University of Notre Dame

The Story of Notre Dame
Academic Development: University of Notre Dame / by Philip S. Moore, C.S.C.

II. The College of Science

The College of Science grew out of the Scientific Course established in 1865. This first diversification of academic programs at Notre Dame was in keeping with what was happening in other American Colleges in the post-Civil War period, and the principal reason for it was the demands the increasing diversity of professions and avocations in the growing American society were putting on the educational institutions to prepare their students for these new fields. The beginnings of the scientific age were reflected in the curriculum.

As first conceived, the Scientific Course differed from the Classical Course in only one notable respect -- the complete absence of the classical languages. Science offerings, however, increased rapidly and by 1872 included Comparative Anatomy, Botany, Human Physiology, Zoology, Theoretical, Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Elementary and General Physics, Geology and Mineralogy. Mathematics -- Algebra through Calculus -- was required in all four years, as was also a Modern Language. Two years of English, Composition and Rhetoric, American and English Literature, of History, Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, and of Philosophy, Logic, Psychology, Ethics, Methaphysics, one year of Ancient Geography, and a semester each of Constitutional Law and of Political Economy completed this program.

Changes were continuously made in this program, especially in the science courses, and for several years an increase in required mathematics courses. A notable addition from 1872 on was Drawing which by 1885 was required for seven semesters -- an extraordinary emphasis from our point of view. Nevertheless, the program remained fairly stable until 1894-95. In that year the title was changed from Scientific Course to General Science Course, and the non-science courses were reduced. All the history courses were dropped -- Political Economy had long since disappeared -- and English was limited to Composition and Rhetoric. At the same time Elective Science -- advanced courses in Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics -- was made part of the regular program. This paved the way to diversification of Courses, and eventually the establishment of Departments in science with their specialized degrees of Bachelor of Science in Biology, in Chemistry, etc. In fact this diversification had already begun, for in 1890-91 a Course in Biological Science, leading to its specialized degree, was announced.[60]

Before tracing this diversification in science and the establishment of the departmental divisions, it should be interesting to call attention to a section in the Annual Catalogue which appeared for the first time in 1877-78, under the heading, Department of Natural and Physical Science.[61] In this section were described the physical facilities in science, which were then located in the College or Main Building. These were listed as a Chemical Laboratory (with the principal items of equipment named), and a Museum of Natural History. The Museum was composed of an Herbarium (American and New Zealand plants); a a Geological Cabinet (fossils of all geological formations in America and Europe); a Mineralogical Cabinet (minerals from all parts of the world); and a Cabinet of Natural History and Comparative Osteology (stuffed specimens of domestic and foreign animals and one of the best collections of skeletons in the United States).

A great part of these collections were lost when fire destroyed the College Building in April, 1879. But the announcements in the Catalogues continued unchanged with no acknowledgement of seriously reduced facilities. On the other hand, Father John Zahm apparently recognized that even with a new and enlarged College Building the physical facilities in science were inadequate, and started agitation for a separate building. The result of this agitation was decision reached in 1882 to build Science Hall. The cornerstone was laid in June, 1883,[62] and the building completed during the next year. (Today this building, completely renovated, houses the La Fortune Student Center.) Science Hall provided for that time exceptionally fine museum space in its central part, and also classrooms, laboratories and offices. The several collections in the Museum were greatly expanded. By 1897 the botanical collection, for instance, consisted of two complete Herbaria, one of the United States, the other of Canada.[63] This collection was tremendously increased during the second decade of the twentieth century by the addition of the Edward Lee Greene Herbarium, given to Notre Dame in 1914, while another valuable addition was the Rev. Julius A. Nieuwland Herbarium built up by this Holy Cross priest-scientist between 1906-1936. In regard to laboratories, to the previous one in Chemistry were added those in Botany, Geology, Metallurgy, Mineralogy, Physics, Physiology, and also in Mechanical Engineering and Photography.[64]

From the heading of this section of the Catalogues, -- Department of Natural and Physical Science -- the term Department, dropped out in 1894-95 and then the entire heading disappeared in 1897-98 to be replaced by description of facilities under departments.[65]

The Course in Biological Science inaugurated in 1890-91 was the beginning of the Department of Biology though courses in biological science had continuously multiplied since the first course in Botany was announced in the 1863-64 Annual Catalogue (p. 14). Cytology or Cellular Biology, both normal and pathological, -- Father Alexander Kirsch's specialty -- was singled out as attractive feature of the Course, while Pharmaceutical Botany was to receive special attention. But only one semester was devoted to Cytology, one to Cellular Pathology and two to Pharmaceutical Botany, while more time was given to other subjects. Pharmaceutical Botany disappeared in 1894-95 and the Cytology and Cellular Pathology in 1897-98. Human Anatomy seems to have been most stressed, an elementary course and two years of advanced work. There was also a year of Comparative Anatomy, combined with Physiology. Botany and Microscopy were both allotted two years; Histology three semesters; Bacteriology and Human Physiology one year; and General Biology, Comparative Embriology, Experimental Physiology and Zoology one semester.

