University of Notre Dame

The Story of Notre Dame
Academic Development: University of Notre Dame / by Philip S. Moore, C.S.C.

III. The College of Engineering

The first step toward what would become the College of Engineering was taken in 1873 when a two year program in Civil Engineering for the Junior and Senior years was announced in the Annual Catalogue. No reason was given for this expansion into the engineering field, but we can presume the reason to have been the same as that conjectured for the Scientific Course -- the demands which the increasing diversity of professions and avocations of the growing American society put upon the educational institutions to prepare their students for these new fields. Thus, in the developing country, bridges and railroads were being built, and so we are not surprised that railroad engineering soon appeared as a special option.

For admission to this Course it was stated that the applicant must have graduated from the Scientific Course or must pass examinations in the mathematics and physical sciences of the Scientific Course. These alternatives for admission seem disparate. Moreover no mention was made of the first two college years but in view of later developments we can presume that students were able to follow the Freshmen and Sophomore years in the Scientific Course and then transfer to the Civil Engineering Course.

The first program consisted of a number of classes in Drawing and classes in Mechanics, Astronomy, Descriptive Geometry, Geodecy (i.e., Field Practice and Use of Engineering Instruments), Civil Engineering, Resistance of Building Materials, Pure Mathematics, Roads and Bridges and Hydraulics. Then in 1875 the Course was cut down to one year and the offerings reduced. This continued until 1889-90.

Things changed much for the better in 1889-90 when a full four year program was announced.[85] The first two years were the same as for the Scientific Course, Though for some reason English was omitted. The program for the Junior and Senior years was greatly enriched. In the next year and until 1894 the Annual Catalogues reverted to the announcement of only the Junior and Senior courses, preceded by the express statement: "The studies of the Freshman and Sophomore years of the Course are the same as through the same years of the Scientific Course." In 1890, therefore, the full Civil Engineering Course comprised studies in English, History, Foreign Languages, Mathematics, Natural Sciences and Drawing in the first two years; and in pure and applied Mathematics, Drawing, Foreign Languages, Philosophy, Natural and Physical Sciences in the last two years. Two courses in Economics, Political Economy and Engineering Economics were in the program for the years 1890-92 and then dropped out.

The next notable changes in Civil Engineering occurred in 1895. First, the title was changed from Course to School.[86] Secondly, the description of the engineering courses appeared for the first time. Thirdly, the full four year program was again announced. While the general areas covered in the program remained the same, English is reduced to the Freshman year and Philosophy to two semesters of Logic in the Senior year and the engineering offerings increased. Among the new courses are Railroad Engineering and Sanitary Engineering.

Further changes were made in 1897. In an introduction it was stated that the program provided sound theoretical training in the first two years and practical applications of the theoretical principles in the last two years.[87] It cannot be said that the Course ever became stabilized because changes too numerous to follow, many of them in the non-engineering classes, continued to occur. Nevertheless the engineering subjects covered -"Surveying, Highway Engineering (Roads and Pavements), Sanitary Engineering, Hydraulics, Roofs and Bridges, - remained constant down to 1920-21. In that year the University was reorganized into colleges and departments with deans over the colleges and heads over the departments.[88] But even after this important administrative change the Civil Engineering courses remained about the same down to World War II. As in all other programs at the University, Religion appeared as formal course in the curriculum in 1920-21 -- at first six semester hours, later raised to eight and then to twelve.

During the long period 1897-1939 there was undoubtedly continuous improvement in the quality of both the theoretical and the practical courses in Civil Engineering but the general pattern of offerings remained pretty constant. On the other hand great changes have taken place since World War II. Most important of these changes are the more important role of the engineering sciences -- Fluid Mechanics, Thermodynamics, Strength of Materials -- in the program, and the strengthening of the basic sciences and mathematics. Transportation Engineering, including but much broader than the old Railroad Engineering, is a new area, as are Soil Mechanics and extensive work in Concrete. Hydraulic Engineering has also been greatly strengthened. But with all these changes for the better the end is not yet and the program is under continuous study in view of further improvements. To this end a complete reorganization of the liberal arts content in the Civil Engineering and all other Engineering programs was effected in 1958. In this reorganization, on a semester hour basis, nine hours were allotted to Religion, six hours to Philosophy and English and twelve elective hours to subjects of the student's choice.

Mechanical Engineering was the second engineering field to be established. It was first announced in the Annual Catalogue for 1886-87 (pp. 53-54) Unlike Civil Engineering, a full four year program was set forth in the first announcement. To be admitted to the Freshman year candidates were required to "pass an examination in the Commercial Course, Ancient and Modern History, Algebra (through Quadratic Equations) and Plane Geometry." This preparation, especially the Commercial subjects, may seem a bit strange.

