established at Notre Dame and in other establishments where they are feasible."
-- Decrees of Provincial Chapter. 1868
1858: "Father James Dillon shall teach the Brothers bookkeeping according to the method given by the Very Rev. Superior General Moreau; Mr. Vagnier shall teach algebra, and Mrs. Jones, grammar."
-- Decree of Provincial Chapter. 1858
(See under "Novitiate, Brother Daniel")
(Pedagogy; 1865) (Bishop Luers of Fort Wayne presided over the sessions as Apostolic Delegate) "Article 2: Your Committee, seeing the necessity of having a uniform system of teaching and administering the parochial schools in charge of our Brothers, and in view of the fact that our own pedagogy is not at all adapted to the United States, respectfully that until such time as we have prepared to publish a
system of our own especially suitable to the wants of the United States, the system or rule used by the Christian Brothers for teaching and administration be adopted by the teaching Brothers of our Province, and that its observance be strictly enforced:
" 3: Teachers in the parochial school should be solidly trained.
" 4: Higher education for professed Brothers only.1865
"Committee: Fathers Sorin, J. Reze (Canada), P. F. Shiel, P. Dillon; Brothers Louis Gonzaga, and Edward."
See Minutes of Provincial Chapters...1865-80, pp. 12-13.
See "Philadelphia, Franklin's Academy"
May, 1865 -- "Chapter so interested in giving a solid foundation to teaching Brothers decide to reserve higher studies for those who have made their profession. Chapter feels men can be educated just as well at 25 when they make their profession as before. Reason: Novices after getting a good education leave, or in the case of the Brothers want to be priests -- secular or regular."
-- Provincial Chapter Decrees, 1865.
(See "Brother Paul -- Textbooks")
(1866-67) "...decree of the Provincial Chapter to finish the missioner's house (St. Joseph's Novitiate) at the expense of the Congregation to make it the residence...and of novices who, finishing their novitiate before the age regular for profession, would continue their studies until they made their perpetual vows."
-- Sorin Chronicles. 1866-67
Previously: "...the Rev. Father Carrier was appointed Master of Novices. He undertook all the teaching of the novices, who thus ceased connections with the college."
-- Sorin Chronicles, 1866-67.
(Courses at N.D.: 1868) "A dissecting room, 20' X 16', is ordered to be built for the medical class." Oct. 5, 1868
1892: "It was decided to appropriate $1,000 to establish the Department of Electrical Engineering by next September."
-- Local Council, Feb. 26, 1892
(See also "Brother Edward -- Cincinnati") 1855, (3)
Studies: 1871: "Brothers Benjamin and Camillus will study together."
-- Council - Local, May 29, 1871.
"Brother John Baptist and Theophilus to go to the Scholasticate to continue their studies."Local Council, Feb. 9, 1871.
"It was decided that classes for the Teaching Brothers shall be organized at once. Professor Ivers shall be called upon to teach the higher classes to the Brothers during vacation."
-- Local Council, July 5, 1871.
See also "Novitiate, 1873")
1873: "The Council decreed that a new study room be prepared for the exclusive use of the collegiate department."
-- Local Council, Jan. 17, 1873
1875: "The subject of educating students gratuitously was discussed and it was decided to discontinue it after the present scholastic year. Those nominally studying for the Community to reside at the novitiates, and only those retained whom the Master of Novices decides have a vow." Local Council, March 19, 1875.
1881: "Remarks were also made concerning the religious training of the scholastics, which, it was thought, should be much more thorough."
-- Local Council, April 1, 1881
1877: "The Council was of the opinion that the Scientific Department be developed as much as possible." Sept. 13, 1877
1876. "Report of Committee: 2. To encourage in every way the proposal to have all members of our Community destined for teaching, taught, trained, and suitably formed as Educators. 4. An account of the examination of five novices, candidates for teachers during the coming term. Examinations favorable for all. ...A committee was formed to examine the reports of classes of Christian Doctrine in the different establishments during the year."Provincial Chapter.. 1876
1877: "Report of Committee on ?Education -- Fathers Corby and Colovin, and Brother Urban -- 1. That effective measures be taken to train 4expertrt teachers. 2. That care be taken to establish uniformity of system in the direction of studies. 3. It is recommended to use the same textbooks as we use at Notre Dame, and that the latter make no changes without due reflection."
-- Minutes of Provincial Chapter, 1877.
(1877) "Rev. Father Letourneau and Brother Edward were appointed to confer with Father Provincial upon the advisability of suspending the Scholasticate for the winter."Local Council, Oct. 12, 1877.
"Additional help from the novitiate was named for work at the college."
-- Local Council
1878" "The Brothers appointed to study are to reside in the Professed House."
-- Local Council, Aug. 23, 1878.
1880: "Mr. O'Hara, a postulant (Brother Cyprian) was appointed to read proof at the Ave Maria Office."Local Council, March 5, 1880.