Besides the biological sciences, the program comprised two years of physical sciences -- Elementary Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Qualitative Analysis and Elementary Physics, each one semester; a year of Geometry and a semester of Trigonometry; a year of Drawing, and Mineralogy and Geology, one semester each.

The Mineralogy and Geology seem to have been considered part of the liberal education of the students. Then there were two years of English, of Latin (this dropped out the next year), and of Modern Language, and one year of Modern History and of Philosophy.

The initial Course remained almost without change for four years. Then in 1894-95 a good part of the non-science courses were dropped or reduced. Latin, Modern History and Mathematics disappeared, and English was reduced to one year. Curiously, they did not seem to be able to make up their minds about English, which fluctuated between two and four semesters down through the years. Modern Language also fluctuated, increasing to four years in 1894-95, then hitting a sliding scale down to one year in 1902-03. Of the biological subjects, Pharmaceutical Botany disappeared in 1894-95 and Cytology was reduced. More time was given to some of the other courses, and to Chemistry, but in general there were no substantial changes in the science courses for a great many years. Not until 1916-17 did Human Anatomy, to which extra stress seemed to have been given, disappear as a course title in the required program, but its subject matter was undoubtedly covered in other courses. In fact, organization of subject matter under titles of Botany and Advanced Botany and Zoology and Advanced Zoology is what strikes one most in the long years when the program remained substantially the same.

In 1919-20 the Biology program was divided into two programs leading respectively to the Bachelor of Science in Botany and in Zoology. The Botany program consisted of year courses in General (Plant) Morphology, Cytology and Histology, General Zoology and Advanced Botany, Introduction to Research in Zoology (which seems strange for Botany majors) and semester courses in Systematic Botany, History of Botany, General Bacteriology, and a Botany Seminar. Three semesters were devoted to Special Problems in Botany. In the physical sciences were required Advanced General Chemistry, Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis, Elementary Organic Chemistry, General Physics, Geology, Microscopy, and Mineralogy. Mathematics was limited to a semester of Trigonometry. There was also a semester of Mechanical Drawing. A year of Composition and Rhetoric, two years of Foreign Language and a year of Philosophy -- General Psychology and a Survey of Philosophy -- made up the entire non-science part of the program.

The Zoology program added a semester Survey of Mediaeval and Modern History to the non-science courses. The Mathematics and Drawing were the same as in the Botany program. In regard to the science courses, the strictly biological courses were limited to General (Plant) Morphology, General Zoology, Introduction to Research in Zoology and Human Physiology. All but the last were full year courses, and the Introduction to Research in Zoology was taught eight hours a week. There was heavy emphasis on Chemistry -- Advanced General Chemistry, Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis, Elementary Organic, Experimental Organic, Physiological, and Urine Analysis, Toxicology, and Materia Medica and Pharmacy. General Physics, with laboratory, Geology and Mineralogy completed the required program.

In the following year, 1920-21 there was a general reorganization of the University and Botany and Zoology ware constituted departments in the sense in which we understand these academic units today. The required programs in both were considerably changed, especially the program in Zoology.

In Botany, semester courses in Human Physiology and in Genetics were added and electives were greatly increased -- twenty hours of Botany electives and sixteen hours of free electives. On the other hand, Introduction to Research in Zoology, Quantitative Analysis, Microscopy, Mineralogy, Trigonometry and Drawing were dropped, and Special Problems in Botany was reduced from three to one semester. In the non-science area, Foreign Language was reduced from two to one year, and Religion was added -- three years of one semester hour courses.

In Zoology the content of the science courses was even more radically changed. Introduction to Research in Zoology, Physiological Chemistry, Urine Analysis, Toxicology, Materia Medica and Pharmacy, and Mineralogy dropped out and were replaced by General Animal Histology, Comparative Anatomy, Comparative Mamalian Osteology, Systematic Zoology, General Entomology, Economic Entomology, Comparative Embryology, and History of Zoology. Trigonometry disappeared, as it did in the Botany program, which meant that no mathematics was required in either program. The only change in the non-science area was the addition of the three year one semester hour course in Religion.

In the schoolyear 1925-26 Botany and Zoology were brought together in a Department of Biology but then, curiously, required programs for majors in the science departments, except Agriculture and Pharmacy disappeared from the Bulletin, not to reappear until fifteen or more years later. In Biology this occurred in 1942. During these years major concentrations seem not to have been encouraged and most students followed the General Science Course. Thus in the 1924-25 Bulletin (With Announcements for the Schoolyear 1925-26) appears for the first time the statement: "Special programs are from time to time arranged for students who wish to specialize in some department during their undergraduate years. These lead to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Botany, in Zoology, in Chemistry, in Physics, or in Mathematics."[66] This statement in somewhat modified form continued to be published until 1942. From 1930 on a "Suggested Program for Premedical Students" was carried in the Bulletin.