Though first announced as a full four year program, this was reduced to the Junior and Senior years in 1890-91 -- the Freshmen and Sophomore years being the same as the corresponding years in the Scientific Course. Then in 1896-97 the four year program reappeared.[89] Fluctuations in the amount of time given to non-engineering courses -- English, Foreign Language, Philosophy -- and changes in the engineering courses occurred from time to time, but in general we can say that tke program became stabilized in 1897 and remained pretty much the same until 1912-13.

The general areas embraced in the program are Pure Mathematics (Algebra through Calculus), Physical Sciences (Chemistry and Physics), Languages English, French and/or German), Philosophy and the engineering subjects, including Applied Mathematics. Applied Mathematics covered Analytical Mechanics (Principles of Statics and Kinetics), Mechanics of Engineering (Elasticity, Strength and Resistance of Materials, Action of Forces on Girders, Hydraulics). Then the program was heavy with Drawing and Shop Work, emphasis being placed on manual dexterity. Other engineering subjects were Kinematics (Theory of Cams and Gear Teeth and Study of Motion of Machine Parts), Machine Design, Valve Gears, Thermodynamics, Steam Engine Design, Materials of Engineering, Electrical Engineering (Electricity and Magnetism) and Steam Boilers.

In 1912-13 history and political science courses appeared for the first time but they dropped out soon. More important was the appearance of new titles in the engineering courses -- Hydromechanics (Hydrostatics, Hydrodynamics, Hydraulics), Calorimetry, Steam Power Plants, Elements of Steam Engineering, Electrical Measurements, and Surveying.

After the reorganization of the colleges in 1920, Religion appeared for the first time in the program, at first six semester hours, then eight and finally twelve. Changes in the program to meet changing conditions continued to occur down to World War II but as in the case of Civil Engineering, the big changes have occurred since the War. Most notable of these changes are the increase and strengthening of Mathematics and of the Basic and Engineering Sciences, the reduction of Shop Work until today there is only one semester hour remaining -- Machine Tools and Shop Processes --, new courses such as Heat Transfer, Heating, Ventilating, and Air-conditioning, and the creation of several Options.

Of these Options, Industrual Engineering was introduced in 1946-47 (we shall see that there was an Industrial Engineering Course for the years 1918-20), Heat Power and Design in 1952-53 and Nuclear Engineering in 1956-57. In addition to this four year program there was a two year Course in Mechanical Engineering during the years 1905-1920. Called the Short Course, it was devoted exclusively to the study of gas, oil and vapor engines and embraced the theory, design, construction and operation of these engines. It was established to meet the need of those who did not want to become engineers but who could become expert technicians in explosive motors. A Certificate in Mechanical Engineering was awarded those who completed the Course. In the Annual Catalogue for 1889-90 (p. 12) was listed among the University buildings for the first time an Institute of Technology. As originally built, this was a three story building immediately south of old Science Hall, and was "devoted to the exclusive use of the students of civil, mechanical and electrical engineering." Later it housed the Department of Chemistry until largely destroyed by fire in 1917. Renovated as a two story structure it became the Hoynes College of Law in 1919, and today houses the Department of Architecture. Concurrently with the programs in Civil and Mechanical Engineering were announced in the Annual Catalogues for the years 1889-1895, under the title Institute of Technology programs in Theoretical and Experimental Engineering, Practical Mechanics, Machine Drawing, and, beginning in 1891-92, Applied Electricity. The first three programs were for two years, the Junior and Senior years, but because during the years 1889-1895 the programs in Civil and Mechanical Engineering were also two year programs with apparently identical course content, it is difficult to understand why these programs were given distinct titles and announced separately.

Electrical Engineering entered the picture as a full four year program in 1895.[90] The announcement says that "Physics, Especially the part relating to theoretical and applied electricity, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics are the principal subjects studied."[91] Requirements for admission to the Course were the same as those we have seen above for Civil Engineering.

At the same time was announded a Short Course of two years in Applied Electricity, though the specific contents of this Course were not listed until a year or two later.[92] In the Annual Catalogue, 1898-99 (p. 121) we are told that the Course "is arranged to give an accurate knowledge of the fundamental theories of electricity and magnetism, as well as a certain amount of skill in handling electrical machinery and appliances." This Course, then, was aimed at preparing expert technicians in electrical machinery as the Short Course in Mechanical Engineering was aimed at training experts in gas, oil and vapor engines, and a Certificate was also awarded to those completing it. It was discontinued in 1920.