(See "Brother Basil", "Fort Wayne", "La Salle", 1881)
(Board of examiners, 1887) "It was decided that a committee on the examination of teachers be named to act for next year. Brothers Boniface. Lucian, Gabriel, and Philemon to constitute the said Committee."
-- Provincial Chapter, July 22, 1887.
"See also -- Brothers' Studies, 1905" (3)
(1888) "As good manners are always expected of the religious teachers, and are indispensable to his success, it is recommended that special conferences on deportment be given occasionally in our Seminary and novitiates." 1888
Order of the Day...Higher Grades
A.M. Catechism, spelling, grammar, history, geography, penmanship.
P.M. Math, Physics, Reading, Bookkeeping, Extras, Instruction.
Order of the Day...Lower Grades
A.M. Catechism, Prayer Class, Reading and Spelling, Chart exercises and primer, slate exercises and writing, object lessons, singing.
P.M. Arith., and tables, Chart exercises and Primer, Reading, Spelling, Geography and Instruction."
-- W. Corby, Provincial.
(1888...Corby) "The College of the Sacred Heart, Watertown, Wisconsin, as you know, has been reopened, and from personal observation I may say has a brighter prospect than could be looked for. The parish schools are beyond praise. Never in the history of our Province were they so prosperous."
-- Rev. W. Corby, Provincial.
'(Decrees of Provincial Chapter, 1888) "1. That special attention be paid to the study of English and Elocution in the Novitiate, and all our houses of/for education. 2. That three grades of Certificates be drawn up and awarded to the teaching Brothers who passed the required examination."1888
(1892) "1. The Provincials are to organize yearly in their respective provinces classes for our Brothers in the summer vacation. The studies shall embrace Letters, Sciences, Music and Drawing. In order to make themselves even more fit for their noble vocation our Brother shall not fail to make precious use of these classes, without, however, encroaching on the vacation as prescribed by our Rule."
-- Decree of General Chapter. 1892
(1895; Father Francais) "In this question of studies there is involved a real obligation, binding alike the conscience of superiors and subjects. The prosecution of these studies forms of itself a sufficient employment; it is necessary that undivided attention be given them; and hence, the student must be enabled to devote himself wholly thereto, being preoccupied or distracted by no other obedience whatsoever.
"They should not be pursued irregularly, here and there, at haphazard, under the control now of one professor, now of another, interrupted for a time, and then taken up anew with spasmodic energy; their excellence and regularity should, on the contrary, be guaranteed by an effective, stable, and thoroughly organized system....
"Apart from these regular courses of study, to which every subject of the Congregation has an undeniable right, there may be, and ought to be, special and extraordinary studies for some members of the Community.
"The needs of our colleges and high schools are manifold; the aptitudes of our subjects are varied; and many are gifted with exceptional talents for this or that particular branch. It is a real duty for superiors to take note of such cases, to treat them in a broad and liberal manner, and so turn them to the general profit of our work and of the whole Congregation.
"Finally, to crown all, should it please Heaven to raise up among our numbers some of those religious who are swayed by the noble passion of intellectual labor, who attain to brilliant scholarship, or who possess the gift of literary expression, we should thank God as for a signal grace. It is eminently proper that such religious should be understood, encouraged, and allowed every possible facility for accomplishing the task, confided to them in a special manner, of honoring God, the Church, and the Congregation by their work.
"All due allowance being made for our comparative youth, restricted numbers, lack of resources, etc., why should we be condemned to a lower plane of intellectual life than other religious families?
"Why should we not, too, aspire to eminent scholarship, and entertain legitimate hopes of success?
"Why should we not endeavor to rise above the level of mediocrity endeavor even to attain distinction?
"There is nothing incompatible with the deepest religious humility in the desire to possess talent, genius, and all other endowments, in order to work more effectively for God and the Church...and to enhance the glory of the Congregation of which we are members."
-- Circular Letters, pp. 71-73.1895
(1898) "The members of the Chapter are a unit in declaring that, as regards the studies of our young clerics and Brothers, it is more than ever essential that the decrees of the General Chapter of 1898 and the observations which the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda deigned to add thereto, should be scrupulously carried out. Provincials should manifest, in exacting the fulfillment therein of these decrees, and energy before which every obstacle gives way. Involved therein are the sacred duty of obedience, a supreme interest of the Congregation, and a solid guarantee of success. In the possible case of unavoidable exceptions, Provincials are not authorized to act of themselves, but must refer the case to the Superior General."