The 1942 program consisted of year courses in General Zoology, General Botany and Systematic Zoology, and semester courses in Embryology of the Vertebrates, Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates, Biology of Bacteria, General Physiology, Laboratory Methods in Zoology, and Fundamentals of Genetics. Then there were year courses in General Chemistry, Elements of Organic Chemistry, General Physics, and General Mathematics for Freshmen. The non-science courses were two years of Religion and of Foreign Language, a year of Rhetoric and Composition, and of Philosophy, and a semester of Speech and of Introduction to Sociology. Five years later Botany and Zoology were again separated, this time into programs leading to the Bachelor of Science in Botany and in Zoology, respectively. The Zoology program was substantially the same as the 1942 program in Biology. In the biological sciences the only difference was that Microbiology replaced Biology of Bacteria, a semester of Quantitative Analysis was added, and Religion was increased from two to three years.

The Botany program was the same as the Zoology program in all but the biological courses, which comprised year courses in General Botany, General Zoology, Plant Morphology, and Plant Physiology, and semester courses in Plant Anatomy, Methods of Plant Anatomy, Fundamentals of Genetics, Microbiology, Plant Pathology and Taxonomy of Flowering Plants. Both this program and the Zoology program were considerably different from their counterparts of twenty years earlier. As we would expect, changes have continued to occur down to the present, but these changes have been almost entirely in the biological courses. In the Botany program General Botany was replaced by Plant Biology between 1948 and 1956, when the General Botany was re-instated; Plant Morphology, Microbiology and Methods of Plant Anatomy have disappeared and been replaced by Plant Ecology and Plant Microtechnics. In the Zoology program, Plant Biology was added in 1948 and Laboratory Methods, and History of Biology dropped out. Microbiology, and Systematic Zoology had disappeared by 1951 and Faunistics added. Then in 1956 Faunistics and Plant Biology were discontinued and General Botany, Vertebrate Zoology, and Invertebrate Zoology were introduced. Within the past three years the content of both programs have remained stable, but the amount of time devoted to some courses has been reduced and more elective hours made available.

In 1897-98 a Course in Pharmacy was the second specialized Course introduced into the School of Science, as the scientific division of the University was designated at that time. In its first year this was a three year Course, leading to the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy (G.Ph.). The very next year, however, this was changed to two Courses, one of two years, leading to the G.Ph., the other of three years, leading to the degree of Pharmaceutical Chemist (Ph.C.).[67] The shorter Course was simply the first two years of the longer one. Candidates for admission had to be seventeen years old and to have passed the examinations required of all students admitted to the School of Science.

These were highly technical programs. A year of English was the only non-science course and even it dropped out in 1902-03. The Pharmacy courses included Materia Medica, the origin and composition of medical substances, Therapeutics of Drugs, Pharmacognosy, the identification of drugs by their physical properties, the Elements of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, General Pharmacy, Magistral Pharmacy, Toxicology and Urinary Analysis, and Pharmaceutical Analysis. Magistral Pharmacy seemed a strange title, and a check of the Bulletin turned up the curious and interesting description: "Includes the manifold methods of extemporaneous pharmacy with consideration of incompatibility, posology, and the principles of elegant pharmacy. Dispensing and prescription practice."[68] Other science courses were General Chemistry, with laboratory, Organic Chemistry, Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis, Elementary Physics, Botany, Physiology, Bacteriology, and Mineralogy or Geology.

These programs continued without any striking changes until they were discontinued in 1927. Microscopy and Inorganic Pharmacy were added to both programs and an elective to the three year program in 1902-03, while Pharmaceutical Analysis and English dropped out. Then things remained unchanged until 1916-17 when English was restored to both programs and a year of Philosophy and semesters of Economics and of Politics were added to the three year program. Politics and Philosophy disappeared in 1920-21 and a year of Religion was added. More striking was that these small sub-college programs were designated as a School of Pharmacy from 1899 to 1905. In this latter year the title School of Science was changed to College of Science, and Pharmacy became one of its Departments.

In 1910-11 a four year program in Pharmacy, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy was added to the shorter programs. But in Pharmacy and other sciences content this program was almost identical with the three year program. Advanced Chemistry instead of General Chemistry and a year of Zoology were the only differences. Two years of English and one year of Foreign Language were additional non-science courses. Then in 1912-13, semesters of Politics and of History and a year of Philosophy were introduced, and in 1916-17 a semester of the Principles of Economics. In this same year, however, the Politics, History and Philosophy were added to the three year program. Spreading almost the same subject matter over four years gave the students more time to devote to each course and we can consequently presume that this assured a better education to those working for the Bachelor's Degree.