For about twenty years the program in Electrical Engineering was very similar to the program in Mechanical Engineering for the same period in both engineering and non-engineering subjects. Some differences were a course in Magnetism and an Electrical Laboratory designated as Electrical Engineering. Then the courses in Drawing and in Applied Mathematics were used to serve Electrical Engineering purposes, v.g. the Senior course in Drawing was devoted to designing switch boards and accessory apparatus in the first semester and alternating current dynamos, transformers and accessory apparatus in the second semester, while the Senior course in Mathematics dealt with dynamo-electric machinery.

Not until 1910 did distinctive Electrical Engineering courses begin to appear -- Power Transmission, Telephony, Wireless Telegraphy, Illuminating Engineering.[93] In the next decade further changes occurred so that by 1920, the program consisted of courses in Alternating Currents, laboratory, Direct Currents, with laboratory, Telephony, Radio, Illuminating Engineering, Problems in Electrical Engineering, Hydraulics, Electrical Machines Design, Alternating Currents Machinery, and Hydroelectric Power Plants.

Between 1920-1930 some course titles changed but the program remained substantially the same. But in the next decade substantial changes were made and such courses as Electric and Magnetic Circuits, Strength of Materials, Heat-Power Engineering, Direct Currents Machinery, Alternating Currents, Circuits, Applications of Electronics, Electron Tubes, Electrocoustics, Transmission of Electrical Power, and Design of Electrical Machinery appeared.

Since World War II the same important strengthening of the Engineering Sciences, of the Basic Sciences and of Mathematics has occurred as in Civil and Mechanical Engineering. Also the Electrical Engineering offerings have been expanded to keep up with developments -- Transients and Static Fields, Transmission Line Theory, Electromagnetic Theory, Analysis of Alternating Currents, Power Systems, Corrective Network Design, High Frequency Radiation and Transmission, Feedback Control Systems, Analogue and Digital Computing Devices, and Electronic Circuits. It may be that too many elective courses have been allowed to multiply in the Department.

Notre Dame is still the only school in Indiana that offers a program in Architecture; and this past schoolyear marked the sixtieth anniversary of its beginning.[94] It opened with a full four years, Freshman through Senior. The only admission requirement for the applicant to the Freshman year was that he be seventeen years of age; for advanced standing he had to be correspondingly older. The first program can be called well balanced but weak in the subject most essential to Architecture -- Design -- which was limited to ten hours in each semester of the Senior year. On the other hand it was heavy in Free Hand and Mechanical Drawing and in engineering courses taken from Civil and Mechanical Engineering. It included the same pure mathematical courses -- Algebra through Calculus -- as did the other engineering programs; three years of English and two of a Foreign Language; Chemistry, Physics and Geology. But there was no Philosophy.

This program was introduced as a Course in Architecture in the School of Engineering and remained unchanged until 1904-05. In that year several changes appeared, the most notable being the increase of hours devoted to Design and the spacing of this subject over the last three years. These changes, however, were minor compared with what happened in the following year -- undoubtedly the most radical sudden transformation of a program that ever occurred in the University.

First of all the Course in Architecture became the College of Architecture, to take its place with the newly designated College of Arts and Letters, College of Science, College of Engineering and College of Law. Then three undergraduate programs -- two of four years and one of two years -- and two graduate programs were announced. Finally, admission requirements were spelled out -- graduation from the Notre Dame Preparatory School or an accredited High School, or passing examinations in sixteen subjects.[95]

Architecture was given the status of College because of its nature as a fine art and as an application of engineering science. As expressed in the Bulletin: "It is the recognition of these two almost independent phases of Architecture that has caused the University of Notre Dame to detach the Programs in Architecture from the College of Engineering and to create the new College of Architecture."[96]

The two four-year programs -- one first designated The Beaux-Arts program, later changed to Program in Design, the other The Engineering Program, later changed to Program in Architectural Engineering -- were inaugurated to provide education in these two phases or aspects of Architecture. The first program emphasized the fine art phase and led to a Bachelor of Science in Architecture; the second emphasized the engineering phase and led to a Bachelor of Science in Architectural Engineering. The Short Program was set up to train architectural technicians and led to a Certificate in Architecture. It was discontinued in 1920. The two graduate programs were built respectively on the two four-year undergraduate programs, the one leading to a Master in Design, the other to a Master in Architectural Engineering (Construction). But no definite programs tor these advanced degrees were given. The Bulletin says simply: "The University will confer the master's degree on her own graduate students not in residence at the end of one year if that time is spent in an atelier of the first order or in travel abroad following an approved curriculum of study and investigation; or at the end of not less than two years if that time is spent in practice and if the requirements of the University are complied with."[97] The announcement of the possibility of earning the master's degree in Architecture continued to be announced in the Bulletin until 1926.