-- General Chapter Decree. 1898
(1906) "Humbly and earnestly the Brothers ask for a spiritual and intellectual formation in special Houses, conformably to the honorable vocation of a teaching Brother, and in accordance with the spirit of the Rules and Constitutions, and the decrees of the last General Chapter, (1898), clearly expressed in Rev. Father Trahey's pamphlet, "The Brothers of Holy Cross", said studies to be supplemented by classes in Elocution, Pedagogy, and Plain Chant. Furthermore, following the Decrees of the Chapter of 1898, whenever students have shown talent, they may, with the permission of the Rev. Provincial, specialize in any one of the following subjects: Music, Chemistry, Physics, Electrical and mechanical Engineering, shop Work, etc...." 1906
(1909) "In the official document (from Rome) there is a question of studies for seminarians only, but it is easy to seize its true spirit and to apply it to the studies of our young religious Brothers. They, too, have to accomplish serious work and with the same advantages of leisure, organization, and recollection. Their studies relate more exclusively to the profane sciences, but are nevertheless of sovereign, importance for the glory of God, the honor of the Church and the good of souls. 1909
(1895) "It is a sacred duty for our young religious to devote themselves to such studies with the greatest energy.
"It is a duty still more sacred for the higher Superiors to furnish these younger subjects, by means of a true, symmetrical and stable organization, with the necessary facilities for the successful prosecution of such studies."
-- Fr. Francais: Circular Letters, p. 66.1895
(1910) "It is necessary moreover, that the young religious, who are to come forth, and who, I firmly hope will come forth from these preparatory institutions with the true religious spirit and with all the resources of a genuine formation -- it is necessary that, in the different centers where they may be called upon to work, they meet with nothing of a nature to arrest or retard their progress, but find on the contrary a wise organization which permits them while devoting themselves to their obedience, to continue their studies; and find, too, in their elders, examples profitably for them to follow. Of what use, indeed, is it to care for a tree and succeed in producing good fruit if, almost immediately after being culled, the fruit loses most of its substance and takes on a bitter taste!
-- Fr. Francais: Circular Letters, p. 345.1910
(1912) "The field of activity for our teaching Brothers in the United States is very large.... Among the student body of the University, the young Scholastic Brothers rank first in studies; their number, already promising, cannot but increase, if their organization is vigorously encouraged and maintained."
-- Fr. Francais: Circular Letters, p. 450.
(Brothers in High Schools; 1912) "From this time forward the High School is the outstanding vocation of our Brothers! It is a vocation grander and more sublime than they themselves can conceive. Accordingly, they must prepare themselves for it, in the first place by a reinforcement of their whole religious life, and then by a thoroughly well acquired and well digested knowledge of the branches which under those new conditions they will be called upon to teach. And they must be vigorously encouraged, and helped along in this new line of activity.
"These High Schools will be their own houses. They will accomplish therein their special work, will develop the spirit congruous to their condition , will mold themselves conformably to the special demands of their calling. Instead of their being practically buried and lost in the general works of the Congregation, they will find ample scope in their new field for their personal initiative and ample opportunity as well for the development of a religious spirit that will unite them still more closely to the Congregation as it exists today, and to the religious priests who are their brothers in Holy Cross. In a word the high School furnishes an element of durable and holy peace between the two branches of our Society. Both will hereafter march unitedly forward like two distinct forces that make but one, and that aid each other mutually. It is good, useful, nay, necessary to form a tradition to that effect." Fr. Francais: Circular Letters, p. 368.1912
(1927; George N. Shuster) "The Brothers themselves have tried to guard against stagnation by taking the various stages of mental growth into their scope. Their men may actually proceed, if their talent and taste lie that way, from the elementary to the secondary school, and from the secondary to the college school. This arrangement is at once a recipe for as well as a proof of vitality."
-- "The Teaching Brother" Commonweal, G. N. Shuster: 1927.
(1853) "Resolved: That Father Shortis would teach the Brothers at the Novitiate an hour every day from 9-10."
-- Local Council, Oct. 3, 1853
"...it was determined by the Chapter that in future it was of great importance that the attainments of the teaching Brothers should be the (of) highest order; that no Brother should be sent out to take charge of a school until it be shown by a strict examination that he is able to teach the classes required; that a model school for the formation of teachers be established at Notre Dame in which the Postulants and Novices be taught the method contained in the 'book entitled, "Pedagogie" with regard to discipline and the teaching of classes; that in this school, spelling, reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, grammar, and bookkeeping (single-entry) be taught.
"Brother Philip was designated to take charge of this school. Brother Bernard was also spoken of as a teacher of the method of keeping discipline and order.
"Besides these branches it was also determined to have lessons in algebra, geometry, history, English composition, and bookkeeping by double entry given to such Brothers as can pass an examination on arithmetic and grammar in such a manner to show that they could profit by these classes; that besides the Primary Schools already founded also a school of higher grades in large cities where the number of students will justify it; and consequently it will not be left to the option of each Director of a school to teach algebra, and the like, in his school; but that only reading, spelling, writing, catechism, geography, arithmetic and bookkeeping (single entry) should be taught in Primary schools; and that the higher branches are to be taught in only schools established for that purpose."
Rev. N.H. Gillespie, Sec'y.
The Chapter recommended that the requirements for entrance to the BA. Course at N.D. be adopted as the uniform curriculum for our high school.
-- Minutes of Provincial Chapter.
See also under:"Normal School".
-- "Father Cousineau on Studies; Circular Letters."