In 1920-21 rather extensive program changes occurred. In the non-science area a three year one semester hour course in Religion was introduced but at the expense of the other non-science courses. Thus History, Principles of Economics and the course in Politics were dropped and English was reduced to the Freshman year. The supporting sciences remained the same except Chemistry was increased, year courses in Food Analysis, Elementary Organic Chemistry, and Organic Analysis, and a semester course in Physiological Chemistry being added. In Pharmacy, Therapeutics of Drugs, Magistral Pharmacy, Toxicology and Urinary Analysis, and Pharmaceutical Analysis disappeared, to be replaced by three semesters of Commercial Pharmacy, a year of Advanced Pharmacy, and semesters of Organic Pharmacy, Practical Pharmacy, and Phamacodynamics, the physiological action of groups of therapeutic agents. The three semesters of Commercial Pharmacy -- the business side of a pharmacy or drugstore -- increased the trade school flavor of this program.

The non-science and supporting science courses remained stable over the next decade, except that Religion completely disappeared for a while, Mineralogy dropped out, and Mathematical Analysis, Essentials of Advertising and Commercial Law, later designated Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence were added.

On the other hand, the pharmacy courses, or at least their titles, were in continuous flux and proliferation. Thus by the end of the 1920's the program consisted of Technical Operations, Pharmaceutical Botany, Pharmaceutical Arithmetic, Pharmaceutical Latin, Macroscopical and Microscopical Pharmacognosy, Galenical and Inorganic Groups, Organic Pharmacy, Dispensing, Analytical Pharmacy, Pharmacodynamics, United States Pharmacopeia and the National Formulary, Elementary Materia Medica, and Advanced Materia Medica.

Early in 1935 decision was made to discontinue the Department of Pharmacy; the last students were admitted in September of that year, and the program closed out with the graduation of the last students at the end of the schoolyear 1938-39. The last announcements of the full required program appeared in the 1935-36 Bulletin. Not much seems to have been dropped during the last five or six years the program was in existence but there was some rearrangement and streamlining of content so that still more courses could be added - Fundamental Pharmacy, History and Literature of Pharmacy, Hospital and Manufacturing Pharmacy, and Synthetic Medicinals. Then Operative Pharmacy seems to have replaced Technical Operations, and Perfumes and Cosmetics (merchandising of Drug Products) may have been a substitute for one of the previous courses in Commercial Pharmacy. Little was left to chance in the training of the future pharmacist, but perhaps no program at Notre Dame was ever so illiberal and its passing was not to be mourned.

The third special area of science to be organized was Chemistry. The first chemistry course, under the title of Physics, appeared in the Collegiate Course in 1863-64. Two years later the Scientific Course was established and from then on the number of chemistry courses multiplied and became required subject in all programs. But it was only in 1904-05 that a Program or Department of Chemistry was organized, offering degree of Bachelor of Science in Chemistry.

In the initial program no provision was made for specialization in the several branches of Chemistry, but from the very first both chemistry electives -- 15 semester hours -- and free electives -- 10 semester hours -- were included in the schedules of the Junior and Senior years, so persumably students had some choice of concentration. The required courses were one year of Advanced Inorganic and Experimental Chemistry, semesters of Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis, Elementary Organic Chemistry, Electrochemistry, Physical Chemistry, Technical Chemistry Analysis, and History of Chemistry, and one year of Advanced Organic. A year of Physics -- General Physics and a laboratory of Physical Problems, and three semesters of Geology, including a semester of Assaying, were the other required science courses, plus Algebra, Analytical Geometry, Differential and Integral Calculus and Differential Equations. Non-science courses were reduced to a year of English, of Foreign Language and of Philosophy, plus a two hour course in Scientific Readings in French or German in the Senior year. But students could persumably have used their free electives for non-science subjects.

A characteristic of the chemistry program for a number of years was that, except for the Sophomore year, which had five, it was a four subject a year program. Only in 1915-16 did this begin to change and then the schedules became heavy, except for the Senior year which was reduced to three subjects. This increase in schedules was caused by addition of a few subjects -- Principles of Economics and General History, one semester each, in 1912-13, Trigonometry, and Electrochemical Analysis, one semester each, and Industrial Chemistry, two semesters, in 1916-17 -- and by giving more time to laboratory courses.