In view of the purposes of the two four year undergraduate programs one would expect that the first would contain many more hours in Design than the second, while the second would contain more mathematics, science and engineering subjects. This is true but in the words of the Bulletin in the introduction to the Engineering Program: "The program of studies differ from that of the Beaux Arts program chiefly in that a course in pure and applied mathematics is substituted for the courses in English, Economics and Philosophy; a year in History of Construction for the one in History of Art; and in that a relatively greater amount of time, increasing each year, is spent in Construction Design."[98] A study of the two programs bears out this statement in part, but the additional engineering courses in the Engineering Program were a year of Analytical Mechanics and a semester of Mechanics of Materials and not a year of History of Construction. Also revealed is, that not only was Mathematics dropped from the Beaux-Arts program but also the science courses -- Chemistry, Geology, and later Physics. Foreign Language dropped out of both programs, while semester courses in Economics, Ethics, and Sociology were added to the Beaux Arts program. The semester hours given to Design were at first about equal, though as the Bulletin points out there was increasing Construction or Structural Design in the Engineering Program. Consequently, the Engineering Program sacrificed the non-architectural subjects -- even English -- rather than Design. In 1908 all these subjects except English dropped out of the Program in Design too. Then in 1913 semester courses in Political Science and History, and a year course in Philosophy were added to both programs and a year of Foreign Language to the Program in Design. A year of English was also added to the Program in Architectural Engineering. This was accomplished by increasing the total number of semester hours from 148 to 160 in the Design. program and from 160 to 181 in the Engineering program.

In 1920, in the reorganization of the colleges, Architecture was returned to its status of Department in the College of Engineering. The Short Program disappeared, as we have noted earlier, but the two four year programs continued. For the next fifteen years changes continued to be made -- Religion was added as in all the departments of the College -- but it was in the school year 1935-36 that the next substantial and even radical change occurred. In that year the two undergraduate programs with their two degrees were discontinued and replaced with one program in Architecture. And this program was increased from four to five years. The total number of semester hours was also increased to 193, with Design going to 50 hours, the addition of two years of French, one year of Economics, History and Philosophy, and other changes in the architectural offerings.

Between 1935 and 1948 notable fluctuations took place. Thus in 1941 the program was reduced back to four years and the total number of semester hours cut drastically to 137. Then in 1944 the two programs of Design and Architectural Engineering were reinstated, with total semester hours of 140 and 153 res pectively. Finally, in 1948 the one five year program reappeared. The previous five year program of 193 semester hours was, however, apparently judged to have been too heavy and so the reinstated five year course had only 182 semester hours. Foreign Language, History and the Social Sciences were sacrificed.

Over the last ten or eleven years the program has been under almost constant study in view of improvement and the study is continuing. Some important changes have been made, such as increasing the hours given to the History of Architecture and to Design, but for the most part changes have been readjust ments of subjects within the 182 hour framework. One notable exception to this is the Planning Option -- City and Regional Planning -- which went officially into effect in 1958. Those taking this Option are required to carry 191 semester hours -- a very heavy program. They are relieved of some of the regular required courses in the fourth and fifth years, notably Design in the fifth year, but they must take, in addition to eleven semester hours in Planning, courses in Political Science, Business Administration, Economics and Sociology.

In the schoolyear 1908-09 two more branches of Engineering were added -- Chemical and Mining Engineering. The stated reason was the wonderful growth of chemical manufacture and mining industry in the country and the need for specially trained engineers in both fields.[99]

Adding these branches of Engineering did not entail much in the way of additional Faculty or facilities at the outset because the programs were made up of courses already offered. For Chemical Engineering these courses were drawn from Chemistry, Mathematics, Mechanical Engineering, Physics, English and Modern Languages. There was a year of English and of Modern Language; Mathematics through Calculus; a year of General Physics and of Heat, Magnetism and Electricity. The chemistry courses included Quanitative, Elementary and Advanced Organic, with laboratory, Technical Chemical Analysis, Physical, Electro, and Industrial. The mechanical engineering courses are familiar from the other programs we have seen -- Analytic Mechanics, Mechanics of Materials, Kinematics, Hydromechanics, Machine Design, Valve Gears, Steam Boilers, Shopwork and Drawing. There was also a course in Thermodynamics. On the engineering side this program remained substantially the same down to the reorganization of the College of Engineering in 1920. In 1914 a semester of History and of Political Science, and a year of Philosophy were added. The Physics Laboratory in Heat, Magnetism and Electricity gave way to courses in Electric Measurement and Calorimetry.

Between 1920-1930 the principal changes in the program were a sharp decrease in Shopwork, some decrease in Drawing and in the mechanical engineering courses and their replacement by electives. In 1920 Foreign Language and History dropped out; so did Political Science and Economics (put in in 1918), and it is ten years later before a course in Engineering Economics appears. In 1921 Religion was added to the program. In the same year the first course entitled Chemical Engineering -- Principles of Chemical Engineering -- was listed; then gradually this title replaced that of Chemistry for several of the chemistry courses. Theoretical Chemistry is added to the offerings.

After 1930 more substantial changes occurred and the program was considerably modified by 1940. Mathematics had been reorganized into Mathematics for Freshman Engineers and Differential and Integral Calculus. New chemical engineering courses included Stoichemistry, Fuels, Gas, Water and Lubricants, Laboratory in Unit Operations, Plant Equipment and Design, and a Seminar in Chemical Engineering. Other new engineering courses are the Elements of Electrical Engineering and Ferrous Metallography. To make way for these new courses, the old ones of Analytic Mechanics, Mechanics of Materials, Valve Gears, Steam Boilers, etc. disappeared.

Since World War II the engineering part of this program has undoubtedly been greatly strengthened as has its mathematical and basic science foundations. Under Civil Engineering we have seen the complete reorganization of the liberal arts content of the program effected in 1958. One notable strengthening is in the Engineering Sciences with the addition of Statics, Dynamics and Strength of Materials. Other courses, some introduced as late as 1940, -- Stoichemistry, Industrial Chemistry, Principles of Chemical Engineering, Fuels, Gas, Water and Lubricants -- have given way to the Science of Engineering Materials, Introduc tion to Chemical Engineering, Unit Operations, Introduction to Process Design,, Principles of Instrumentation, Measurements Laboratory, Literature of Chemical Engineering and a Seminar. The new mathematics courses are Introduction to Analysis and Intermediary Analysis. Physics covers the same subject matter -- Mechanics, Heat, Sound, Electricity, Magnetism, Light and Optics -- but more time is given to them to assure more thorough treatment. Chemistry remains the same except that Quantitative Analysis is reduced and Qualitative Analysis is added. With more and better trained Faculty and new leadership, which has been provided, this Department should have a bright future.

Mining Engineering, as we have noted, was begun in the schoolyear 1908-09 to prepare engineers for the rapidly expanding mining industry. In the words of the Bulletin: "The aim of this department is to give the student sufficient training in the various branches of mining to enable him to project and successfully carry through a mining enterprise."[100] The Department of Mining Engineering was abolished in 1941.

The original four year program included a semester of English as the only liberal arts subject. It comprised the Mathematics and Physics common to the other engineering programs; also the mechanical engineering subjects -- Analytical Mechanics, Mechanics of Materials, Hydromechanics, Materials of Engineering, and by 1913 Gas and Vapor Engines and Steam Engines and Boilers. Drawing and Shopwork were heavy -- six and five semesters respectively. A characteristic of all the branches of engineering was the emphasis on manual skill through Shopwork in the beginning and then its gradual deemphasis until today there is only one semester hour of Shopwork required in the several engineering programs. Three semesters of Surveying, Geodesy, and Graphic Statics were the civil engineering courses; Inorganic and Experimental Chemistry, Quantitative Analysis and Advanced Quantitative, the chemistry courses. The only engineering science course in this program, as in some of the other early programs, was Thermodynamics. Finally, the mining engineering subjects were principles of Mining Engineering, Crystallography, Mineralogy, Petrography, Physical and Chemical Geology, Principles of Geology, Economic Mining Geology, Metallurgy, and Assaying.

No engineering program we have seen remained so static as did Mining Engineering during the thirty-two years it was in existence. Changes of course took place, but only a few of them are worth noting. In 1910 English was increased to a full year and in 1913 a semester of History and of Political Science, and a year of Philosophy were added to strengthen the liberal art content which was almost non-existent. In 1921 Religion was added and a year of Foreign Language, and in the 1930's four semester hours of Technical English. In 1910 Ore Dressing was introduced -- the only change in the Mining Engineering subjects. In 1921 the mechanical engineering courses in Engineering Materials, Gas Engines and Steam Engines and Boilers dropped out. In this same year Direct Current Dynamo Machines was added, to be replaced in 1931 by Elements of Electrical Engineering. Finally, courses in Mine Surveying and Railroad Surveying were put in in 1912 and remained to the end.