In the schoolyear 1920-21 Chemistry was reorganized into department in the modern sense of the term, as we have seen for other departments. The required program, which reveals further changes, was as follows: year courses in General Chemistry and Qualitative Analysis, Quantitative Analysis, Elementary Organic Chemistry, with laboratory, Advanced Organic Chemistry, with laboratory, and Organic Analysis, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry, and semester course in Inorganic Preparations. A year devoted to Trigonometry, Algebra, and Analytic Geometry, and a year of Calculus, Differential and Integral, were required in Mathematics. A year of General Physics, with laboratory, and semesters of Geology and Mineralogy com pleted the science requirements. There were also two years of Drawing and a year of Shopwork. A year of English and of Philosophy, two years of Foreign Language and a three year one semester hour in Religion constituted the non science part of the program. It was heavy in electives -- between twenty and thirty semester hours being provided.

This program remained unchanged until, as we have seen for Biology, required programs for the specialized degrees in science, Agriculture and Pharmacy excepted, were discontinued in the schoolyear 1925-26. In Chemistry the required program reappeared in the schoolyear 1940-41. In its science part, it did not differ greatly from the program of twenty years earlier. The Mineralogy and Geology had dropped out as had also Inorganic Preparations and there was less emphasis on Organic Chemistry. Otherwise it remained the same. Drawing was deemphasized, having been reduced from four to one semester.

In the non-science part of the program, a semester of English for Engineers was added, German was specified for the two years of Foreign Language and a semester of Technical German Readings added, and a year of Principles of Economics, and a semester of Speech were introduced. Electives were considerably cut down, from 7 to 13 semester hours being available.

The next five years saw almost no changes -- a semester of Introduction to Sociology was added -- but by 1950 some changes had taken place. Qualitative Organic Chemistry and Modern Physical Chemistry were additions to the chemistry content of the program. Physics was increased from one to two years, Mechanics, Heat and Sound being given in the first year, Electricity, Magnetism and Optics in the second, and a semester of Differential Equations was added to Mathematics. Then a two year course entitled Humanities and Social Science appeared. This replaced Principles of Economics, Introduction to Sociology, and English for Engineers. The three replaced subjects, General Methaphysics, and Selected Types of Literature were the subjects suggested to students in fulfillment of this course.

The program has remained remarkably stable in the last ten years, but it is in order to remark that the content of the courses no doubt changed even when titles remained the same. In Religion both titles and content changed over the years, and the number of semester hours increased from six to twelve, even though the number of years for Religion in the program remained at three. Changes which have occurred within the decade are, addition of semester courses in Inorganic Chemistry and in Instrumental Methods of Analysis, and the reduction of Quantitative Analysis from a year to a semester. For a while Physics was cut back from two to one year but was then restored to two years. A third semester of Philosophy was recently added.

In September 1917 two more departments were opened, a Department of Medicine and a Department of Agriculture. Both were established to meet the needs of students. We have seen that as early as 1854 Father Sorin had expressed his intention of founding a Department of Medicine[69] and in the Annual Catalogue for 1869-70 and for a number of years subsequently appeared the notice:

Medical certificates were awarded as early as 1866 and continued to be awarded until 1888. There seems, therefore, to have persisted, at least with some, the desire to see a Medical School at Notre Dame. This desire was whetted by the fact that among the students enrolled in science, there had always been a goodly number who were preparing to take up the study of medicine.

In setting up the Department of Medicine, it was alleged that many of these students felt unable to remain here for the four year program in General Science or in Biology, and consequently left after two years to enter one of the medical schools which required only two years of study for the M.D. degree. On the other hand, these students would remain at Notre Dame if the last two years of their work here could be counted as the first two years toward the medical degree. Consequently "to meet a condition of this kind, the University has decided to give the first two years of Medicine."[71]

The program at Notre Dame, therefore, was a four year program, of which the first two years were devoted to courses in pre-medical subjects and the last two years to subjects of the first two years of Medicine. Then the students could go on to a School of Medicine and earn the M.D. in another two years.[72] But this plan didn't work out and in two years, or before the first students could have graduated from the program, the Department of Medicine was discontinued. It seems hardly necessary to give any details of the courses required in this short-lived venture.

Agriculture had a happier fate and managed to live on until 1932. Besides the needs of the students, a second reason adduced for getting into Agriculture was "the rather exceptional facilities at Notre Dame for the carrying out of the prescribed subjects in Agriculture"[73] -- i.e. a farm on campus of several hundred acres, with exceptionally fine cattle, and a 1600 acre farm only eight miles distant.

There were two programs, a four year program leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Agriculture and a short program of two years. The four year program was heavy in terms of number of subjects required in every semester. This was because they seem not to have wanted to leave out any agricultural or farm subject, while packing in a number of science and liberal arts subjects. The technical subjects were Judging Live Stock, Horticulture, Breeds and Market Classes, Forage Crops, Farm Mechanics, Grain Growing, Agricultural Engineering, Soils, Soil Fertility, Feeding Farm Animals, Vegetable Gardening, Stock Breeding, Farm Poultry, Dairying, Cooperation Marketing, Farm Operations and Farm Management. Then there were Agricultural Education -- teaching of agriculture from elementary school to college --, Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology. Required courses in biological science included Elementary Botany, Entomology, Microscopy - Bacteriology, Physiology and Zoology; and in physical science, General Chemistry, Qualitative Analysis, Geology and General Physics. Finally there were courses in English, Economics, History, Philosophy, Politics and Sociology. With so many subjects, almost all of them were taught as one semester courses. Horticulture, Physics, Zoology, English and Philosophy were the only year courses.

In its second year of operation the number of technical subjects became even heavier. Breeds and Market Classes and Judging Live Stock were compressed into one semester of Animal Husbandry and Farm Operations was dropped, but courses in Agricultural Drawing and Design of Farm Structures, Farm Shopwork, Farm Blacksmithing and Repair Work, Gas Engines, Cement and Reinforced Concrete, Stock Breeding and General Agriculture were added. The other courses remained the same, except Botany was increased from a semester to a year course.

In 1919-20 four specializations were introduced into the program for degree of Bachelor of Science in Agriculture -- Agronomy, Animal Husbandry and Dairying, Horticulture, and Farm Mechanics. Those specializing in Agronomy made special study of forage crops, seed identification, grain judging, plant pathology, truck farming, soil fertility and soil management; those in Animal Husbandry and Dairying, live stock marketing, history of breeding, milk production, dairy management and diseases of animals; those in Horticulture, orchard management, pomology (culture, harvesting and marketing of fruits), vegetable and landscape gardening; those in Farm Mechanics, farm structures, forge work and blacksmithing, gas engines and tractors and farm machinery generally.

Agronomy and Farm Mechanics were discontinued as specializations in 1925-26. Horticulture, and Animal Husbandry and Dairying continued until 1932 when the Department of Agriculture disappeared. The program in its last years had not changed substantially from what we have outlined above.

Arithmetic and elementary college Mathematics were taught at Notre Dame from its first year and are mentioned in Father Sorin's earliest reports on his young institution. Later more developed courses in Mathematics through Calculus and Differential Equations became required in almost all the programs in science and engineering. But Mathematics was not organized as a department until the school year 1920-21. The same is true of Physics, though genuine courses in this subject multiplied from the year Father Zahm joined the Faculty in 1873. The first required program in Mathematics consisted of semester courses in Trigonometry, Algebra, Analytical Geometry, Differential Calculus and Integral Calculus; year courses in Analytical Mechanics, Differential Equations, Astronomy, and the History of Mathematics; and semester courses in Advanced Calculus, Theory of Equations, Theory of Numbers, and Fourier's Series; a year of General Chemistry and Qualitative Analysis, of General Physics, and of Drawing, and a semester of Surveying; a year of English, of Philosophy, and of Education, three years of Foreign Language and a three year one hour course in Religion. Nine semester hours of electives were provided.

This program remained unchanged until 1925-26 when, as for other departments in the College of Science, the required programs for specialized degrees were discontinued. In Mathematics the required program did not reappear until the schoolyear 1946-47. After the twenty year lapse changes had been made. Outside the mathematics courses, a year of General Biology replaced the year of Education, and the electives had been increased from nine to twenty-four hours. In the mathematics courses, Analytical Mechanics, Astronomy, Theory of Numbers, History of Mathematics, and Fourier's Series were replaced by Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics, Partial Differential Equations, Advanced Algebra, Complex Functions and Prospective Geometry.

Four years later, in 1950-51, three of these last courses, Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics, Partial Differential Equations and Projective Geometry, disappeared along with Theory of Equations. The year of General Biology and of Drawing also dropped out. Their replacements were Elementary Statistics, Limits and Series, Mathematical Analysis, Determinants and Matrices, Theory of Probability, Mathematical Statistics, Elementary Number Theory, which had been in the 1920-21 program, and two one hour a week for two year courses, a Mathematics Seminar and Topics in Elementary Mathematics.

With the passing of another five years, Elementary Statistics, Elementary Number Theory, Determinants and Matrices, Theory of Probability and Mathematical Statistics dropped out and Trigonometry, Algebra and Analytic Geometry were replaced by General Mathematics for Science Students. Advanced Algebra, now called Higher Algebra, was increased from a semester to a year course, and a six hour mathematics elective was allowed. Outside the mathematics courses, Philosophy was increased from one to two years.

A glance at the current 1959-60 Bulletin gives the impression that the changes of the past five years have been much more radical than anything which went before. No doubt much fermentation has been going on, but perhaps the extent of the changes have been more apparent than real. Flexibility is the key to this. Thus, few mathematics courses are specifically designated -- a year of Introduction to Calculus, of Intermediary Calculus, and of Higher Algebra, and a year one hour Seminar in Number Theory and Sets.