In the schoolyear 1918-19 Notre Dame made a two-fold effort to meet the problem of giving a basic business education to those engineering students who wanted it. The two-fold effort was 1) establishing a four year program in Industrial Engineering, leading to the degree of Industrial Engineer, and 2) introducing into the Department of Commerce of the College of Arts and Letters a one year post-graduate Program in Engineering Administration, leading to the degree of Engineering Administrator, for graduates from the several departments of the College of Engineering.[101] The purpose of both programs is summed up in this statement in the introduction to the Program in Engineering Administration: "To acquaint the engineer with the fundamentals of business practice and give him a knowledge of the practical application of scientific management."[102]

Engineering students who were interested in this business training could choose between the two programs. If they chose Industrial Engineering they had to sacrifice a full college education in engineering; if they chose the Program in Engineering Administration they had to spend a fifth year in their studies, though even this disadvantage was greatly reduced by making it possible for engineering students to complete the requirements for the Engineering Administrator degree in three six-week summer sessions. The Industrial Engineering program disappeared within two years. On the other hand the one year post graduate Program in Engineering Administration was continued in the College of Commerce until 1940. Now under consideration is an inter-college program in Industrial Management which will meet the need of those students who want to combine basic business education with their engineering education.

Drawing and sketching was part of the Fine Arts offerings from the earliest years of the University. When Civil Engineering was introduced in 1873, Drawing was an emphasized subject in the required program, as it would be in the other branches of Engineering when they were inaugurated. But it was not until 1925 that Mechanical Drawing, as it was then called, was established as a separate Department. This Department was initially and has remained a service Department to the College of Engineering and to other areas of the University, without a major sequence leading to degree. In 1940 the name was changed to Department of Engineering Drawing and in this present year 1959-60 has again been changed to Department of Engineering Graphics.

These changes of name have been made in order to designate more accurately the changes that have taken place in this phase of Engineering over the years. For a long time drawing or drafting was taught as an art and emphasis was placed on manual skills, But in the very first listing of courses in 1925 is found a course in Stereotomy, part of the content of which was the "application of the principles of Descriptive Geometry to the determination of the forms and sizes of units in arch and masonry construction."[103] Since then the development of Drawing has consisted of increasing application of Descriptive Geometry to the graphic delineation of engineering problems. To designate this development and to indicate the deemphasis on the purely mechanical aspect of Drawing the term Mechanical was changed to Engineering in 1940. Then in the last ten years, and especially in the last five, there has been a much broader use of Mathematics put of which has grown what is known as Graphics. Increasing consideration is being given to nomograms or nomographic charts, functional scales, techniques of graphical solutions to problems. Emphasis is now placed on construction of derivatives and the arithmetic computation of integrals which used to be presented in mathematics courses but now are more appropriately handled in a division of Graphics.

These significant changes in the approach to this area of Engineering has been only partially reflected in the individual titles of courses over the years. Thus in 1925 the courses listed were Projection Drawing, Advanced Projection Drawing, Machine Drawing, Topography, Stereotomy and Structural Drawing. These titles remained constant to 1939 when Topography and Stereotomy disappeared and Projection and Advanced Projection Drawing were changed to Elementary and Intermediate Drawing. Significantly Descriptive Geometry replaced the courses that were dropped. A special course for students in the College of Science was added but was discontinued in 1943. In this same year, 1943, two courses were added for architecture students, Architectural Drawing I & II, and an elective course, Technical Sketching for students who wanted to gain greater proficiency in freehand drawing. Structural Drawing was dropped.

The next change did not occur until ten years later, when in 1953 the original title of Projection Drawing reappeared for two courses. In 1955 Descriptive Geometry and Technical Sketching were dropped. In 1958 the term, Graphics, appeared for the first time, when the courses for architects were titled Architectural Graphics I & II, and an elective course for science students was reintroduced under the name Graphics for Science.

The upshot of all the changes in individual course titles over the last thirty five years is that three of the original titles remain substantially the same, Elements of Projection, Projection Drawing and Machine Drawing, while three of the original titles, Topography, Stereotomy, Structural Drawing, have been replaced by Architectural Graphics I & II and Graphics for Science. In 1933 and 1935 two more departments were added to the College of Engineering, which had just moved into its new building, the John F. Cushing Hall of Engineering. These were Metallurgy and Aeronautical Engineering, respectively.