These courses are given in the first two years. In the Junior and Senior years the hours are left open, but in a footnote we read that the Mathematics of these years must include Limits and Series, Mathematical Analysis, Theory of Differential Equations, and either Advanced Calculus or Analysis, plus courses in Geometry and The Complex Variable. In other areas of the program equally important changes have occurred. English has increased from one to two years, and Foreign Language from two to three, and the General Chemistry, and Qualitative Analysis are no longer required. In sum, no program in the University has approached the fluidity of that in Mathematics over the past decade, which reflects the constant search of the Faculty to adapt Mathematics to changing times and changing needs.

As has been remarked above Physics was organized into a department as late as 1920-21. The first required program for those majoring in the subject consisted of year courses in General Physics, with laboratory, Electricity, Magnetism and Heat, with laboratory, Mathematical Physics, and History of Physics, and semester courses in Meteorology and in Acoustics; semester courses in Trigonometry, Algebra, Analytical Geometry, Differential Calculus, Integral Calculus, and year courses in Analytical Mechanics and in Fourier's Series; year courses in General Chemistry and Qualitative Analysis and in Theoretical and Physical Chemistry; year courses in Drawing, and Shopwork; a year of English, of Philosophy, and of Education; three years of Foreign Language, of which two were specified in German; and three years of one semester hour course in Religion.

This required program remained unchanged until it disappeared from the Bulletin for the schoolyear 1925-26. It was reinstated in 1941-42. By that time the Physics content of the Program had greatly changed: year courses in General Physics and in General Principles of Theoretical Physics, and semester courses in Physical Measurements, Electron Tubes, and Electrical Discharge of Gases. Two one semester courses from Electrical Engineering were also required, Electrical and Magnetic Circuits, and Circuits of Alternating Currents. In Mathematics, Advanced Calculus and Differential Equations had replaced Analytical Mechanics and Fourier's Series, and Mathematics for Freshman, the separate courses in Trigonometry, Algebra and Analytical Geometry. In Chemistry, a semester of Quantitative Analysis had been added. The liberal arts subjects remained the same except Religion which was changed from three years of one semester hour courses to two years of two semester hour courses. Eighteen semester hours of electives were also allowed.

The next five years brought continuous changes. Physical Measurements, General Principles of Theoretical Physics, Electron Tubes, and Electrical Discharge of Gases disappeared and semester courses in Electricity and Magnetism, Thermodynamics, and Light took their places. Analytical Mechanics was reinstated, Partial Differential Equations replaced Differential Equations, and the separate subjects of Trigonometry, Algebra and Analytical Geometry reappeared in the Freshman year.

By 1950 the greatest changes had occurred in the physics courses. Electricity and Magnetism, and Thermodynamics were gone. Intermediate Physics I: Mechanics and Sound, and II: Electricity and Optics, Introduction to Theoretical Physics, and Introduction to Modern Physics, Chemical Physics, all year courses, and a year one semester hour course in Advanced Physical Measurements were new course titles. Analytical Mechanics had again disappeared, and Shopwork -- Pattern Shop, and Metal Processing -- had been dropped. It is to be noted, that while content of the program changes, some of the changes in course titles represent only a different organization of the content.

Religion had been increased from two to three years by 1950 and in the years immediately following a year of English Literature and a second year of Philosophy further strengthened the non-science part of the program. In the current year, 1959-60, Philosophy has gained a third year but Religion is reduced back to two years. In Mathematics, there has been a concentration on the Calculus, and the currently required courses are a year of Introduction to Calculus, of The Calculus, and of Advanced Calculus. In Physics, a two year course in General Physics based on a knowledge of The Calculus, and semester courses in Mechanics, Electricity and Magnetism, with laborarory, a semester of Thermodynamics and Kinetic Theory, and a Senior Seminar make up the program. A two year course specifically entitled Modern Physics and treating of Solid state, Atomic Structure, Nuclear Physics, Cosmic Rays and Mesons was introduced and discontinued within the past decade. Twenty-two semester hours of electives, however, are allowed in the program and Modern Physics is avail able to those who want to elect it. Incidentally, the elective hours allowed have varied from ten to twenty-two over the years.

Astronomy broke into the Notre Dame curriculum the year after the Scientific Course was started -- 1866.[74] The University had just been recipient of a handsome telescope from Napoleon III, who presented it to Father Joseph Carrier, travelling in France that year. An observatory was built on the grounds and the telescope was mounted on a portable stand under a revolving roof eighteen feet in diameter.[75] For years only one course was offered which was part of the Mathematics requirement in the Scientific Course and in the Engineering programs. In 1917-18 two courses were made available, one descriptive, the other applied. Then in 1921-22 the offerings were suddenly increased to nine courses, when Father Emiel DeWulf, C.S.C. joined the Faculty.[76] Four years later a Department of Astronomy was established,[77] which continued until the schoolyear 1939-40. It was, however, a service Department, with no major students and no required program leading to degree.

Geology is the latest Department introduced into the College of Science, having been established in 1948. But the first course in Earth Science appeared as early as 1863-64, entitled Natural History: Lyell's Geology.[78] By 1873 Physiographic and Lithological Geology, Dynamic Geology, and History of Geology were listed.[79] Mineralogy dates from 1866-67 and Crystallography from 1876-77.[80] About this same time a Museum of Natural History was organized, which included a Geological Cabinet and a Mineralogical Cabinet. The Museum was housed in the Main Building and its collections were largely destroyed in the fire of 1879. When Science Hall was built in 1883 it provided spacious new quarters for the Museum and the collections were expanded.[81] Today the fine collections of minerals and other geological specimens are mostly preserved and housed in the Department of Geology. Petrography and Economic Geology were other courses in Earth Science added over the years.

The first prescribed program for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Geology, which went into effect in the schoolyear 1948-49, consisted of year courses in General Geology, with laboratory, and Systematic and Regional Geomorphology, and semester courses in Mineralogy, Structural Geology, Petrology, Field Geology, Economic Geology, and Metals and Petroleum. Then in both the Junior and the Senior years students were given a choice among three semester courses, Optical Mineralogy, Map Interpretation, and North American Stratigraphy. A year of General Chemistry and Qualitative Analysis, of General Physics, and of Math ematics for Freshmen were required, and choice was given between a year of Calculus, Differential and Integral, and a year of General Zoology. Three years of Religion, two of German, one of English, of Philosophy and of Humanities and Social Science made up the non-science required courses. Eighteen hours of electives were allowed.

During the past twelve years this program has undergone changes, but on the whole has retained a high degree of stability. Among the Geology courses, Economic Geology, and Metals and Petroleum have dropped out and Paleontology added; of the three courses among which choice could be made, Optical Mineralogy and Map Interpretation have disappeared, and Stratigraphy has become prescribed. A weekly Colloquium for a semester has been introduced. Then Introduction to Calculus has replaced Freshman Mathematics, but a choice is still permitted between a year of Intermediate Calculus and a year of General Zoology. A Semester course in Elements of Projection is another addition to the program. The permitted elective hours and the non-science courses have remained subs tantially unchanged, though a semester of Philosophy has been added and Religion is taught three hours a week for four semesters instead of two hours a week for six.

But the most important developments in the strengthening of the program. have been a Summer Field Trip adopted in 1952 and an Easter Field Trip adopted in 1955. The Summer Trip is taken between the Junior and Senior years and carries six semester hours of credit; the Easter Trip in the Junior year and carries two semester hours of credit.

The diversification in science and the eventual establishment of the several Departments, which began in 1890-91 with the Course in Biological Science, leading to its specialized degree, did not spell the end of the General Science Course with its undifferentiated degree. And so this general program, the history of which we traced down to 1895 at the beginning of this section on the College of Science, has continued down to the present day and for a short period between 1916-1920 was designated as a Department of General Science. During these many years it has undergone changes in detail too numerous to follow specifically, and yet throughout its evolution it has retained its general pattern in remarkable degree.

Thus in our latest Bulletin, 1959-60, we find that stress is still put on the Natural Sciences just as it was in the beginning -- eight semester hours of Zoology and/or Botany, and thirty-eight semester hours of other Natural Science subjects required, as against ten semester hours in Chemistry, six in Mathematics and eight in Physics. Notable is the considerable reduction in required Math ematics as contrasted with a half-century or more ago. A year of English, two years of a Foreign Language -- French or German, unless another language is approved in special cases --, three semesters of Philosophy and two years of Religion complete the required courses.[82]

This current program in its non-science courses is much weaker than the initial Scientific Course, but is not different from the revised program of the 1890's, when History and the Social Sciences were dropped and English reduced to one year, except that Religion is included in it, as it has been in all programs at the University since 1920. On the other hand elective hours in permitted subjects have grown to twenty-three in the total program, and by judicious choice from among the rather wide spread of permitted subjects the student of today is able to strengthen in some measure his non-science education.[83]

From its humble beginning in the Scientific Course the College of Science has grown into five strong departments which represent the core subjects in the natural and physical sciences. On the other hand, less important fields of science, or fields which were not compatible with Notre Dame's resources -- Agriculture, Astronomy, Medicine, and Pharmacy -- met what were judged to be needs at the time of their establishment, and then after shorter or longer time disappeared from the scene. This is of prime significance because it points up sharply that in science, which is expensive area of education, Notre Dame has hewed to the line of the basic fields without which it could not have a College of Science nor hope to develop into a strong, preeminent university.

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