The Department of Metallurgy, which has recently been re-named the Department of Metallurgical Engineering to point up its engineering character, offered from the outset not only a four year undergraduate program but also programs leading to the master's and doctor's degrees. The original undergraduate program consisted of two years of English and of Religion, a year of Philosophy and of Economics, and five semesters of German and French, on which more than ordinary emphasis was placed; five semesters of Mathematics, through Calculus, a year of General Physics: Mechanics, and the following professional courses: General Chemistry and Qualitative Analysis, Quantitative Analysis, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Mechanical Drawing, Machine Shop, Ferrous Metallurgy, Non-ferrous Metallurgy, General Geology, Assaying, Analytic Mechanics, Mechanics of Materials, Ferrous Metallography, Non-ferrous Metallography, Elements of Electrical Engineering, Mineralogy, Crystallography and a Seminar in Metallurgy. These were both semester and year courses and most of them were offered by other departments.

For the first few years this program remained fairly constant, though changes began to be made almost immediately. Worthy of note too is that the number of required hours for graduation fluctuated greatly in this Department from a high of 165 in 1935 to a low of 139 in 1943, until they levelled out around 154 in the 1950's. Most important changes in the professional courses between 1933 and 1942 were the adding of Physical Testing, and Electron Tubes and X-Rays (Physics) in 1935 and Alloy Steels and Metallurgical Calculations, which soon disappeared, in 1940. In this same year General Geology, Mineralogy and Crystallography were dropped.

In 1942 Assaying, Physical Chemistry of Production Metallurgy, Advanced Physical Metallurgy and the Industrial Processing appeared as new course titles. The Engineering Sciences were strengthened, or at least better defined, in three semester courses: Statics, Dynamics, and Strength of Materials. In this year Theoretical and Physical Chemistry, and Ferrous Metallurgy were discontinued. In 1945 Physical Metallurgy I & II replaced Ferrous Metallography, and the physics course seems to have been strengthened.

A number of changes occurred in 1947. Physical Chemistry of Production Metallurgy, and Advanced Physical Metallurgy and the Industrial Processing were dropped, while Ferrous and Non-ferrous Extractive Metallurgy, Modern Physics for Engineers, Phase Diagrams, Mineral Dressing, and Mechanical Testing of Metals were added. Non-ferrous Physical Metallurgy replaced Non-ferrous Metallurgy. Theoretical and Physical Chemistry was re-introduced into the program. A year later Mineralogy reappeared.

In regard to the sciences in the program, Chemistry remained constant except, as we have seen, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry dropped out between 1942 and 1947. Course titles in Physics and Mathematics changed several times and these changes indicate a continual strengthening of these subjects and their adaptation to the needs of the metallurgical engineer.

From the beginning until 1958, the liberal arts program remained constant, at least in the time allotted to each subject, with two exceptions worthy of note: in 1950 Religion was increased from two to three years or from eight to twelve semester hours; Foreign Language was gradually reduced and finally dropped as required subject in 1957. Then in 1958 a complete reorganization of the liberal arts content was effected for all the departments of Engineering. This reorganization has been dealt with above under Civil Engineering.[104]

During the 1950's changes in titles and content have accelerated in both the science and in the engineering courses. Almost all the older titles, such as Alloy Steels, Ferrous and Non-ferrous Metallurgy and Netallography, Mineral Dressing, Phase Diagrams, etc., have disappeared, while others such as Mechanical Metallurgy and Metallurgical Thermodynamics have come and gone. These changes mirror the rapid developments in the field of Metallurgy and also the even greater emphasis placed on the Basic and Engineering Sciences in the program. For these reasons continuing modifications in the titles and content of courses can be anticipated.

After World War I the rapid development of aircraft began which gave rise to the great aircraft industry. This created growing need for another specialized engineer, the aeronautical engineer. In the wake of this, Notre Dame established its Department of Aeronautical Engineering. This was a four year program of which the first two grounded the students in the principles of Mathematics and Physics which were later applied to their professional studies. Opportunity for practical flying was arranged from the beginning with the local airport. The original program provided for two years of Religion and of English, and one year of Philosophy and of Economics in addition to the courses in the Sciences and Engineering. Some changes in the content of the courses occurred over the years, but with the exception of a third year of Religion introduced in 1947, this part of the program remained unchanged until the complete re organization of the liberal arts offerings for all departments of the College of Engineering in 1958, which has been described under Civil Engineering. Chemistry was limited to a year of General Chemistry for Engineers. Two years of Mathematics covered Trigonometry, Algebra, Analytical Geometry, Calculus and Differential Equations; and two years of Physics, Mechanics and General Physics. The professional courses consisted of Mechanical Drawing, Wood and Machine Shop, Advanced Machine Shop, Analytic Mechanics, Mechanics of Materials, Aerodynamics, Thermodynamics, Kinematics and Machine Design, General Metallurgy, Non-ferrous Metallography, Theory and Design of Propellers, Construction and Maintenance of Airplanes, Plane Surveying, Internal Combustion Engines, Elements of Electrical Engineering, Airplane Design, Meteorology, Air Navigation and Airport Design. As in other departments changes in the course offerings began immediately. The original program of professional courses was diverse and put considerable emphasis on practical subjects. The trends these changes reveal are the streamlining of course content and the elimination of the practical. Thus Airport Design dropped out after the first year and by 1940 Construction and Maintenance of Airplanes, Theory and Design of Propellers and Air Navigation had disappeared. In this same year three courses in Airplane Structures -- Elementary, Intermediate and Advanced -- were listed. The field of Mechanics was also more sharply defined with semester courses in Statics, Dynamics, and Strength of Materials.

During the first fifteen years a number of other courses were introduced, retained for longer or shorter period, and then dropped. These courses in cluded Alloy Steels, General Aeronautics, Air Transportation, Elementary Heat Engines, Vibration of Internal Combustion Engines, Installation of Aircraft Engines, Metal Processing, and Thermodynamics of Permanent Gases. Within this time too Machine Shop was reduced, while the physics courses were at least better defined under Heat, Sound, Electricity, Magnetism, Light and Optics. In 1950 the general required program underwent some changes and three Options were introduced in Aerodynamics, Design, and Propulsion. These Options were discontinued in 1957. But apart from the Options, and some changes in accordance with the trends referred to above, the program has remained substantially the same since 1950. Thus the science and engineering courses in the current year consist of General Chemistry; Introduction to Analysis, Intermediate Analysis, and Advanced Calculus; Mechanics, Heat and Sound, Electricity and Magnetism, Light and Optics; Elements of Projection, Projection Drawing, and Machine Drawing, Statics, Dynamics, Engineering Materials, Strength of Materials, Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, Principles of Aerodynamics, Analytical Aerodynamics, Thermodynamics, Aeronautical Thermodynamics, Thermodynamics of Compressible Fluids, Mechanical Design, Heat Engines, Air craft Structures, Airplane Design, Elements of Electrical Engineering and Electronic Circuits and Control. There are also a one hour course in Machine Tools and Shop Processes with a two hour laboratory, and laboratories in Aerodynamics, Aircraft Structures, and Heat Engines.

In 1947 was established the Department of Engineering Mechanics -- the latest Department to be established in the College. In the beginning this was a graduate Department offering a program for the master's degree. At the same time it serviced the entire College with courses in theoretical and applied mechanics. In 1950 the graduate work was extended into a doctoral program.

A considerable development occurred in 1958. The name of the Department was changed to Engineering Science and a four year undergraduate program leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Engineering Science was inaugurated. The liberal arts part of this undergraduate program is the revised liberal arts curriculm adopted for the College of Engineering in the same year, 1958, and which we have described under the Department of Civil Engineering. Other courses in the program are a year of General Chemistry and Quantitative Analysis, three years of Mathematics through Advanced Calculus, seven semesters of Physics -- Mechanics, Heat, Sound, Electricity, Magnetism, Light, Optics, Chemical Physics, Modern Physics -- and semester courses in Statics, Dynamics, Engineering Materials, Elements of Electrical Engineering, Fluid Mechanics, Thermodynamics, Introduction to Electronics, Transfer and Rate Processes, and Engineering Synthesis. There is also a year of Engineering Drawing and Projective Geometry and one hour course in Machine Tools and Shop Processes. Finally, the student is free to choose nine hours of Engineering Science electives, three hours of Mathematics, and six hours in one of the professional engineering areas.

From the modest two year Program in Civil Engineering begun in 1873, the College of Engineering has grown into eight degree granting departments and one service department. The programs have changed to meet changing times and developments in the engineering field. While the strength of the several departments is not uniform throughout the College, there has been a steady growth in quality. An unresolved question of many years standing is whether with our resources we are not trying to maintain too many professional areas in Engineering.

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